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Procédure : 2012/2273(INI)
Cycle de vie en séance
Cycle relatif au document : A7-0245/2013

Textes déposés :

A7-0245/2013

Débats :

PV 07/10/2013 - 19
CRE 07/10/2013 - 19

Votes :

PV 08/10/2013 - 9.10

Textes adoptés :

P7_TA(2013)0400

Débats
Lundi 7 octobre 2013 - Strasbourg Edition révisée

19. Généricide: les femmes manquantes? (brève présentation)
Vidéo des interventions
PV
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  Elnök. − A következő pont Papadopoulou Antigoni „Gendercídium: a hiányzó nők?” című jelentésének rövid ismertetése [2012/2273(INI)] (A7-0245/2013).

 
  
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  Antigoni Papadopoulou, rapporteur. − Mr President, first of all I would like to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to the shadow rapporteurs and colleagues of all political parties for their valuable contribution to the drafting of this report. I am sorry that a full debate has not been scheduled for such a sensitive issue which is being addressed by this Parliament for the first time.

Gendercide refers to the systematic, deliberate and gender-based mass killing of people belonging to a particular sex. This is a rising but under-reported problem in several countries. Recent estimates of the distorted sex ratios between men and women have raised the number of women missing from the world’s population to approximately 200 million. These missing women are victims either of sex selection during pregnancy through prenatal sex detection and selective abortion, or of infanticide or child neglect following birth.

Gendercide is a global issue, not confined to Asia and Europe but also observed in North America, Africa and Latin America. The report specifically explores the causes, current trends and consequences of gendercide and suggests ways of combating the gender-biased sex selection practices.

Gendercide is the result of a deeply entrenched ‘son preference’, rooted in cultural and economic perceptions and accentuated by declining fertility and pressures to have smaller families. A culture of persistent son preference intensifies persisting gender inequalities and stereotypes against women, preventing them from fully enjoying equal treatment in employment and educational opportunities in many countries. Sex-selective practices disrupt the gender balance in societies, leading to a male-dominant population and consequently to skewed population sex ratios which have far-reaching economic and social impact.

The aim of this report is to combat gendercide by addressing and uprooting effectively all root causes leading to son-preference cultures. Such prevention presupposes major commitment as well as sustained and concerted efforts by the Commission, by the national governments of countries experiencing such phenomena, by civil society, international agencies and other stakeholders.

Some of the measures proposed for urgent implementation are as follows: first, to collect reliable statistical data on sex ratio at birth, child mortality and recognised sex-selective practices at micro, sub-national and national level. Second, to introduce and strengthen guidelines to provide specialised training for medical staff to prevent sex-selective practices, to introduce supportive measures for girls and women, and to improve their access to education, healthcare and work without spousal authorisation, thus promoting an educational and social environment of equal opportunity.

States should also develop and promote appropriate legislation and policy frameworks to address the root causes of inequalities that drive sex selection. As well as other areas relevant to inheritance laws, dowries, financial and social protection, we also ask the Commission to support advocacy and awareness-raising activities to stimulate debate within social networks.

I would like to point out that there are some amendments which want to ban all abortions. This is beyond the scope of this report on gendercide. I kindly ask my colleagues tomorrow to vote in favour of the report, because gendercide is both a crime and a severe violation of human rights and we should make every possible effort in order to eliminate its root causes and to stop this crime of gendercide.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye” eljárás

 
  
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  Mairead McGuinness (PPE). - Mr President, we are here to bear witness to your words, that this is a really important report. There probably should be a full debate, but at least we are here and it is on the table. I would like to thank my colleague Gay Mitchell, who really has worked hard to put this on the agenda.

There are parts of this report that I cannot support, but I will support the overall theme of the report, which is to highlight this issue of 200 million missing women and to look at how this can be prevented. There is a real issue, first around awareness and then around action. It is not just a problem in some countries, it is a global issue.

So I would like to complement the work that has been done on this across the political groups. Perhaps it will begin a really serious debate about life and death: children that are allowed to survive, and abortion. I would add that if gendercide is a crime, the abortion of children, male or female, is a problem which we really have to address; but this is a very welcome report.

 
  
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  Edite Estrela (S&D). - Senhor Presidente, o generocídio é um grave problema que deve ser combatido. A preferência por filhos do género masculino em alguns países, e que é justificada por razões culturais e económicas, acaba por resultar num crime.

As consequências disso estão à vista. Os homens têm dificuldade em arranjar parceiras, o que conduz a casamentos forçados, à prostituição e ao tráfico de mulheres.

É necessário criminalizar a prática de abortos forçados e cirurgias destinadas a interromper a gravidez sem o consentimento prévio e informado da mulher.

A União Europeia deve incluir o tema do generocídio na agenda do diálogo político com os países terceiros.

 
  
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  Angelika Werthmann (ALDE). - Herr Präsident! Genderzid ist ein geschlechtsneutraler Begriff. Er bezeichnet die vorsätzliche Tötung von Menschen eines Geschlechts eben aufgrund ihres Geschlechts. Es ist ein globales Problem. Es gibt Genderzid buchstäblich überall, auch in Europa.

Genderzid hat auch zur Folge, so wie es die Kollegin schon gesagt hat, dass 200 Millionen Frauen in der Weltbevölkerung fehlen. Mädchen werden schonungslos diskriminiert, zum Beispiel in puncto Vorabbestimmung des Geschlechts. Einen der Hauptgründe sehe ich in der teilweise kulturell tief verwurzelten Präferenz für Söhne.

Es reicht also demnach nicht aus, von Gleichbehandlung von Mädchen und Jungen zu sprechen, es ist dringend an der Zeit, diese Gleichbehandlung auch einzufordern und sie in der Folge natürlich zu leben. Unterschiede in den Bildungschancen aufgrund des Geschlechts sind inakzeptabel. Ich halte Bildung für den wirklich wichtigsten Baustein, um eben Gleichwertigkeit zu stärken und das Bewusstsein für die Gleichberechtigung zu schärfen. Dass dies global gelten muss, ist selbstredend.

 
  
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  Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid (PPE). - Monsieur le Président, je voudrais remercier Mme Papadopoulou pour son initiative.

L'égalité hommes-femmes est un des principes fondamentaux de l'Union européenne, et ce dans tous les pans de la société. Ce principe, nous devons le défendre en Europe, et bien au-delà de nos frontières, à travers toutes les politiques de développement et de défense des droits fondamentaux.

Dans ce rapport, c'est de l'existence même des femmes qu'il s'agit avec le concept de généricide. Nous parlons là du simple droit à naître dans un certain nombre de pays où les usages considèrent le fait de naître fille comme un fardeau, usages qui peuvent mener à des extrémités inconcevables, des avortements forcés et jusqu'à des infanticides.

Nous avons les outils et les moyens d'encourager la mise en place de mesures incitatives, de prévention, de programmes d'information et de soutien aux femmes. Mais nous avons aussi un devoir d'influence pour que les États concernés mettent en place des législations contraignantes assorties de sanctions pénales afin de mettre fin à ces pratiques et de rendre aux femmes la considération sociale à laquelle elles ont droit autant que les hommes.

 
  
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  Inês Cristina Zuber (GUE/NGL). - O generocídio que afeta, como sabemos, sobretudo as mulheres, é um problema em regra associado a sociedades desiguais, a países excluídos dos centros do capitalismo mundial, nos quais muitas comunidades enfrentam duras condições de vida. É óbvio que não se deve desculpar o agressor, este é responsável pelos seus crimes hediondos. Mas quais são as causas profundas que levam famílias a considerarem que um filho deve nascer por ser útil para o trabalho? Que nível civilizacional é o que atingimos onde ainda é possível que se pense assim? Vivemos num mundo toldado por desigualdades imensas, desigualdades essas para as quais a União Europeia, através da sua política económica, dos inúmeros acordos de livre comércio, da sua vertente militarista, muito tem contribuído.

Uma segunda questão: não há combate ao generocídio sem a garantia da opção da mulher, sem a garantia de que os serviços públicos disponibilizam toda a informação e acompanhamento, sem a garantia da sua liberdade económica. A dita democracia que a União realiza na prática é o oposto destas garantias.

 
  
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  Dubravka Šuica (PPE). – Već činjenica da se na ovu temu dosada javilo sedam žena, a nijedan muškarac, nešto govori. Dakle, ovo je prevažno izvješće da bismo o njemu govorili samo na institutu „catch the eye”. Smatram da se ovdje radi o teškom kršenju ljudskih prava. Selektivni prekidi trudnoće su neprihvatljivi, treba ih zabraniti i treba razmotriti kakva ljudska prava se ovdje krše. Zapravo se radi o zločinu. Ovo je globalna tema koja se ne odnosi samo na Afriku, Aziju, nego je ima i u Sjevernoj Americi i u Južnoj Americi i, naravno, u Europi. Prevažno je pitanje, a glavni razlog je fenomen koji je duboko ukorijenjen u nekim tradicionalnim obiteljima, a to je da se iz kulturoloških i ekonomskih razloga ima percepcija da su sinovi oslonci obitelji. Frapantne su brojke da je normalna stopa 106 muškaraca na 102 žene, ali u Kini na 113 muškaraca 100 djevojčica. Mislim da taj podatak dovoljno govori i očekujem širu raspravu o ovoj temi.

 
  
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  Miroslav Mikolášik (PPE). - Gendericída, alebo úmyselné zabíjanie osôb príslušiacich k určitému pohlaviu, je nanajvýš odsúdeniahodným zločinom a mimoriadne vážnym problémom nielen v Ázii, Afrike a Amerike, ale aj u nás v Európe. Súčasné trendy prerušovania tehotenstva a masového zabíjania novorodencov príslušiacich k ženskému pohlaviu považujem za jeden z najvážnejších prejavov neúcty k ľudskému životu a za absolútne porušenie základných práv človeka. Opätovne na pôde tohto Parlamentu zdôrazňujem, že ľudský život musíme ako spoločnosť chrániť od jeho samotného počiatku, a to nezávisle od príslušnosti k určitému pohlaviu. Ako zákonodarci máme morálnu povinnosť prijímať jednoznačnú legislatívu, ktorá odsudzuje akékoľvek formy zabíjania ľudskej bytosti, či už po narodení alebo aj pred narodením. Existuje totiž len veľmi nenápadná, diskutabilná ba až absurdná právna hranica medzi tým, čo život je, a tým, za čo život už nie je považovaný.

 
  
 

A „catch the eye” eljárás vége

 
  
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  Maria Damanaki, Member of the Commission. − Violence against women is a structural and widespread problem. In this respect, we welcome very much the report from Mrs Papadopoulou and we also welcome the debate we are having here today. I would like to underline that today is only four days before the International Day of the Girl Child, so I think that this discussion is very timely.

The European Union strongly condemns all forms of violence against women. Neither custom, tradition, culture, privacy nor religion can be invoked to justify violence. In June 2012, the Foreign Affairs Council adopted the new strategic framework induction plan on human rights and democracy, in which concrete actions are envisaged to support initiatives against gender-based violence and feminicide and to promote and protect children’s rights.

The European Union continues to work on implementing its own guidelines on combating violence and discrimination against women and girls and the EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality, through its delegations and the embassies of the EU Member States around the world. The guidelines of the Plan of Action establish a basis for the systematic inclusion of gender equality, for including gendercide in the EU political dialogue with partner countries, and for the involvement of women’s organisations.

In addition, almost all the human rights counter-strategies prepared by the EU delegations prioritise the issue of children and women. Specifically in relation to children’s rights and EU guidelines, the Commission communication ‘A Special Place for Children in EU External Action’ and the European Union’s Action Plan on children’s rights support the development of an integrated approach to advance children’s rights at international level.

The EU mainstreams gender issues in all its programmes and trains its diplomats, as well as the personnel for our common defence and external policies and our missions and operations, on how to take into account women’s and children’s issues in their postings in third countries.

As a concrete example of EU-financed projects, I would like to underline a EUR 1 million project that will be launched this year with UN Women on feminicide in Mexico. Another call for proposals has been published recently to raise awareness on girl-child infanticide.

In the framework of Rio+20, in the post-2015 development agenda, gender equality and empowerment are an integral and important part of the Millennium Development Goals. The EU is fully committed to playing an active role in this work, to define the post-2015 framework and to work inclusively with all countries and partners. During the 2013 European Development Days we will also dedicate a special panel to gender in the context of the post-2015 framework.

 
  
  

PRESIDENZA DELL'ON. GIANNI PITTELLA
Vicepresidente

 
  
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  Presidente. − La discussione è chiusa.

La votazione si svolgerà domani, martedì 8 ottobre 2013, alle 12.00.

Dichiarazioni scritte (articolo 149)

 
  
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  Zita Gurmai (S&D), in writing. Let me congratulate the rapporteur on her work on a difficult and sensitive issue. We know that gendercide is very deeply rooted in several countries, for socio-economic reasons. Fighting gendercide and sex-selection therefore requires a huge improvement in awareness-raising campaigns and education programmes. It also calls for a genuine political will that translates into legal frameworks and concrete incentives. I fully agree with the report when it emphasises that the fight against sex-selection can only be comprehended in a broader perspective of womenʼs empowerment that ensures the equality of women and men before the law: from equal access to education to inheritance rights and equal pay. It is only by combining these different aspects, educational, economic and legal, that we will be able to fight gendercide effectively. Finally I would like to insist on the fact that access to reproductive health services should not and cannot be limited on the grounds of sex-selection and gendercide. On the contrary, this calls for more responsible use of such services through better training and education. But limiting its access would only further endanger the lives of millions of women.

 
  
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  Joanna Katarzyna Skrzydlewska (PPE), na piśmie. Każdy przypadek łamania praw człowieka zasługuje na jednoznaczny sprzeciw Parlamentu Europejskiego. Na tej sali wielokrotnie dawaliśmy wyraz temu, że nie zgadzamy się na różne formy dyskryminacji. Tym bardziej stanowczego sprzeciwu wymaga problem stosowania ludobójstwa i przerywania ciąży ze względu na płeć dziecka. Niestety z informacji, które często do nas dochodzą, wynika, że zabójstwa dziewczynek z powodu płci traktowane są w niektórych społeczeństwach jako sposób pozbycia się gorszego dziecka, które w przyszłości będzie stanowiło większe ekonomiczne obciążenie dla rodziny z powodu konieczności zapewnienia córce posagu. Wszystkie te przypadki są skrajnymi przykładami braku równego traktowania płci i to w najbardziej podstawowym, ludzkim wymiarze.

Selekcja ze względu na płeć dziecka zasługuje na kategoryczne i zdecydowane potępienie. Dlatego musimy dążyć do zmiany mentalności tych społeczeństw, w których dochodzi do jej stosowania ze względów kulturowych, ekonomicznych czy jakichkolwiek innych. Ten obowiązek ciąży na wszystkich instytucjach Unii. Zatem gorąco apeluję do Komisji, by w relacjach z państwami partnerskimi promowała działania służące zwalczaniu selekcji ze względu na płeć dziecka jako procederu godzącego w podstawowe prawa człowieka.

 
Dernière mise à jour: 5 décembre 2013Avis juridique