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Procedūra : 2011/2913(RSP)
Procedūros eiga plenarinėje sesijoje
Dokumentų priėmimo eiga :

Pateikti tekstai :

B7-0593/2011

Debatai :

PV 16/11/2011 - 14
CRE 16/11/2011 - 14

Balsavimas :

PV 17/11/2011 - 6.6

Priimti tekstai :

P7_TA(2011)0512

Diskusijos
Trečiadienis, 2011 m. lapkričio 16 d. - Strasbūras Atnaujinta informacija

14. Kasetinių šaudmenų uždraudimas (diskusijos)
Kalbų vaizdo įrašas
PV
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  Elnök. − A következő pont a Bizottság alelnökének/az Unió külügyi és biztonságpolitikai főképviselőjének nyilatkozata a kazettás bombák tilalmáról [2011/2913(RSP)].

 
  
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  Androulla Vassiliou, Member of the Commission, on behalf of the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. − Mr President, on behalf of the High Representative, Catherine Ashton, I thank you very much for giving us the opportunity to discuss the issue of cluster munitions with you at such a timely moment when negotiations are ongoing in the framework of the United Nations to finally ban these terrible weapons on a universal scale.

In July 2010, the European Parliament welcomed the forthcoming entry into force of the Convention on Cluster Munitions on 1 August 2010. Subsequently, in November 2010, the First Meeting of States Parties took place in Laos and the Vientiane Action Plan was adopted.

This was a commendable first step to support the full implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions. Both at the meeting in Vientiane last year and at the Second Meeting of States Parties in Beirut in September this year, the EU has been a committed supporter of the international efforts to address the overwhelming humanitarian concerns posed by cluster munitions. Today, 66 states are party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions. 108 states have signed it. This is tremendous progress in a very short period of time.

Nonetheless, much remains to be done to include the world’s largest possessors and manufacturers of cluster munitions in the overall divestment effort and to improve the situation on the ground. Sadly, this year has shown that this is more important than ever.

The High Representative, for instance, was deeply concerned about the use of cluster munitions against the civilian population in Libya and called upon the armed forces of Muammar Al-Gaddafi to refrain from using force against the civilian population, whether through cluster munitions or any other means. All necessary steps must be taken to ensure that civilians are protected from the effects of such munitions, including unexploded remnants of cluster munitions.

This and next week, negotiations are ongoing on a Protocol on cluster munitions in Geneva in the framework of the Review Conference of States Parties to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons – the CCW. The EU firmly believes that any new instruments that may be created under the CCW must meet the objective of strengthening international humanitarian law.

The High Representative and I have taken due note of the fact that the European Parliament, in resolutions in 2008 and 2010 and again this year, has urged EU Member States to sign and ratify the Convention on Cluster Munitions, while not jeopardising or circumventing this Convention by adopting, endorsing or ratifying a CCW Protocol VI allowing for the use of cluster munitions which would not be compatible with the prohibition of such munitions under Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

It is our firm conviction that, regarding the ongoing negotiations on a CCW Protocol on cluster munitions, such negotiations should lead to substantial improvements on the ground – taking into account both humanitarian and military aspects – which should be compatible with, and complementary to, the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

We expect such an instrument to include provisions on cooperation and assistance and to make a significant humanitarian contribution, containing an immediate prohibition on the use, production or transfer of cluster munitions. This would allow the international community to make a decisive step in the right direction and to get closer to achieving our humanitarian objectives.

As long as this overall goal is clearly pursued, the EU should actively join these efforts and contribute to the greatest extent possible to this important work to seek to enhance the relevance of CCW to international humanitarian law and to reinforce its fundamental rule that the right of parties to an armed conflict to choose their methods or means of warfare is not unlimited.

The very nature of cluster munitions stands against all basic humanitarian principles. This is the reason why the European Union as a whole is fully committed to tackling the impact of cluster munitions on civilian populations through all possible means. Although not all EU Member States are currently parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, there is a firm understanding that the EU should play a role in implementing the humanitarian goals of the Convention on Cluster Munitions through efficient and effective delivery of aid.

During operations on the ground, as regards assistance to cluster bomb victims or victims of mines, the EU makes no distinction. Full compliance with the obligations of the Convention on Cluster Munitions will be a huge challenge for many State Parties worldwide.

The EU is aware of the complexity of the tasks involved. It stands ready to provide assistance to states in their efforts to implement their national plans effectively, to comply with the Convention and to ensure synergies with other equally pertinent international instruments. The EU is thus very much committed to helping turn the legal obligations of the Convention on Cluster Munitions into concrete action.

 
  
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  Michael Gahler, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Es ist gut, dass sich unser Parlament im Rahmen dieser Entschließung zur anstehenden Vierten Überprüfungskonferenz der Konvention über spezielle konventionelle Waffen mit dem Thema der weltweiten Ächtung von Streumunition auseinandersetzt. Der Entschließungstext ist hierbei als ein weiterer parlamentarischer Beitrag zur Fortschreibung unserer humanitären Bemühungen im Bereich konventioneller Abrüstung und Rüstungskontrolle zu sehen.

Aus meiner Sicht spiegelt die Entschließung zwei europäische Kernforderungen wieder, die sich an die Hohe Beauftragte und die Mitgliedstaaten für ihre Teilnahme an der Vierten Überprüfungskonferenz richten: das Festhalten am Kernbestand der erreichten Ächtung im Rahmen des Übereinkommens über Streumunition und das Festhalten an der weltweiten Ächtung von Streumunition.

Lassen Sie mich zunächst das zentrale militärisch-operative Argument für den Einsatz von Streumunition gegen das politisch-humanitäre Argument für die weltweite Ächtung abwägen. Rein militärisch-operativ betrachtet, handelt es sich bei Streumunition um eine der wirksamsten konventionellen Waffen, da durch einen geringen Mitteleinsatz ein großer räumlicher Wirkungsradius erzielt wird. Der Einsatz von Streumunition erfolgt gegen militärische Ziele wie Straßen, Landebahnen oder relevante Infrastruktur allgemein. Das ist die rein militärische Sichtweise, die jedoch vor der politisch-humanitären Beurteilung dieser Munitionsgattung in den Hintergrund zu treten hat. Aus dieser Sicht muss die weltweite Ächtung von Streumunition verstärkt fortgesetzt werden, wie sie im Rahmen des Übereinkommens verfolgt wird.

Das fatale Problem der Streumunition liegt darin, dass der Einsatz häufig mit einer aus humanitärer Sicht nicht akzeptablen hohen Blindgängerrate einhergeht. Diese eingesetzte Munition weist teilweise 15 % Blindgänger auf. Vor der Problematik dieser hohen Rate steht aktuell auch die libysche Gesellschaft, weil, wie Frau Ashton bereits im April berichtete, von Seiten der Kräfte Gaddafis auch Streumunition eingesetzt wurde.

Die hohe Blindgängerrate im Zielgebiet erweist sich als klare Bedrohung der Zivilbevölkerung in Post-Konflikt-Situationen, da nicht detonierte Munition auch eindeutig nicht mehr der Bekämpfung von Kombattanten dient. Die humanitäre Bedrohung durch eine hohe Blindgängerrate kann sich auch als eine große Hypothek beim schnellen Wiederaufbau und einer raschen wirtschaftlichen Erholung erweisen. Aus meiner Sicht kann dies nur bedeuten, dass am Übereinkommen über Streumunition als dem internationalen Standard zur weltweiten Ächtung von Streumunition festgehalten wird und sich die EU und ihre Mitgliedstaaten entsprechend dafür einsetzen. Es ist in diesem Rahmen auch gut, dass die EU ihre Maßnahmen verstärkt, Drittstaaten bei der Vernichtung von Splittermunitionsbeständen zu unterstützen und die negativen humanitären Effekte des Einsatzes von Splittermunition dadurch zu lindern.

 
  
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  Roberto Gualtieri, a nome del gruppo S&D. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, come ha spiegato anche il collega Gahler le bombe a grappolo sono uno strumento di morte terribile, micidiale per la popolazione civile. La loro messa al bando è quindi una battaglia di civiltà in cui questo Parlamento è impegnato da tempo.

L'entrata in vigore della Convenzione di Oslo ha rappresentato un importante successo, ma oggi, a poco più di un anno dalla sua entrata in vigore, ci troviamo dinanzi a un tentativo pericoloso di svuotarne i risultati con un protocollo aggiuntivo alla Convenzione sulle armi convenzionali, la cui revisione è in discussione in questi giorni a Ginevra, che rilegittimerebbe l'utilizzo delle bombe a grappolo. Si tratta di un protocollo che non deve essere e non può essere firmato da coloro che hanno già aderito alla Convenzione di Oslo perché, come lei stessa ha detto, signora Commissario, è in evidente contraddizione con la Convezione stessa, ma che aprirebbe un pericoloso spiraglio anche per gli altri paesi che vogliono continuare a produrre, stoccare e utilizzare questo tipo di ordigno e che inoltre creerebbe un gravissimo precedente, un vulnus al diritto internazionale.

L'argomento di chi afferma che il protocollo migliorerebbe comunque la situazione, perché verrebbe firmato da paesi che non aderiscono alla Convenzione di Oslo, ci sembra francamente pretestuoso e forse su questo avremmo voluto sentire anche dal rappresentante dall'Alto rappresentante Ashton delle parole più chiare e più in inequivoche. Il sesto protocollo minerebbe alla base la Convenzione perché permetterebbe l'uso delle munizioni prodotte dopo il 1980, che sono la larga maggioranza, prevede un lungo periodo di transizione, consentirebbe l'uso di tipologie di bombe a grappolo la cui pericolosità per i civili è altissima e non fisserebbe dei chiari obblighi per la distruzione delle riserve stoccate dai singoli Stati.

È quindi indispensabile che tutti gli Stati membri non sostengano l'entrata in vigore di questo protocollo e che l'Alto rappresentante si impegni perché tutti i paesi dell'Unione assumano una linea chiara e unitaria a favore di una definitiva messa al bando delle bombe a grappolo. La risoluzione comune che ci accingiamo ad approvare in questo senso è un segnale politico importante e siamo certi che essa verrà approvata nella sua interezza da una larga maggioranza.

 
  
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  Marietje Schaake, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Mr President, I can fully agree with the previous two speakers with whom we have worked on this joint motion for a resolution. The Convention on Cluster Munitions entered into force in 2010 and most Member States were included. It is important to ban the use of cluster munitions because they cause excessive and indiscriminate damage to civilians. From a humanitarian point of view, cluster munitions are a disaster. Regrettably some Member States believe that cluster munitions are important for their security and their economy.

I will not dispute the importance of security, but there are more sophisticated and less damaging ways to ensure it. Apart from use, there is trade. Most recently, we heard reports of the use of cluster munitions in Libya and apparently some Member States were involved in providing them.

There will shortly be a discussion on Protocol VI during the Review Conference of Certain Conventional Weapons. This Protocol is not compatible with commitments made by Member States. On the contrary, instead of undermining the Convention on Cluster Munitions, we want more Member States to subscribe. They would join Member States who will not use, develop, produce, stockpile or transfer cluster munitions or engage in any of these prohibited activities.

The EU should press Member States and candidate Member States, and be a force for a global ban on cluster munitions. If we want to be a credible actor in pushing for this important goal, we must lead by example with the inclusion of all Member States.

 
  
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  Ulrike Lunacek, on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group. – Mr President, I very much agree with the colleagues who have spoken already.

Cluster munitions are one of the cruelest weapons. Imagine a child going around, picking up one of the colourful bomblets which explodes, thereby hurting them, taking away part of their body and leaving them severely injured. One-third of the victims are children. 60% of casualties get injured while undertaking normal activities – as recently happened in Libya, as some of us have said already.

Many of us – parliamentarians, civil society and victims’ organisations – have struggled to get the Oslo Convention on Cluster Munitions signed in 2008. This ban on cluster munitions is in danger at the moment. Right now in Geneva, at the UN Review Conference on Certain Conventional Weapons, some non-signatories want to water down the Convention via Protocol VI and they want to water down humanitarian law and humanitarian international law. We cannot and will not let that happen.

I would like to thank the Commissioner and also the High Representative – our Foreign Minister – for the very clear words she has said today. I would also like to thank all my colleagues in the five Groups who have agreed on a very good resolution. We have had very close cooperation. I am convinced that the united voice of the European Parliament, together with our Foreign Minister Catherine Ashton, will be heard in Geneva by EU Member States – those who have signed and ratified the Convention and also those who have not yet signed – and by others who defend the struggle against this cruel weapon.

 
  
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  Sabine Lösing, im Namen der GUE/NGL-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Ich begrüße im Namen meiner Fraktion, der GUE/NGL, die sehr gute fraktionsübergreifende Zusammenarbeit und die mehrheitliche Unterstützung der Gemeinsamen Entschließung gegen die Verwendung von Streubomben und Streumunition. Die Entschließung ist ein wichtiges und starkes Signal im Kampf gegen diese mörderischen Waffen. Wir sollten nicht vergessen, dass Streumunition und -bomben etwa im ehemaligen Jugoslawien, in Irak und in Afghanistan eingesetzt wurden, und zwar – daran erinnere ich in diesem Parlament – auch von EU-Staaten. Es gibt keinerlei Rechtfertigung, diese Waffen weiter einzusetzen, aufzubewahren oder zu produzieren – keinerlei. Nicht zur Verteidigung, nicht zur Grenzsicherung.

Ich appelliere dringend an alle Mitgliedstaaten, den vorgeschlagenen Textentwurf des neuen Sechsten Protokolls zu Streumunition der Konvention zum Verbot bestimmter konventioneller Waffen nicht zu unterstützen. Dieser Entwurf wäre ein dramatischer Rückschritt. Dieser Textentwurf verbietet – das kann nicht deutlich genug gesagt werden – die Streumunition und -bomben, die vor 1980 hergestellt wurden. Das würde bedeuten, dass die danach produzierten Streubomben weiter erlaubt wären und auch in Zukunft weiter eingesetzt werden dürften. Das dürfen wir nicht akzeptieren! Die Konvention zum Verbot von Streumunition, welche im August 2010 in Kraft trat, verbietet alle Streubomben und -munition, und das muss der Maßstab sein!

 
  
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  Androulla Vassiliou, Member of the Commission. − Mr President, I would like to thank all Members for their contribution and for giving us the opportunity to discuss these crucial aspects of our work in addressing the overwhelming humanitarian concerns of cluster munitions.

I wish to underline that the European Union will maintain its engagement to attain a ban on cluster munitions through active political outreach in the framework both of the Convention on Cluster Munitions and of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, and I express our strong commitment to continuing future efforts to increase the number of signatures and ratifications and to turn our ambitions into practical realities.

The EU will also continue to provide international cooperation and assistance by streamlining activities against cluster munitions in our development and cooperation policies.

The EU is aware of the complexity of the tasks involved. Both the implementation of the CCM and delivering on the Vientiane Action Plan require financial resources and political commitment. The EU stands ready to assist states in these endeavours.

 
  
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  Elnök. − Hat állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványt(1) juttattak el hozzám, melyeket az eljárási szabályzat 110. cikkének (2) bekezdésével összhangban nyújtottak be.

A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2011. november 17-én, csütörtökön kerül sor.

 
  

(1)Lásd a jegyzőkönyvet.

Atnaujinta: 2012 m. sausio 10 d.Teisinis pranešimas