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Postup : 2011/2946(RSP)
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Predkladané texty :

B7-0702/2011

Rozpravy :

PV 15/12/2011 - 13.2
CRE 15/12/2011 - 13.2

Hlasovanie :

PV 15/12/2011 - 14.2

Prijaté texty :

P7_TA(2011)0591

Rozpravy
Štvrtok, 15. decembra 2011 - Štrasburg Revidované vydanie

13.2. Situácia žien v Afganistane a Pakistane
Videozáznamy z vystúpení
PV
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  Der Präsident. − Als nächstes folgt die Aussprache über sieben Entschließungsanträge zur Lage der Frauen in Afghanistan und Pakistan.(1)

 
  
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  Charles Tannock, author. − Mr President, the situation of women in Pakistan and Afghanistan remains serious. Human rights abuses perpetrated against women remain commonplace, sadly, and more worryingly are frequently tolerated by the authorities. Pakistan’s tradition of honour killings must be addressed in particular, and the government there must take much stronger action to ensure that this crime in particular does not go unpunished. Genital mutilation is still reported in some rural parts of Pakistan, and therefore we urge the authorities to investigate these alleged crimes fully as well.

Afghanistan, for its part, has the second-highest rate of maternal mortality in the world, and we call upon the Afghan Government to do more in the area of maternal health. Sharia law enacted in some areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan permits the execution of pregnant women, and this must, of course, be condemned in the strongest possible terms and is indeed against UN international human rights declarations.

Despite the significant financial and technical EU aid in Afghanistan, girls and women are still experiencing major difficulties in accessing primary education due to deeply-rooted cultural discrimination against the female sex. Safeguards aiming to ensure gender equality are not acted upon, especially in the recruitment of women to positions of influence, such as the national legislature or the judiciary. It is imperative that this situation is addressed and a concrete, lasting and enforceable solution found before NATO ISAF forces finally withdraw from Afghanistan in 2014.

The recent talks at the Bonn Conference were indeed encouraging. We believe that, as well as the measures taken by the governments of the countries themselves, the Commission should give even more assistance to those projects that promote and protect the rights of women in these two countries.

 
  
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  Lidia Joanna Geringer de Oedenberg, autorka. − Panie Przewodniczący! Wydaje się niebywałe, że w XXI w. wciąż istnieją kraje, które eliminują kobiety z aktywnego życia publicznego i gospodarczego. W Afganistanie jak i w Pakistanie wypycha się kobiety na margines społeczeństwa, pozbawiając je możliwości rozwoju i wykorzystania w pełni własnego potencjału. Liczne zakazy, kary, dyskryminacja fizyczna czy psychiczna ograniczające obszary aktywności kobiet są w tych krajach na porządku dziennym. Sytuacja afgańskich kobiet na skutek upadku reżimu talibów nieco się w ostatnich latach polepszyła. Jednakże warunki kobiet w Pakistanie znacznie się pogorszyły z powodu wprowadzenia dyskryminacyjnych regulacji, takich jak prawo chroniące uczucia religijne, które pozwalają na prześladowanie kobiet oraz grup mniejszościowych.

Dlatego też dokonanie przeglądu praw kobiet w prawie krajowym obu państw powinno być pierwszym krokiem w kierunku zapewnienia im godnych warunków życia, w tym prawa do rozwoju profesjonalnego i osobistego, łącznie z ochroną bezpieczeństwa kobiet w szkołach i w pracy. Mając na uwadze wieloletnią i długofalową pomoc oferowaną przez Unię obu tym krajom, naszym obowiązkiem jest nie tylko wyrażenie niepokoju w związku z dyskryminacją kobiet, ale wezwanie do równego traktowania płci.

 
  
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  Raül Romeva i Rueda, author. − Mr President, ten years after the Petersberg Conference on Afghanistan in 2001, which laid the foundation of the ongoing partnership between the international community and Afghanistan, it is true that some progress has been achieved for women. According to the government, over 4 million girls are attending school and higher education; 17% of civil servants are female and more than 25% of the members of parliament are women.

However, improvements remain fragile, and are often reduced to rhetoric. Female illiteracy and maternal and infant mortality rates remain among the worst in the world. Women and girls continue to face endemic domestic violence, trafficking, forced marriages, including child marriages, and in particular the abusive practice of Boad continues to occur regularly, where a girl is given to an agreed family to compensate for a committed crime. Let us remember as well that the stoning and physical disfigurement of women accused of violating the repressive social code of the Taliban and other insurgent groups are still a common occurrence.

Afghan women with public roles have faced increasing attacks. This is something which we need to address and this is why we ask the Afghan security forces not only to be trained in counter-insurgency but also in law and order, community safety and protecting women and children from abuse. Let us remember, that women should also be leaders of organisations and be included in the design, monitoring and evaluation of the provincial security indicators.

On Pakistan, we have to denounce similar situations. The fact that in some regions the authorities are acting in a very similar way to those in Afghanistan is especially worrying. This is why we ask the Pakistani Government to reintroduce the fundamental rights of the 1973 Constitution which were suspended after the military coup in 1997, including the right to be free from discrimination on the basis of sex.

 
  
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  Paul Murphy, author. − Mr President, it is now over ten years since the newly-found concern for women’s rights was used as one of the pretexts for going to war in, and then occupying, Afghanistan. However, the situation facing women there remains absolutely devastating. They have the lowest literacy rate in the world at 13%, with only 5% of young women going on to secondary school, which is higher than it was under the Taliban but lower than it was in 2005.

According to the NGO Womankind, anywhere between 60% and 80% of marriages are forced and 87% of women complain of domestic violence. It is the most dangerous place in the world to be a woman. The case of the young woman Gulnaz is a horrific demonstration of the laws that women face. She was raped when she was 19 by her cousin’s husband, became pregnant, and as a result was convicted and jailed for the crime of ‘adultery by force’. Thankfully, she was pardoned yesterday and has been released, although she was facing a jail term of up to 12 years. In fact, half the women in Afghanistan prisons have been locked up for moral crimes.

This terrible situation cannot be used as a pretext to continue the occupation. The troops must be withdrawn now and activists in the West need to give real assistance and solidarity to women’s organisations, organisations of workers and the poor, to fight for...

(The President cut off the speaker)

 
  
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  Cristian Dan Preda, Autor. − Discutăm astăzi şi despre Afganistan şi despre Pakistan; în ambele ţări putem identifica unele elemente care pot fi calificate drept pozitive - de pildă, în Afganistan, anumite femei au fost numite în funcţii de responsabilitate; recent a fost graţiată Gulnaz, care fusese o victimă a violului, iniţial condamnată la închisoare; pe de altă parte, în Pakistan, adoptarea legii privind prevenirea practicilor împotriva femeilor, ca şi a legii împotriva atacurilor cu acid la începutul săptămânii - toate acestea sunt semne încurajatoare.

Rămân însă, în ambele ţări, lucruri extrem, extrem de grave: în Afganistan violenţa conjugală, ca şi în Pakistan; pe de altă parte, în Afganistan, lapidarea, desfigurarea pentru încălcarea unor norme sociale; în Pakistan femeile sunt victime ale crimelor de onoare; convertirea forţată la islam; sunt practici care sunt mai mult decât îngrijorătoare şi trebuie să le denunţăm aici.

 
  
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  Norica Nicolai, Autor. − Această rezoluţie, deşi se adresează acestor două ţări, cu situaţii diferite în ceea ce priveşte situaţia situaţia femeilor, are câteva chestiuni în comun şi anume o situaţie dramatică în ceea ce priveşte egalitatea de şanse, drepturile femilor şi, în special violenţa împotriva femeilor, cu predilecţie ceea ce se întâmplă în Pakistan.

Trebuie însă să recunoaştem că, în ceea ce priveşte Afganistanul, există o situaţie îmbunătăţită, cel puţin din punct de vedere legislativ. Constituţia recentă a Afganistanului are o prevedere expresă cu privire la egalitatea de şanse. Legea din 2009 cu privire la combaterea violenţei împotriva femeilor a fost pusă în vigoare. De asemenea, cred că reprezentarea femeilor s-a îmbunătăţit, dar trebuie să recunoaştem că va fi o situaţie dificilă după retragerea trupelor din Afganistan pentru că, în aceste condiţii, cred că ceea ce s-a câştigat în această perioadă există riscul de a se pierde foarte rapid.

De aceea, Uniunea Europeană trebuie să intensifice programele de colaborare pentru a menţine o situaţie îmbunătăţită.

 
  
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  Bernd Posselt, im Namen der PPE-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Beide Länder sind sehr unterschiedlich, obwohl sie Nachbarn sind. Aber größer sind die Unterschiede innerhalb der Länder. Pakistan hatte lange vor Deutschland eine Regierungschefin. Afghanistan ist noch nicht so weit, aber es hat immerhin Provinzgouverneurinnen. Aber es gibt in beiden Ländern Regionen und Stammesgebiete, in denen Frauen nach wie vor nicht die Schule besuchen oder zum Arzt gehen können. Und diese krassen Unterschiede innerhalb der Länder kann man nur durch geduldige Reformen und nicht durch Ideologie beseitigen.

Insofern ist auch unser Afghanistaneinsatz gescheitert. Er war nämlich getragen von der Idee, Jahrtausende in einem einzigen Sprung überwinden zu können. Das ist nicht möglich. Das war in Europa nicht möglich, und das ist am Hindukusch erst recht nicht möglich. Wir müssen uns wieder daran gewöhnen, dass diese Länder ihre eigene Entwicklung haben, dass sie Geduld und nachhaltige Unterstützung brauchen und dass wir nicht per Armeeeinsatz oder auf Knopfdruck die Gesellschaften von Grund auf verändern können.

 
  
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  Joanna Senyszyn, w imieniu grupy S&D. – Panie Przewodniczący! Według Agencji Reutera Afganistan plasuje się na pierwszym miejscu w świecie w rankingu łamania praw kobiet. Trzecie miejsce na tej liście hańby zajmuje Pakistan. Istnieje tam religijne i kulturowe przyzwolenie na oblewanie kobiet kwasem, kamienowanie, zabójstwa honorowe. Przyczyną jest brak neutralności światopoglądowej państw. Na sytuację kobiet decydujący wpływ ma panująca religia, która pozbawia kobiety dużej części praw człowieka.

Połowa kobiet odsiadujących w Afganistanie kary więzienia została skazana za tak zwane przestępstwa moralności, jak cudzołóstwo, porzucenie męża czy ucieczka z domu. 90% afgańskich kobiet doświadczyło bicia, gwałtu, psychicznego nękania, zmuszania do małżeństwa wbrew woli. Pomimo interwencji sił NATO sytuacja kobiet w Afganistanie nie poprawiła się, a raczej pogorszyła. Prawa uchwalane w celu ich ochrony wywołują jeszcze większą agresję ze strony mężczyzn. Musimy się temu stanowczo przeciwstawić.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, au nom du groupe GUE/NGL. – Monsieur le Président, nous allons une fois de plus nous indigner sur la situation en Afghanistan et au Pakistan, et notamment sur la situation des droits des femmes, dont acte.

Cela a déjà été dit, ces pays sont les malheureux champions des violations des droits des femmes: espérance de vie, viols, assassinats, crimes d'honneur. La liste est longue et bon nombre de mes collègues ont déjà donné des exemples. Je ne crois pas que la présence des forces militaires en Afghanistan ait apporté quoi que ce soit aux femmes afghanes, ni que le retrait de ces forces aggravera quoi que ce soit.

Cependant, nous devons faire pression sur ces pays pour que les choses évoluent, et pas seulement du point de vue juridique. Nous avons des accords de partenariat avec ces pays, alors utilisons-les à bon escient, dans l'intérêt des populations civiles, dans l'intérêt des droits de l'homme, dans l'intérêt de la démocratie.

Tirons les leçons des erreurs du passé, notamment au Maghreb! Faisons vivre les clauses "démocratie et droits de l'homme", et nous nous en porterons tous mieux.

 
  
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  Jaroslav Paška, za skupinu EFD. – Postavenie žien v islamských krajinách je komplikované pretrvávajúcimi náboženskými zvykmi a tradíciami.

Najmä v odľahlejších regiónoch a oblastiach ovládaných radikálnymi náboženskými politickými skupinami sa brutálne zvyky zo stredoveku naďalej používajú. Preto je úsilie Európskej únie o zmenu myslenia obyvateľstva týchto krajín smerom k humánnejšiemu a kultivovanejšiemu súžitiu nesmierne dôležité. Aktivity Únie na podporu útulkov pre ženy, ktoré sa potrebujú ochrániť pred domácim násilím, či ponižovaním v rodine, ale aj na verejnosti, sú nesmierne dôležité. Popri poskytovaní reálnej humanitárnej pomoci ženám a dievčatám v teréne musíme však vyvíjať aj trvalý tlak na štátne autority, aby využívali celý svoj vplyv v spoločnosti na potlačenie týchto divokých praktík voči ženám a dievčatám. Štátne autority musia byť nositeľmi civilizovaného a humánneho súžitia spoločnosti a rozhodujúcim spôsobom bojovať proti obludnosti zvykov z minulosti.

 
  
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  Eija-Riitta Korhola (PPE). - Arvoisa puhemies, naisiin kohdistuvan fyysisen ja psyykkisen väkivallan laajuutta ja julmuutta Pakistanissa ja Afganistanissa on vaikea ymmärtää, ellei muista, että laki on sekoitus maallista ja islamilaiseksi määriteltyä oikeutta. Lopputuloksen irrationaalisuus syntyy sharialain tulkinnoista. Niinpä esimerkiksi raiskatuksi tuleminen on naisen aviorikos, jonka häpeä koituu naisen miespuolisille sukulaisille. Tällainen tulkinta on häpeäksi islamille. Se on elämän, ihmisyyden ja ihmisoikeudenmukaisuuden vastaista.

Molemmissa maissa kehitys on kuitenkin kaksihaarainen: pieni, mutta kasvava osa naisista vaikuttaa yhteiskunnan huipulla, kun taas maaseudulla naiset elävät äärimmäisessä köyhyydessä. Naisen on esimerkiksi helpompi perustaa oma design-liike kaupungissa kuin myydä vihanneksia maaseudulla.

Myönteistä on toki, että naisten asema on joillain kriteereillä parantunut, mutta kestävää muutosta on mahdotonta saada aikaiseksi niin, että eri alueilla ja eri yhteiskuntaluokissa pätevät eri säännöt. Nyt olisi tärkeää keskittyä naisten ongelmiin myös maaseudulla, sillä ihmisoikeuksien parantuminen ainoastaan tilastojen valossa ei vastaa todellista ihmisoikeuksien parantumista.

 
  
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  Corina Creţu (S&D). - Într-adevăr, aşa cum au spus colegii mei, în Afganistan au avut loc unele îmbunătăţiri, dar mi se pare revoltător că situaţia femeilor din Afganistan este încă aproape neschimbată la 10 ani de la semnarea Acordului de la Bonn privind crearea guvernului de tranziţie sub preşedinţia lui Hamid Karzai.

Sunt profund îngrijorătoare cotele ridicate ale mortalităţii la naştere şi infantile, marginalizarea femeii în societate, existenţa în unele regiuni ale tribunalelor fundamentaliste şi atacurile armate frecvente împotriva fetelor şi femeilor care frecventează şcoli sau încearcă să participe la viaţa publică.

În ciuda progreselor în privinţa reprezentării lor în Parlament şi administraţie, femeile afgane rămân, totodată, victimele violenţei domestice, a traficului şi căsătoriilor forţate, a lipsei de asistenţă medicală şi a discriminării poliţieneşti şi judiciare. Explozia de sâmbătă noaptea de la Şcoala de fete din Pakistan este elocventă pentru condiţia femeilor din această ţară cu care Uniunea Europeană încearcă să dezvolte un parteneriat dar care riscă să fie subminat de încălcarea brutală a drepturilor omului.

Mă alătur şi eu apelului adresat autorităţilor afgane şi pakistaneze.

 
  
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  Róża Gräfin von Thun und Hohenstein (PPE). - Mr President, at the beginning of December the international community met with Afghani authorities at the Bonn II conference. Afghanistan made a commitment to include the upholding of human rights commitments in its constitution, including equality between men and women, which is to be welcomed and supported by the European Union.

Looking ahead to 2014 when the allied forces withdraw from Afghanistan and Afghanistan has full independence to run its own affairs, it is imperative that progress is not undone. The peace dialogue at present underway between the government and elements of the Taliban should in no way result in a deterioration of the rights acquired by women, and we as the EU should give support in this matter.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, (S&D). – Mr President, I will never forget the self-burned women whom I visited in Herat in 2008 and the tales I heard of the women who filled the jails of Afghanistan, escaping oppressive families and a police and judicial system that badly discriminates against them.

I have no doubt that much has improved since the liberation from the rule of the Taliban, but I know that we are facing tremendous risks with the negotiations with the Taliban. It is imperative that the EU demands that women be at the negotiating table and demands that the Afghani authorities be held accountable for Afghanistan’s international obligations.

There is a vibrant society in Pakistan, but it is not enough to have a woman in a position of power, namely as Foreign Minister. It is incredible and outrageous that discriminatory uncivilised laws prevail against women, from Hudood, to marriage laws, blasphemy and so on. It is imperative, as we have requested in this resolution, that we demand accountability for the human rights clause that is inserted in the EU-Pakistan cooperation agreement.

 
  
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  Rui Tavares (Verts/ALE). - Senhor Presidente, o Afeganistão e o Paquistão são daqueles casos em que se juntam as piores tendências da geopolítica internacional, da política de grandes impérios, de grandes poderes, com as piores tendências locais. E depois, quando estes países cessam de servir o seu propósito temporário para a grande política internacional, deixa-se estes países caírem e, depois, voltam ao de cima as piores tendências tribais, atávicas destes países.

Assim aconteceu no Afeganistão. No Afeganistão, os Estados Unidos descobriram agora, aqui há alguns anos, que não há solução militar para o Afeganistão. Claro que não há solução militar para o Afeganistão. Há décadas- senão séculos ou milénios- que sabemos que não há solução militar para o Afeganistão. No entanto, estão a preparar-se para fazer um governo de transição, incluindo os talibãs, que vai fazer retroceder, em muito, todo o tipo de práticas, no caso anti-femininas, que já são tradicionais neste país, como a prática do baad, da venda de mulheres, ou das violações colectivas para limpeza de honra de determinadas famílias.

Sim, votemos a favor destas resoluções, mas exijamos à União Europeia que esteja em cima destes acontecimentos, nomeadamente quando aplica os seus acordos com estes países.

 
  
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  Mitro Repo (S&D). - Arvoisa puhemies, naisten tilanne Pakistanissa ja Afganistanissa on todella hälyttävä ja äärimmäisen vakava. On kulunut jo kymmenen vuotta Petersbergin konferenssista Bonnissa, jolloin kansainvälinen yhteisö aloitti Afganistanin demokraattisen tulevaisuuden rakentamisen.

Raiskaukset, väärinkäytökset, naisten salakuljetus, lasten pakkoavioliitot ja kotiväkivalta ovat lähes jokaisen naisen kohtalo Afganistanissa. Silti ne johtavat harvoin toimenpiteisiin poliisin ja oikeusviranomaisten taholta.

Talebanin poistuttua afgaaninaiset ovat tosin saaneet perustuslaillisia yhteiskunnallisia oikeuksia ja pääsyn koulutukseen, mutta syrjintää kuitenkin esiintyy yhä pääsyssä perussairaanhoitoon ja kulttuurielämään yleisesti. Naisten tulee saada osallistua aktiivisesti demokraattisen, turvallisen ja avoimen yhteiskunnan rakentamiseen. Afganistan ei voi olla huomioimatta naisia, jotka muodostavat yli puolet koko maan väestöstä. Valitettavasti tilanne on Pakistanissa yhtä huono.

 
  
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  Joaquín Almunia, Vice-President of the Commission. − Mr President, I would like to first of all address the Afghanistan issue. On the occasion of the recent Bonn Conference, the EU, together with the international community, highlighted again the importance it attaches to upholding the rights of women. Vice-President Ashton, together with Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, met a group of Afghan women at the beginning of the Conference. They are a real inspiration to all of us.

While the EU supports an Afghan-led reconciliation process, it remains particularly important to safeguard and expand on the progress Afghanistan has made in the field of human rights, and rights of women in particular, since 2001.

The situation of Afghan women in this society often remains precarious. The EU brings up the issue directly with the government of Afghanistan whenever appropriate and makes its position clear through public statements – for instance the statement on women’s shelters in Afghanistan of February 2011. It has also reconfirmed its position in the Council conclusions of last July and again in November.

Increased access to justice and legal aid services for women affected by family violence is a very important element of the EU’s assistance, while progress across the board will depend on broader reforms of Afghanistan’s justice institutions. The EU is closely involved in this sector and supports Afghan efforts in this respect in the context of the Kabul Process.

Regarding Pakistan, promotion of women’s rights is a priority for the EU and Member States’ engagement with Pakistan. Although progress depends on action by the government of that country, the EU and Member States can exercise influence through engagement and dialogue with the authorities, by supporting measures which address women’s human rights and by assisting access to justice.

Among many human rights concerns faced by women in Pakistan, violence is one of the most serious issues to address. The EU consistently uses its political dialogue with Pakistan to raise issues relating to the rights of women. A long-term objective is to ensure effective implementation of the UN Convention for Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, of which Pakistan is a signatory.

In the short term the EU is supporting measures to ensure implementation of legislation in Pakistan to outlaw all forms of violence against women and ensure support for victims of violence.

 
  
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  Der Präsident. − Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet im Anschluss an die nächste Aussprache statt.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 149)

 
  
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  Monica Luisa Macovei (PPE), in writing. We say that women are among the most vulnerable people in Afghanistan and Pakistan. However, their vulnerability rests solely on the way society perceives and treats women. Vulnerability is a social construct, and what is made by people can by remade by people. Violence is a main factor that makes women vulnerable. In Afghanistan, on 12 November, a woman and her daughter were executed by stoning in Ghazni, Kandahar, an area where Sharia law is imposed. In Pakistan, Asia Bibi, a Christian woman, mother of five children is the first woman to be sentenced to death under the blasphemy laws. She is being held on death row, while an Islamic cleric offered a cash prize of about EUR 5000 for her killing. The government in the two countries must put an end to such abuses and ensure the protection of the life and integrity of all, including women. The EU must urge the authorities of Afghanistan and Pakistan to protect women’s rights. We must assist, including with funding, the political actors and civil society who struggle to bring democracy, human dignity, and basic human rights in their countries.

 
  
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  Anna Záborská (PPE), písomne. Zmluva o spolupráci, ktorú má EÚ s Pakistanom, hneď v článku 1 hovorí: „Rešpektovanie ľudských práv a demokratických princípov, tak ako sú stanovené vo Všeobecnej deklarácii ľudských práv (...), predstavuje podstatný prvok tejto Dohody.“ Preto som podporila predložené spoločné uznesenie, v ktorom Parlament žiada Komisiu a predovšetkým európsku diplomaciu, aby predložili podrobnú správu o tom, ako Pakistan dodržiava svoj záväzok. Je zrejmé, že porušovanie ľudských práv, predovšetkým žien a kresťanov, je v Pakistane na dennom poriadku. Nie je však celkom jasné, čo robí a čo by mohla robiť Komisia, ktorá je rovnako viazaná platnou dohodou. Diplomacia pozná mechanizmy, ktoré sa v takýchto prípadoch môžu uplatniť. Je na nás, aby sme dokázali, že ľudské práva sú pre Európanov dôležité nielen na papieri, ale aj v reálnom živote.

 
  

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