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O-0063/2008 (B6-0162/2008)

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Puheenvuorot
Keskiviikko 18. kesäkuuta 2008 - Strasbourg Lopullinen versio

12. Dieselöljyn hinnannousun synnyttämä kalatalousalan kriisi (keskustelu)
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  La Présidente. – L'ordre du jour appelle le débat sur:

- la question orale au Conseil sur la crise du secteur de la pêche due à l'augmentation du prix du gazole de Philippe Morillon, au nom de la commission de la pêche (O-0063/2008 – B6-0162/2008), et

- la question orale à la Commission sur la crise du secteur de la pêche due à l'augmentation du prix du gazole de Philippe Morillon, au nom de la commission de la pêche (O-0064/2008 – B6-0163/2008).

 
  
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  Philippe Morillon, auteur. − Madame la Présidente, je laisse le temps au commissaire Borg de s'installer. Cette question orale a été initiée à la demande unanime des groupes qui siègent à la commission que j'ai l'honneur de présider, et je suis heureux qu'elle vienne après ce débat très riche qui a traité des questions générales.

Mon père est né, Madame la Présidente, Monsieur le Commissaire, Monsieur le Président du Conseil, il y plus d'un siècle dans un village proche de Saint-Malo, que j'ai connu dans ma jeunesse grouillant d'une vie alimentée essentiellement par l'agriculture et par la pêche. Aujourd'hui, ce village meurt d'un cancer qui est dû à la prolifération des cellules mortes que sont les résidences secondaires et à la disparition progressive de toutes les activités qui lui permettaient de vivre autrement que pendant les six semaines de l'été.

Ce phénomène n'est pas isolé, c'est un phénomène rencontré pratiquement sur l'ensemble du littoral européen, qui a amené le commissaire Borg, auquel je rends hommage, à proposer la mise en œuvre de cette gestion intégrée du littoral, qui doit permettre une restauration, une préservation, une résurrection de la vie sur l'ensemble de nos côtes européennes. Si cette décision a amené à transformer la Direction générale de la pêche en une Direction générale "MARE", elle ne signifie pas pour autant que l'Union européenne est résolue à voir disparaître les ressources que nos pêcheurs doivent continuer à tirer de l'exploitation des océans.

Pourquoi l'Union européenne met elle en œuvre seulement deux politiques communes, la politique agricole commune et la politique commune de la pêche? Quand on s'interroge sur ce thème, la réponse est simple: pour permettre à notre continent de continuer à tirer sa suffisance alimentaire de l'exploitation à la fois du continent et du littoral. Donc, c'est ici que l'impact de l'accroissement considérable du prix du pétrole a des conséquences qui risquent d'être catastrophiques, en particulier, bien sûr, dans le secteur de la pêche. La profession, déjà fortement ébranlée par la diminution de la ressource, est en effet menacée aujourd'hui de disparaître et ceci explique, sans les excuser, les manifestations violentes de désespoir auxquelles certains de ses représentants se sont laissés aller et continuent ici et là de le faire.

C'est pourquoi je me réjouis, Monsieur le Commissaire, que votre commission exécutive vienne de proposer un certain nombre de mesures destinées à pourvoir dans l'immédiat au sauvetage des industries les plus menacées, en autorisant en particulier les États membres à s'affranchir de façon exceptionnelle et temporaire des règles imposées pour la mise en œuvre du Fonds européen pour la pêche selon les modalités qui seront discutées, Monsieur le Président en exercice du Conseil, à Luxembourg le 24 juin, lors du prochain Conseil des ministres de l'agriculture et de la pêche.

Ne perdons pas de vue la nécessité pour l'Union européenne – et pour la planète – de pouvoir continuer à tirer des océans les ressources nécessaires à sa suffisance alimentaire. Il ne servirait à rien de préserver la survie des poissons s'il n'y a plus de pêcheurs pour aller les chercher. C'est une évidence qui, à mes yeux, justifie les propositions de détail qui ne portent pas seulement sur le court terme, mais sur le moyen et sur le long terme, sur lesquelles nous travaillons ensemble, Monsieur le Commissaire, au sein de la commission de la pêche et qui vont vous être développées plus avant par l'ensemble de mes collègues et par le projet de résolution qui sera soumis au vote demain.

 
  
  

PRZEWODNICZY: MAREK SIWIEC
Wiceprzewodniczący

 
  
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  Janez Lenarčič, predsedujoči Svetu. − Najprej bi se želel zahvaliti spoštovanemu poslancu gospodu Morillonu za njegovo vprašanje, ki ga je postavil v imenu Odbora za ribištvo. Naj uvodoma poudarim, da se slovensko predsedstvo popolnoma zaveda resnosti problema rastočih cen goriv in tudi v tem okviru negativnih posledic, ki jih ima ta pojav na ribištvo v Evropski uniji.

Lahko vam povem, da se je prav včeraj predsednik Sveta za kmetijstvo in ribištvo minister Jarc na to temo sestal z nekaterimi svojimi kolegi ministri in z njimi razpravljal o možnih predlogih za izboljšanje trenutnih težkih razmer v ribiškem sektorju in o teh se bo razpravljalo tudi v naslednjih dneh. Naj tukaj spomnim, da takšno stanje ni specifično samo za ribiško industrijo. Visoke cene goriv škodijo praktično vsem panogam nasploh, vključno s kmetijstvom, prometom in industrijo.

Kriza je povzročila težke razmere v vseh sektorjih. Gre torej za vprašanje, ki je horizontalne narave in vsebuje raznolike elemente, povezane s konkurenčno politiko, z ukrepi državne pomoči, davčnimi in drugimi ukrepi. Kakor koli, prav zaradi izredne resnosti te problematike in pa negativnega vpliva na ribiški sektor se je slovensko predsedstvo odločilo, da to temo uvrsti na dnevni red zasedanja Sveta za kmetijstvo in ribištvo, ki bo potekalo v začetku naslednjega tedna, kot je tudi omenil že gospod Morillon.

To bo vsekakor dobra priložnost, da ministri podajo svoje poglede na trenutno situacijo in z gospodom komisarjem Borgom izmenjajo mnenja o najprimernejših rešitvah. Poleg tega se je predsedstvo odločilo tudi spremeniti temo neformalnega srečanja ribiških direktorjev – to bo, kot je znano, potekalo konec meseca v Sloveniji – in tako se bodo tudi direktorji držav članic za ribištvo posvetili obravnavi te pereče problematike. Vse to prihaja po tem, ko je Svet nedavno na svojih številnih zasedanjih v različnih formacijah obravnaval vprašanje naraščajočih cen energije in o čemer smo govorili pod prejšnjo točko dnevnega reda.

Še enkrat bi želel v tem kontekstu omeniti sklepe zasedanja Sveta za gospodarske in finančne zadeve. Ta je v zvezi s cenami nafte izrazil zaskrbljenost in razpravljal o mnogih načinih, kako se soočati z družbenimi in gospodarskimi posledicami visokih cen. Ugotovil je, da je treba spodbujati energetsko učinkovitost, z rabo alternativnih virov energije, povečati preglednost naftnih trgov, spodbujati konkurenco na energetskih trgih in okrepiti dialog z državami, ki proizvajajo nafto.

Svet je na istem zasedanju tudi vzpodbudil Komisijo, naj preučuje blagovne borze in razmisli o drugih odgovorih na nestanovitnost cen. Kot je predsedstvo že poudarilo v dopoldanski razpravi danes, bo to vprašanje tudi predmet razprav na zasedanju Evropskega sveta, ki se začenja jutri.

 
  
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  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I would like to thank the chairman of the Committee on Fisheries, Mr Morillon, for his question, which gives me the opportunity to address the fuel crisis.

I would like to say at the outset that I am pleased to see the existing very good relations between the Commission and the Fisheries Committee of the European Parliament moving from strength to strength.

Turning to the specific question, I am aware of the difficulties the fishing sector is going through as a result of the steep increase in the price of fuel. This increase constitutes a crisis which is structural and long-lasting and which takes on a very particular – I would be tempted to say even unique – dimension with regard to fisheries. Let me say why.

For many years, the EU fleet has suffered from a vicious circle of overcapacity, over-fishing, and declining profitability. At the same time, fishermen have been unable to benefit from reduced supply and rising retail prices for fish products. As a result, margins in many segments are wafer-thin, making the sector more vulnerable than others to a drastic rise in costs, such as we have seen with the price of oil.

The Commission understands the need for coordinated action at EU level to avert a serious crisis for the industry, and to ensure that the problem is not simply displaced but really tackled head-on. This means not only providing the possibility of emergency relief, but also committing to finally addressing the underlying issue of overcapacity, which is undermining all our attempts to get the industry back on a sustainable and profitable footing.

For these reasons, as Mr Morillon pointed out, the College yesterday approved in principle the contents of an emergency package of measures to tackle the immediate social and economic hardship triggered by the dramatic rise in the price of oil while also tackling the underlying structural problems of the European fleet. I believe that it is vital to focus aid on the fleets which are most dependent on fuel and thus most affected by the current overcapacity.

We therefore propose that Member States can set up Fleet Adjustment Schemes (FAS), under which limitations on access to permanent cessation – i.e. scrapping – premiums will be lifted. Additional aid for temporary cessation would be available for vessels involved in these Fleet Adjustment Schemes and partial decommissioning aid would be granted to operators who replace larger old vessels with smaller, more energy-efficient ones. There would also be provisions to allow for temporary reductions in employees’ contributions to social security payments.

More specifically, temporary cessation aid would be available for all vessels for up to three months throughout the remainder of 2008, on condition that the vessels in question be included in a restructuring plan. Such aid will be tailored to ensure that it supports stock recovery and/or marketing conditions, whenever possible.

Based on further economic analyses, possible modifications to the de minimis regime for fisheries will also be considered, so that the ceiling of EUR 30 000 per three years would be applied per vessel, rather than per firm – though with an overall cap of EUR 100 000 per firm.

A number of specific initiatives to promote the value of fish at the first point of sale are also envisaged, and the Commission is planning to set aside an additional EUR 20-25 million from the CFP budget to fund ad hoc projects in this area, in addition to the funds available under the EFF. Further measures are planned to encourage the shift to energy-saving technologies, cushion the socioeconomic impact of the crisis, and facilitate the reprogramming and the disbursement of EFF funds.

The above measures will consist of temporary derogations from the rules of the European Fisheries Fund so as to support faster adaptation of the EU fleet to the present situation and provide temporary relief during the transitional phase.

I will be presenting this package to the Council of Fisheries Ministers in Luxembourg on 24 June with the intention of adopting a formal proposal on this subject as early as July. Given the exceptional situation being faced by the fisheries sector I trust I can count on the support of both the Council and the Parliament to adopt the said measures as speedily as possible.

 
  
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  Carmen Fraga Estévez, en nombre del Grupo PPE-DE. – Señor Presidente, el Grupo del Partido Popular Europeo ha impulsado este debate, convencido de que nuestra Institución no podía seguir dando muestras de indiferencia, ante la gravedad de la crisis.

Creo que teníamos razón, ya que ayer mismo, y por primera vez, la Comisión ha anunciado una serie de medidas que este Parlamento venía demandando desde hacía años, algunas de las cuales coinciden plenamente con las recogidas en la propuesta de resolución común.

Como indicamos en ella, el gasóleo ha subido para los pescadores más de un 300 % en los últimos cinco años y más de un 38 % desde enero, mientras que los precios se mantienen al nivel de hace 20 años, con descensos en algunos casos de hasta un 25 %, debido a la entrada masiva de importaciones, en muchos casos procedentes de la pesca ilegal.

Mi Grupo ha insistido en que no hay sector que pueda sobrevivir en estas condiciones y por eso ha querido reunir hoy a todos, al Consejo y a la Comisión, para que nos informen al respecto y podamos debatir el paquete de medidas.

Nos alegramos muy especialmente de que entre las medidas figure por fin la elevación de las ayudas de minimis a 100 000 euros, aunque hubiéramos preferido que se otorgaran por barco, y no por empresa, como ha pedido este Parlamento y como expresamos en la resolución común.

Estamos muy de acuerdo con las reducciones de las cotizaciones sociales, con el anuncio de flexibilización del Fondo Europeo de la Pesca (FEP) para que todos los que quieran puedan optar a la reestructuración de las empresas o a la sustitución de los motores por otros más eficientes o a ayudas adicionales, como usted ha indicado, para la paralización temporal.

Creemos, sin embargo, señor Comisario, que hay otra serie de medidas que hubieran merecido el mismo énfasis y el mismo nivel de desarrollo que aquéllas dirigidas a la reestructuración del sector, y me refiero a las medidas del mercado, como son la reforma de la OCM, para que los pescadores tengan un mayor papel en la formación de los precios, o medidas más concretas sobre el etiquetado y, sobre todo, medidas que demuestren una clara voluntad del Consejo y de la Comisión en la lucha contra la pesca ilegal.

Aplaudimos, por tanto, unas medidas que están en el buen camino, pero tenemos que preguntarnos si no se podría haber evitado que el sector llegara a esta situación agónica de haber reaccionado mucho antes.

 
  
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  Rosa Miguélez Ramos, en nombre del Grupo del PSE. – Señor Presidente, yo también me alegro y me congratulo de las medidas que ha anunciado la Comisión y me parece que, en algunos casos, van incluso más allá de lo que pide este Parlamento en su propuesta de resolución. El hecho de que, en este Pleno tan cargado de asuntos, hayamos encontrado un hueco para debatir esta cuestión da idea de la importancia que esta Cámara le concede.

En estos tiempos un tanto revueltos, opino que los europeos deberíamos afrontar esta crisis unidos a través de un mecanismo eficaz y ecuánime, como podría ser la tan reivindicada flexibilización del Fondo Europeo para la Pesca (FEP), lo que permitiría adoptar medidas de urgencia a nivel comunitario.

Soluciones nacionales como las propuestas por algunos Estados miembros sólo contribuirían a provocar situaciones de desigualdad.

Esperamos, señor Comisario, que en la reunión del Consejo de Ministros del lunes próximo, la Comisión sea capaz de concretar aún más, y de acordar con el Consejo de Ministros, cómo se va poder utilizar el FEP para ayudar a los segmentos de flota más afectados.

Asimismo, parece urgente investigar de una vez por todas el mecanismo de formación de precios.

 
  
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  Elspeth Attwooll, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, we need to stress the fact that a very high proportion of our fishermen are engaged in running small businesses. They have a limited right to fish. To exercise this right, they have to invest in boats, fishing gear and safety equipment. This can involve the repayment of substantial loans. They also need to pay for licences and, in certain cases, may do so for quota too. They then incur considerable running costs, such as for labour, repairs and, of course, fuel.

The rules on quota and days at sea may require them to travel long distances to acquire a saleable catch. Particularly in the case of bad weather, they may fail to do so. When they are successful, they still do not have control over the price of fish caught. In most cases they are dependent on what can be raised at auction. So they simply do not have the means of compensating for rising costs.

The resolution sets out various practical means of assistance. That can be through the de minimis rule and its upward revision. I would urge all Member States to make use of the opportunities to which the rule gives rise, so as to maintain a level playing field.

Urgent, too, are steps to curb IUU fishing, not just to help maintain the price of legally caught fish, but for stock conservation. This is true, too, of improving labelling requirements. Other measures suggested, including restructuring but going beyond that to energy efficiency and alternative energy sources, also serve environmental purposes. In adopting them, we can bring benefits for our beleaguered fishermen and our endangered planet alike.

 
  
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  Marie-Hélène Aubert, au nom du groupe Verts/ALE. – Monsieur le Président, Monsieur le Commissaire, comme vous l'avez rappelé, cette crise structurelle est profonde et durable. Il s'agit donc de trouver des solutions durables et pas seulement pour le secteur de la pêche, mais pour l'ensemble des secteurs concernés.

Il faut dire aussi que cette crise est le résultat d'années d'aveuglement sur la dépendance, justement, des pêcheries au pétrole - et un pétrole bon marché -, et sur la fuite en avant vers ce qu'on a appelé la course aux armements, avec des bateaux de plus en plus puissants, qui vont de plus en plus loin et qui peuvent ramener de plus en plus de poisson. C'est bien ces questions-là qu'il nous faut également traiter.

Le problème du gazole cher est indissociable de toutes les autres questions qui touchent le secteur de la pêche - la gestion de la ressource halieutique, la formation des prix, le commerce mondial, la lutte contre la pêche illégale -, et il est difficile de traiter cette question isolément du reste.

Les subventions, les aides que la Commission propose et qui me paraissent aller dans le bon sens ne sont acceptables, notamment pour nos concitoyens, que si elles sont conditionnées à une réorientation en profondeur des politiques de la pêche et des pratiques de pêche. Pour notre part, nous regrettons que la résolution commune de compromis ne conditionne pas justement les aides et les subventions possibles à cette réorientation et à la nécessité de mettre un terme à la surcapacité des flottes et d'aller dans le sens d'une meilleure gestion de la ressource halieutique et de la protection des écosystèmes marins. C'est d'ailleurs la condition même de la viabilité économique, sociale, des entreprises de pêche. Enfin, nous souhaitons que les États membres assument pleinement leurs responsabilités, qu'ils cessent de faire de la démagogie en promettant de l'argent qu'ils n'ont pas sans proposer de perspectives durables aux pêcheries.

 
  
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  Pedro Guerreiro, em nome do Grupo GUE/NGL. – Este debate realiza-se porque os pescadores, incluindo os portugueses, se mobilizaram por medidas desde há muito propostas para dar resposta ao aumento do preço dos combustíveis, gasolina e gasóleo e à crise socioeconómica do sector, face à atitude de indiferença, nomeadamente da União Europeia.

O nosso grupo parlamentar apresentou a sua própria resolução, que mantém, onde reafirmamos as nossas propostas, algumas há muito adoptadas pelo Parlamento Europeu, e avançamos com novas medidas de resposta às necessidades do sector.

Medidas que asseguram o apoio às embarcações que utilizam a gasolina, à semelhança do que acontece para o gasóleo, o estabelecimento de um preço máximo ou de um desconto adicional para o combustível, nomeadamente de 40 cêntimos por litro, a melhoria do preço de primeira venda, sem repercussões nos preços ao consumidor final, a necessidade de que os custos de produção sejam uma das variáveis na definição dos preços de orientação, o assegurar do justo rendimento das tripulações.

Impõem-se decisões que respondam ao aumento do preço dos combustíveis e à formação do preço do pescado em primeira venda – os dois principais factores na origem da agudização da crise que o sector enfrenta.

 
  
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  Jeffrey Titford, on behalf of the IND/DEM Group. – Mr President, the massive fuel oil price increases we are talking about today may well be the straw that breaks the camel’s back for many British fishermen. They are already worn down by the endless regulations and quota cuts spewing out from this institution and bringing their industry to its knees.

Now they are in the invidious position of being unable to put to sea in order to catch the meagre amounts of fish they are still allowed to land, because the cost of fuel makes it unprofitable before they start. The British Government has for many years abandoned them and has done so again in respect of fuel subsidies to help them through their present crisis.

Some of the fishermen in my area have been forced to seek a legal review of their situation because under the CFP they are supposed to be guaranteed a living from fishing.

The UK Independence Party believes the CFP is an unmitigated disaster that Britain should pull out of, to regain control of its own waters while it still has some fishermen left.

 
  
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  Struan Stevenson (PPE-DE). – Mr President, I am very glad that the Commissioner has today addressed the much wider crisis in this sector, which has been compounded by the steep rise in diesel cost. As Mr Titford just said – and I rarely agree with him, but I do in this case – in some fishing nations the huge cost of fuel has followed in the wake of dwindling quotas and falling prices for fish. The situation is so bad that some crew in the UK now are earning less than GBP 100 a week, and that is driving hundreds of them to leave the industry at exactly the time that we need more young recruits joining the industry. Many vessels, as everyone in this Chamber knows, can no longer afford to put to sea. They lose money on every trip they make. Angry fishermen are blockading ports; striking lorry drivers are refusing to carry freight: and that means the markets for fish are being completely disrupted at the most productive time of the year.

But I am greatly encouraged by the provisions and the proposals that Commissioner Borg has unveiled to us this afternoon. Those Member States who submit proposals for fleet adjustment schemes or for the complete restructuring of their fisheries sector can receive aid from the European Fisheries Fund, and this will go a long way to alleviating the acute crisis affecting the sector at the present time.

I am deeply ashamed that the British Government is refusing to accept this aid, refusing to apply for this co-financed aid. It is atrocious that our fishermen should end up fishing in the same water for the same species as fishermen from other neighbouring nations who will be receiving this aid. That further distorts the market.

So we need to support the creation of a smaller, more fuel-efficient fleet that is better matched to fishing possibilities. I think what the Commission is proposing will achieve that.

 
  
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  Paulo Casaca (PSE). – Eu creio que, nesta crise, nós temos que entender que a alta do preço dos combustíveis é o catalisador de uma situação que já estava muito longe de ser saudável e que apresentava já numerosos factores de grande preocupação.

Trata-se também – e creio que é fundamental realçar – de uma crise de dimensão europeia, e não é legítimo que haja uma situação de tentar responder-lhe a nível nacional.

Em terceiro lugar, queria felicitar o Sr. Comissário e a Comissão pelo plano que acaba de apresentar. Parece-me que são medidas adequadas, quiçá ainda não as suficientes, mas que apontam para a resolução do problema nas suas origens, nos factores estruturais que a condicionam.

Espero que prossiga por este caminho, porque acho que é o caminho mais indicado.

 
  
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  Jacky Hénin (GUE/NGL). – Monsieur le Président, de tous les ports de pêche de l'Union, deux revendications s'expriment avec force: le gazole à un prix unifié au niveau de l'Union de 40 centimes le litre et une gestion concertée des quotas.

Ces justes revendications sont vitales pour la pêche artisanale et ses emplois. La flambée du prix du pétrole et la préservation des ressources halieutiques sont de vrais problèmes. Le libre marché s'avère incapable de gérer les conséquences de la hausse du prix du pétrole. Gavées de profits, les compagnies pétrolières répondent par la spéculation à la demande croissante en pétrole des pays émergents, espérant ainsi faire sauter la banque. En réduisant les taxes qui ne font que progresser et en taxant les profits faramineux des compagnies pétrolières, on arrive sans aucune difficulté à répondre à la demande des pêcheurs sans verser de subventions, particulièrement aléatoires.

Par ailleurs, les pêcheurs n'acceptent plus d'être traités comme des délinquants de la mer par une Commission qui couvre les véritables forbans de la mer que sont les pavillons de complaisance et les trusts de la pêche industrielle. Nul n'est plus attaché qu'eux à la préservation des ressources halieutiques. Le système doit être complètement réformé, la Commission devant travailler démocratiquement avec les professionnels de la pêche plutôt qu'imposer sa dictature par la gouvernance de ses pseudo-experts.

 
  
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  Ιωάννης Γκλαβάκης (PPE-DE). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, καλωσορίζω τον κ. Επίτροπο και τον Πρόεδρο.

Τα τελευταία 5 χρόνια η αλιεία υφίσταται τις συνέπειες της αύξησης της τιμής των καυσίμων. Από το 2004 η τιμή των καυσίμων αυξήθηκε 240%. Η Επιτροπή και το Κοινοβούλιο της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης υιοθετούν μέτρα αντιμετώπισης του προβλήματος, αλλά μέχρι τώρα δεν βελτιώθηκε η κατάσταση. Aντίθετα, χειροτέρεψε.

Από την αρχή του έτους 2008 έχουμε μια αύξηση της τάξεως του 40%. Πολλοί ψαράδες, Γάλλοι, Ιταλοί, Πορτογάλοι, Έλληνες, Ισπανοί, άρχισαν να δένουν τα καράβια τους. Γιατί τα δένουν; Διότι το κόστος αλίευσης είναι μεγαλύτερο από την τιμή που πουλάνε τα ψάρια τους.

Ανησυχώ, και ανησυχώ βαθύτατα, διότι φοβάμαι ότι θα διαλυθεί, θα πληγεί μια κοινωνική ομάδα που τηρεί τις παραδόσεις, που είναι ωραία κοινωνική ομάδα, και αναφέρομαι στους αλιείς μας. Πρέπει να τους σώσουμε από αυτήν την καταστροφή που έρχεται. Πρέπει να λάβουμε μέτρα. Με όλα τα μέτρα τα οποία ανέφεραν οι συνάδελφοι, μέτρα αντιμετώπισης της παράνομης αλιείας και όλα αυτά, συμφωνώ και επαυξάνω. Θέλω επίσης όμως να συμπληρώσω κάτι πολύ σημαντικό. Πρέπει να ενεργοποιηθεί το Ευρωπαϊκό Ταμείο Αλιείας, να εξασφαλισθούν πόροι και με αυτά τα χρήματα να βοηθήσουμε τους αλιείς μας για να μπορέσουν να επιβιώσουν. Διαφορετικά θα βρεθούμε σε πολύ δύσκολες μέρες.

 
  
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  Σταύρος Αρναουτάκης (PSE). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, κύριε Επίτροπε, αγαπητοί συνάδελφοι, μετά την ανεξέλεγκτη άνοδο των τιμών των καυσίμων βλέπουμε να αναπτύσσεται ένα κίνημα, αλλά και μία κραυγή διαμαρτυρίας και απόγνωσης από τους αλιείς πολλών κρατών μελών. Δεν είναι πλέον δυνατόν να παραμένουμε αμέτοχοι παρατηρητές σε αυτές τις δυναμικές κινητοποιήσεις. Είναι απαραίτητο να λάβει η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση άμεσα μέτρα, ώστε να ανακουφίσει αυτήν την επαγγελματική τάξη, η οποία δοκιμάζεται χωρίς μάλιστα να έχει άλλες επιλογές ή τρόπους αντιμετώπισης.

Αν η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση δεν δώσει άμεσες λύσεις, τίθεται πλέον και πολιτικό πρόβλημα για την αποτελεσματικότητά της στην αντιμετώπιση εκτάκτων περιστάσεων, όπως είναι αυτή που περνάμε σήμερα. Θα πρέπει επιτέλους να σταματήσει η μετακύλιση ευθυνών από την Επιτροπή στα κράτη μέλη και αντιστρόφως και, εν πάση περιπτώσει, κάποιος πρέπει να αναλάβει την ευθύνη και την πρωτοβουλία και αυτός δεν είναι άλλος, σύμφωνα με το ευρωπαϊκό μας όραμα, από την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Ευρωπαϊκές πολιτικές, κύριε Επίτροπε! Και θεωρώ ότι οι προτάσεις σας είναι προς την σωστή κατεύθυνση.

 
  
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  Cornelis Visser (PPE-DE). – Mijnheer de Voorzitter, de visserijsector bevindt zich in zwaar weer vanwege de hoge brandstofprijzen. Alleen al in 2008 steeg de prijs van gasolie met meer dan 38%. Voorlopig zijn er geen tekenen dat er een einde komt aan de stijging van de prijs. In mijn land, Nederland, zijn zo'n 15 schepen van de boomkorvloot al opgelegd, omdat iedere visreis resulteert in verlies. Maar de sterk gestegen prijzen zijn niet alleen verantwoordelijk voor de dramatische situatie. Ook de import van grote hoeveelheden vis tegen lage prijzen van buiten de Europese Unie zijn medeverantwoordelijk voor deze situatie. Grote hoeveelheden yellowtail flounder en pacifische schol worden in Nederland geïmporteerd en soms verkocht als tong en schol. Hiermee wordt oneerlijke concurrentie aangegaan met de door de Nederlandse vissers gevangen tong en schol. Er moet meer controle plaatsvinden op het gebruik van de namen van deze vissoorten.

Daarnaast dient er een transitie plaats te vinden van de Nederlandse vloot. De huidige schepen zijn te groot en te afhankelijk van fossiele brandstoffen. Eigenlijk zouden alle schepen vervangen moeten worden door kleinere multi-purpose schepen met duurzame visserijmethoden.

Helaas heeft de Europese Commissie maar een tijdelijke vergunning afgegeven voor vijf schepen van het type elektrische pulskorvisserij voor de tong. We zouden graag meer willen.

De sector heeft financiële middelen nodig om te kunnen overleven en hier moet op korte termijn aan worden gewerkt. Ik ben blij met de voorstellen van de Europese commissaris. Misschien zijn er ook mogelijkheden middels de CO2-besparing van de visserijsector. Het is goed om daar nog eens naar te kijken. De Nederlandse vissersvloot is verantwoordelijk voor ongeveer 1% van de totale CO2-uitstoot. We willen deze met 20% terugdringen. Als je kijkt naar de prijs van de CO2 van 25 euro per ton, dan zijn hier mogelijkheden. Zeker als je bedenkt dat met een sanering die vloot verdwijnt en dat er dus een volledige reductie is van de CO2-uitstoot. Er zou kunnen worden gerekend met een afschrijving van zeven jaar. Ik hoop dat de Commissie verder gaat met de voorstellen. Het Parlement zal ze graag steunen, maar misschien kunt u dit ook meenemen.

 
  
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  Avril Doyle (PPE-DE). – Mr President, the common fisheries policy has failed miserably and has contributed to the sharp decline in Europe’s fish stocks. It is not fit for purpose.

The recent rise in marine fuel prices – an increase of over 240% on 2004 levels, according to the Commission, over 30% in recent months – has only exacerbated the already well-documented devastation of our fisheries and fishing industry in Europe.

While we all agree that certain urgent short-term measures need to be taken at EU and Member State level to alleviate the plight of fishermen, skippers and their crews – such as appropriate levels of state aid, perhaps reduction in tax on fuel over a certain price, financial support for tying-up and greater control of imports garnered from illegal fishing, to name but a few options – we as policymakers must also look to the future. It is time for us to consider new options in any medium- to long-term restructuring plan, as well as the necessary decommissioning grants to match fleet capacity to available resources.

What about a market-based approach with a tradable quota system, rather than continuing the practice of overbearing regulation, which has simultaneously decimated the fishing industry and precipitated the serious decline in fish stocks? The present CFP perversely incentivises the immoral and unsustainable practice of discarding accidental by-catch and juveniles, as it is illegal to land them. We discussed this recently in the Schlyter report. This problem is compounded by illegal imports, unreported and unregulated fishing, as discussed at the last part-session.

According to some experts, such as Thorvaldur Gylfason, Professor of Economics at the University of Iceland, a fee-based trading policy, determined by an independent authority, could make every kilo of sustainable fish valuable so that there would be no inducement to discard fish or land it illegally. Would the Commission and the Council not agree that a tradable quota system, informed by economic and environmental rationale with an ecosystem-based management, could, on the one hand, preserve valuable marine resources for present and future generations while, on the other hand, offering some solace to the productive and efficient fishermen who are crying out for reform?

Yes, we need short-term emergency measures for the present marine fuel crisis, together with medium- and long-term restructuring, informed by environmental and economic rationale, instead of making criminals of our most productive and efficient fishermen who lie awake wondering, as one Irish fishermen’s spokesman said: ‘Will it be the boat or the house that will go first?’

 
  
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  Daniel Varela Suanzes-Carpegna (PPE-DE). – Señor Presidente, a iniciativa de mi Grupo, y con el apoyo de todos, debatimos la grave crisis del sector pesquero y lo hacemos, además, separadamente de la crisis general del petróleo, porque, si bien el precio del gasoil ha agravado esta crisis, no ha sido más que la gota que ha colmado el vaso.

La crisis es más profunda y requiere tratamiento urgente. Para salvar al sector, la Comisión, el Consejo y los Estados miembros, de común acuerdo, deben adoptar un programa que cumpla estos diez mandamientos, decálogo que deduzco de este debate.

A saber: uno, más control de las importaciones ilegales; dos, más control de las importaciones legales; tres, reforma de la OCM para revalorizar los precios al pescador en primera venta; cuatro, reorientación de las ayudas del Fondo Europeo de la Pesca; cinco, reprogramación de los programas operativos estatales; seis, pagar y subir las ayudas de minimis por barco —la Comisión parece haberlo entendido, enhorabuena, pero hay que mejorar esa propuesta porque todavía no va exactamente como queremos—; siete, adopción de ayudas fiscales; ocho, adopción de ayudas sociales; nueve, más transparencia y garantías al consumidor, etiquetado y trazabilidad; y diez, campañas de promoción del consumo y apoyo al sector.

Estos diez mandamientos se resumen en dos: pagar y ayudar más a nuestros pescadores y penalizar a los infractores.

Señor Comisario, señor Presidente del Consejo, o hacemos esto ya o nos cargamos, literalmente, el sector pesquero de la Unión Europea. Sé que el Comisario Borg está concienciado y está haciendo lo que puede, pero creo que debemos ayudar a mejorar esa propuesta. Espero que el Consejo la próxima semana también lo haga y que aprovechemos la Presidencia francesa, que está liderando esta reforma, para poderla llevar a cabo.

Aprovechemos las oportunidades, porque el tiempo apremia.

 
  
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  Duarte Freitas (PPE-DE). – Senhor Presidente, Senhor Comissário, caros Colegas, o futuro das pescas está ameaçado por duas vias. Por um lado, pela sustentabilidade dos recursos e, por outro lado, pela sobrevivência dos pescadores. E temos que garantir também por duas maneiras o futuro. Por um lado, limitando a pesca e, por outro lado, ajudando os pescadores a sobreviverem e a pescarem melhor.

Parece que a Comissão, finalmente, está ciente destes problemas, e alguns governos, como o português, que estava completamente autista em relação a esta matéria, começam a acordar para o desastre.

É bom lembrar que em alguns países, como Portugal, 85% da frota é artesanal, e desta, cerca de metade é a gasolina, razão pela qual é preciso também pensar nesta matéria e também clarificar algumas medidas para que todas sejam usadas por igual e que todos os governos não tenham desculpas.

Por outro lado, devíamos pensar em alargar também nesta matéria alguns apoios que existem para a marinha mercante, como em relação à taxa social única. De resto, não servem de nada medidas estruturais nem de futuro, se não assegurarmos o dia de amanhã para os pescadores, e é isso que está em causa.

 
  
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  Chris Davies (ALDE). – Mr President, the rise in oil prices affects everyone. So why is the fishing sector being singled out for special treatment? Why do we not just subsidise everyone?

Local inshore fishermen will suffer least from this increase in prices while the deep-sea operators will suffer the most. These are the people operating huge vessels, travelling great distances, employing relatively few people but hoovering up the fish in vast quantities, bringing about the mass extinction of the fish in the seas.

Our response to the rise in fuel prices should be to free up the market and let the laws of supply and demand take effect. The very last thing we should do is provide subsidies that will help make fish extinct – it is the policy of madness. When all the fish have gone we should remember that we did our best to make it happen.

 
  
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  Seán Ó Neachtain (UEN). – A Uachtaráin, ba mhaith liomsa fáilte a chur roimh an bpacáiste atá molta ag an gCoimisiún. Ach ba mhaith liom a rá – mar tagaim as Éirinn – nár thug an Comhbheartas Iascaigh Eorpach riamh cothrom na Féinne in Éirinn. Agus bhí a fhéithshliocht sin ar an vóta a bhí againn an tseachtain seo caite.

Tá sé in am anois ag an Aontas Eorpach a thaispeáint gur féidir leo cabhair a thabhairt in am an ghátair don tionscal iascaireachta, mar tá sé i ndroch-chaoi. Agus is iad na hiascairí beaga na daoine is mó atá ag fulaingt anseo.

In Éirinn, tá 11% d’fharraigí na hEorpa againn ach níl againn ach níos lú ná 4% de na cuótaí. Níl an polasaí ag obair. Ach tá sé tábhachtach go ndéanfadh an tAontas Eorpach anois cur le chéile agus a thaispeáint gur féidir leis cabhrú le hiascairí in am an ghátair. Agus iarraim go ndéanfaí chuile shórt chun an pacáiste seo a chur chun cinn agus é a bheith le feiceáil go n-oibríonn sé.

 
  
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  Jim Allister (NI). – Mr President, there is much about the Commissioner’s package to welcome, but for me the key issue is delivery. How do you get common standards of delivery across the EU amongst the Member States, with some, like mine, the United Kingdom, ever-reluctant to take any financial assistance steps, even when they are permitted?

Could I ask the Commissioner today not to be neutral on that, but to expressly call upon all Member States to do what they are now permitted to do under his package and no longer to sit on their hands in this regard?

Otherwise we will continue to have an even less common fisheries policy, compounding inequality and delivering more disaster for the sector.

Related to that point – because some love to pass the parcel between national governments and the Commission – could the Commissioner identify within the new package exactly those measures which are wholly dependent on Member State contributions and any, if there are any, which are free of that?

 
  
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  Czesław Adam Siekierski (PPE-DE). – Panie Przewodniczący! Rybołówstwo to bardzo specyficzny sektor naszej gospodarki. Podmioty gospodarcze są bardzo rozdrobnione i rozproszone. Często są to przedsiębiorstwa rodzinne, lokalne, które mają ograniczone wielkości połowowe, nie mają więc możliwości zwiększenia produkcji, aby przy zwiększonych kosztach osiągnąć zadowalający dochód. Można powiedzieć, rosną koszty, to muszą rosnąć ceny ryb, ale te relacje mają swoją granicę, ile, jaką cenę może zapłacić konsument? Co z ich racją?

Dla przeciwdziałania trudnej, bieżącej sytuacji proponuję przyznać określone dopłaty do paliw dla rybaków, dopłaty uzależnione od cen oleju. Rybacy i ich rodziny nie mają możliwości dodatkowych zarobków w innej działalności. Reasumując, polityka rybacka wymaga nowego podejścia.

 
  
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  Colm Burke (PPE-DE). – Mr President, in July 2007 I went to Castletownbere in West Cork, which is in the south-western part of Ireland, and met with the fishing community there. At that time they were in deep trouble. Since that time oil prices have increased dramatically. In fact, over the last five years oil has increased in Ireland by over 300%. At the same time the cost of fish or the price they are getting has not increased.

It is not just about people working on trawlers and people owning trawlers, it is about coastal communities. They are the people that are affected, and this is extremely important.

I welcome the proposals from the Commission, but I also think there should be further proposals in relation to dealing with the whole issue of discarded bycatches, and I think that has not been dealt with and needs to be dealt with immediately.

We need to make it more efficient and make it more cost-effective, but we also need to make sure that people are able to make a living from it: not only the people involved in the industry, but also people living in coastal communities.

 
  
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  José Ribeiro e Castro (PPE-DE). – Eu queria pedir que, no próximo dia 24, haja também boas notícias para a pesca artesanal, para a pesca costeira em Portugal.

Como o colega Duarte Freitas já aqui referiu, ouvimos falar muito de gasóleo, de apoios ao gasóleo, mas 85% das embarcações em Portugal trabalham no sector da pesca artesanal e mais de metade trabalham a gasolina. São pequenas embarcações com motores fora de borda. Não têm quaisquer benefícios que se aplicam ao gasóleo, têm sido completamente esquecidos e é indispensável que seja estabelecido um regime homólogo paritário ao gasóleo para a gasolina usada na pesca.

Eu fui à pesca com pescadores de Esposende, na passada sexta-feira, e pude testemunhar o momento de sacrifício enorme que eles atravessam. A Comissão não chegará a estes pescadores se não adoptar medidas também para a pesca artesanal no próximo dia 24.

 
  
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  Janez Lenarčič, predsedujoči Svetu. − Tudi v svoji sklepni izjavi bi želel poudariti dejstvo, da se Svet zaveda težavnega položaja ribiškega sektorja v Evropski uniji, vendar je treba ločiti dva vidika: eno so specifične značilnosti ribiškega sektorja in drugo so visoke cene goriv, ki, kot je bilo že rečeno, prizadenejo številne, praktično vse sektorje, seveda tudi ribiškega.

Svet je zelo aktiven pri iskanju rešitev: potekajo intenzivna posvetovanja, ki bodo kulminirala naslednji teden na zasedanju Sveta za kmetijstvo in ribištvo, iščejo se kratkoročni, srednjeročni in dolgoročni ukrepi, katerih cilj je ohranitev evropskega ribištva, premostitev sedanje težavne faze, ohranitev tako obalnega kot ribištva na odprtem morju.

Lahko vam zagotovim, da sem pozorno spremljal to razpravo in da bo predsednik Sveta za ribištvo podrobno seznanjen s stališči, ki so bila podana v tej razpravi, vključno s prvimi vašimi odzivi na predloge in načrte, ki jih je predstavil komisar.

 
  
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  Joe Borg, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I would firstly like to thank everyone for their comments, for the various points that they have raised and also for the general expression of support for the package that the Commission intends to propose.

I would like to say that this is not the end of the whole process but just the beginning. We still need to steer these proposals through Council and Parliament and I would repeat that we need your full support in order to get these proposals through as rapidly as possible, especially in those parts which would require legislative amendment.

What I have presented represents, in my view, the limits of flexibility in addressing the short-term crisis, with a view to putting in place a medium- and longer-term perspective of restructuring, in order to regain sustainability of resources and the profitability of the sector. I agree that these measures should not be seen in isolation but also within the context of the ongoing discussions concerning IUU, discards, eco-labelling and various other measures which we are in the process of having adopted.

With regard to IUU for example, I hope that on Tuesday of next week a decision will be taken in Council on the proposed regulation to effectively combat IUU fishing, on which the European Parliament has given overwhelming support.

I would like to say to Mr Davies that we are not proposing to throw money at the problem, but to provide assistance with a view to restructuring – as I said, to regain sustainable fishing and profitable fishing. I would invite Mr Davies to examine what we would be proposing and, if he has any specific comments to make, I would certainly welcome them. Yes, we will work to enable the proper market mechanisms to operate rather than continuing to allow a few huge operators to dominate the market when setting fish prices.

In response to what Mr Allister said, the package makes it more attractive for Member States to take up what is available under the European Fisheries Fund, and therefore we hope that Member States will fully engage. We will be discussing this in next week’s Council in order to implement effectively these measures that we are proposing.

I will just go very briefly through the measures that are envisaged.

First of all, we are looking at the emergency measures, where we are proposing assistance for temporary cessation for fishing vessels (and this also goes in the direction of sustainability) for a maximum period of three months in addition to what is already in the European Fisheries Fund, and not linked exclusively to biological reasons. Such a measure may finance cruise costs and fixed costs of vessels. This measure will only apply in cases where there is an explicit commitment that the enterprises benefiting from it will be included in a restructuring plan within a period of six months.

A second provision relates to the increase in the EFF aid intensity for fuel-saving equipment. We are proposing that the mandatory private financial participation will be at a lower rate and will therefore be at 40% of its present level.

We are also proposing to extend further a number of socioeconomic measures which are eligible under EFF. On de minimis aid we are looking at making provisions so that if, on an economic analysis, it proves to be feasible, then our proposal would be to extend the de minimis aid from EUR 30 000 per enterprise to EUR 30 000 per vessel but with a maximum cap of EUR 100 000 per enterprise.

The longer-term measures would relate to EFF premiums for permanent cessation of fleets in restructuring, so that we would lift any limitations on access to permanent cessation premiums; and additional aid for temporary cessation, so that beyond the first three months that I mentioned, we will be proposing that there will be an additional three months to be taken during the period of restructuring, where vessels will be necessarily laid up because of the restructuring process. This would be up to the period of 1 January 2010, and for an additional three months if the restructuring needs to go beyond 1 January 2010. So it would be a maximum of six months beyond the three months given as an emergency aid.

We are also providing for increasing the aid intensity for modernisation schemes. Today the private financial participation is 60% and 80% for gear and engine replacement respectively. We are proposing to reduce the private financial participation to 40%. We are doing this because we realise that the private sector – the private entrepreneurs, the fishermen – are not in a position to be able to significantly part-finance any restructuring out of their own pockets. We are trying to make it as easy as possible for fishermen to undertake restructuring by providing the lion’s share of the expense that will be incurred.

We are also allowing for the granting of partial decommissioning. In other words, if there is a group of vessels and that group of vessels represents, say, 100 000 tonnes, and they undertake to decommission 50 000 or 60 000 tonnes, leaving 40 000 tonnes by virtue of which they want to construct new vessels, then for the amount partially decommissioned – for the 50 000 or 60 000 tonnes – they would be given decommissioning aid. Obviously that would mean that the size of the fleet would be reduced. You would have a newer fleet but this would mean that the compensation would have been paid for the amount by which it had been reduced.

We are also proposing social aid in the form of decreased social security contributions. In other words, what we are proposing is that there will be the possibility for the contributions payable by fishermen, and not the contributions payable by the enterprises employing them, to be exempted on condition that the remuneration of the fishermen is not reduced and on condition that the fishermen remain in receipt of the same social benefits under any existing schemes.

With regard to market measures – a point mentioned by Mrs Fraga – I would like to state that there are various measures which we are proposing: increasing fishermen’s bargaining position vis-à-vis the processing industry and distributors by joining forces with larger POs or local marketing associations; establishing a price monitoring system to better understand the factors determining market prices; improving predictability of sourcing for EU-origin products for the industry; promoting quality initiatives like labelling and better handling and processing; promoting information to consumers; health and nutrition; responsible fishing; market audit assessment; developing tools to analyse the value chain and prices; and verifying the correct implementation of the monitoring of labelling measures and IUU.

We are also making available from our own funds – from other fisheries funds – for the first year, EUR 20-25 million in order specifically to launch other projects in cooperation with the sector in the area of market monitoring, labelling etc. We are prepared to reopen discussions with Member States – even though we have just concluded them – on the existing operational programmes in order to ensure that the European fisheries funds are focused more on these restructuring programmes. We are facilitating the use of the European Fisheries Fund. For example – just to mention one point in addition – it is proposed to double the EFF pre-financing amount paid by the Commission after the adoption of the operational programmes from the current 7% to 14% of the total EFF contribution.

I have two final points. Mrs Fraga said that we could have done more before. I would like just to introduce a nuance to this. We could have acted differently before. We could have avoided incentivising and encouraging over-capacity and not thrown precious public money at unwarranted huge increases of capacity way beyond what the stocks of our fish can reasonably sustain.

Concerning Mrs Doyle’s remarks – that the CFP has failed miserably – I simply do not agree. It is because of the CFP that we can put forward proposed common solutions as we are doing now, instead of witnessing individual Member States joining in a race downhill in the direction of the total destruction of fishing.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. − Otrzymałem sześć projektów rezolucji(1) złożonych zgodnie z art. 108 ust. 5 Regulaminu.

Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się w czwartek, 19 czerwca 2008 r.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 142)

 
  
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  Sylwester Chruszcz (NI), na piśmie. Jest to bardzo ważna debata zarówno dla wszystkich państw nadmorskich, jak i dla konsumentów. Jak przypominały osoby biorące udział w debacie, wszyscy żyliśmy w poczuciu, że ceny ropy naftowej nigdy nie wzrosną . Oczywiście stało się to po wielu latach zaniedbań i braku wyobraźni instytucji do tego powołanych. Dziś samo wypływanie kutrów i łodzi w morze stało się nieopłacalne, ceny ryb nie rekompensują nakładów. Wielu rybaków może odejść z zawodu, co może rozregulować tą całą gałąź gospodarki. Wydaje mi się, że mało kto słuchał głosów rybaków, dopiero gdy doszło do tego kryzysu, obudziło to sumienia wielu, a przecież problemy sektora zaczęły się wiele lat temu. Ciągle brakuje całościowej debaty na temat tego sektora, debaty rzeczowej i szczerej. Musimy natychmiast rozwiązać ten głęboki kryzys i zadbać o sektor rybołówstwa.

 
  
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  Sebastiano (Nello) Musumeci (UEN), per iscritto. In quattro anni il prezzo del gasolio in Italia è aumentato del 240% a causa della forte speculazione delle compagnie petrolifere. Ciò impedisce alla flotta peschereccia, in particolare quella artigianale, non solo di svolgere la propria attività ma addirittura di recuperare gli elevati costi di gestione. Le marinerie europee sono al collasso e il caro gasolio erode i pochi margini economici a disposizione dei pescatori.

La Francia e l'Italia hanno annunciato un'iniziativa in comune per ottenere dall'Unione europea risorse aggiuntive. In particolare, l'idea è di raddoppiare la soglia nazionale degli aiuti de minimis al settore. Si tratterebbe, comunque, di una misura insufficiente per ovviare alle gravi difficoltà in cui si trova il settore della pesca, peraltro già provato da una crisi .

Il commissario europeo per la Pesca, Joe Borg, ritiene che degli aiuti rapidi siano possibili ma sostiene anche che, a lungo termine, la soluzione della crisi del settore risieda nella ristrutturazione della flotta: più piccola e meno consumatrice di energia.

Se la proposta di utilizzare imbarcazioni meno divoratrici di gasolio è condivisibile, permane comunque l'urgenza di trovare soluzioni eque che aiutino i pescatori a superare la grave crisi e che sottraggano numerose famiglie al rischio di uno spaventoso impoverimento.

 
  

(1)Patrz protokół

Päivitetty viimeksi: 21. lokakuuta 2008Oikeudellinen huomautus