Index 
 Previous 
 Next 
 Full text 
Procedure : 2011/0310(COD)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A7-0236/2014

Texts tabled :

A7-0236/2014

Debates :

PV 03/04/2014 - 6
CRE 03/04/2014 - 6

Votes :

PV 03/04/2014 - 7.1

Texts adopted :

P7_TA(2014)0277

Debates
Thursday, 3 April 2014 - Brussels Revised edition

6. Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items (debate)
Video of the speeches
PV
MPphoto
 

  El Presidente. - El punto siguiente en el orden del día es el debate sobre la recomendación para la segunda lectura, de la Comisión de Comercio Internacional, respecto de la Posición del Consejo en primera lectura con vistas a la adopción del Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo que modifica el Reglamento (CE) nº 428/2009 del Consejo por el que se establece un régimen comunitario de control de las exportaciones, la transferencia, el corretaje y el tránsito de productos de doble uso (18086/1/2013 - C7-0093/2014 - 2011/0310(COD)) (Ponente: Christofer Fjellner) (A7-0236/2014).

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christofer Fjellner, föredragande. - Herr talman! Det här är ytterligare ett sådant där ärende i Europaparlamentet med ett långt och komplicerat namn: Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items (Gemenskapsordning för kontroll av export, överföring, förmedling och transitering av produkter med dubbla användningsområden). Det är nog få som egentligen förstår vad det här innebär utanför det här rummet.

Men det är viktigt, för det handlar om vilka typer av produkter man ska få exportera och under vilka omständigheter, och det handlar om sådana typer av produkter som kan användas för civila ändamål för att hjälpa människor men som också kan användas för militära ändamål och skapa skada.

Är det någonting jag har lärt mig under den här processen och som vi har tagit fasta på, så är det behovet av mer gemensamt agerande i den Europeiska unionen. Krisen i Ukraina och de komplicerade relationer vi har fått med Ryssland är ett bra exempel på behovet av att kunna agera snabbt och gemensamt. Vi exporterar många produkter till Ryssland, inte minst produkter som kan användas både i fredligt syfte och i militärt syfte.

En annan stor utmaning inom det här området är självklart alla de nya produkter som kan användas civilt men också militärt. Det finns väldigt många nya tekniker som kan koppla upp slutna länder och öppna upp dem för omvärlden, vilket är bra för demokrati, mänskliga rättigheter och fred, men som samtidigt kan användas för övervakning eller för att förtrycka människor. Även den typen av produkter bör omfattas av den här typen av lagstiftning.

Här har vi många substantiella problem och utmaningar som kräver uppdatering av lagstiftning, och kommissionen har lovat att vi ska se över hela lagstiftningen om dessa produkter med dubbla användningsområden.

Just det här ärendet är egentligen ett praktiskt ärende och ett ganska komplicerat tekniskt ärende som från början handlade om hur vi ska anpassa vår lagstiftning till Europaparlamentets medbeslutande, så att vi här i kammaren också ska få ha ett ord med i laget om hur vi ska sälja och exportera den här typen av produkter.

Dessutom har vi försökt se till att det går snabbare, någonting som krisen i Ukraina visar att vi behöver.

Som föredragande för detta ärende har jag tyckt att utmaningen varit det faktum att vi i Europaparlamentet inte nöjer oss med att få höra att det kommer uppdateringar senare och att man snart ska ta tag i alla problem. Vi är otåliga och ville att alla uppdateringar och moderniseringen av regelverket skulle ske så snart som möjligt, och där fastnade vi tyvärr ganska länge i en konflikt om huruvida detta skulle vara ett tekniskt ärende och bara en anpassning till Lissabonfördraget eller om vi skulle försöka göra alla nödvändiga uppdateringar så snart som möjligt.

Jag är dock glad att kunna konstatera att vi med god vilja hittade en kompromiss och en väg framåt, och att vi lyckades hitta ett sätt att med ett gemensamt uttalande från kommissionen, ministerrådet och Europaparlamentet göra utfästelser om att så snart som möjligt göra uppdateringarna, och att vi också har pekat på vilka uppdateringar vi tror behöver göras.

För det viktiga är trots allt att vi i Europaparlamentet får ett ord med i laget. Det är viktigt att det här går snabbt, men det viktigaste av allt är att vi ser över lagstiftningen.

Inför den processen vill jag skicka en tydlig signal till kommissionen: Jag tror att kommissionen bör vara djärv och se till att vi får mer harmonisering. Jag tycker det är olyckligt när olika länder i Europa väljer olika vägar och att olika länder har olika mycket tolerans för att exportera sådant som kan vara vapen till länder som kanske inte bör få det.

Men jag vill tacka alla inblandade, skuggföredragandena, kommissionen, Karel De Grucht och även ordförandeskapet för deras hårda arbete med att se till att den här kompromissen kom till stånd.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Karel De Gucht, Member of the Commission. - Mr President, first of all I wish to thank the rapporteur, Mr Fjellner, for his constructive approach to this proposal and all the efforts deployed to find an agreement on these substantive and complex issues. It is indeed important that this file is concluded before the end of this legislature. As you will know, adoption of this legislative proposal is all the more urgent for economic reasons, as companies across Europe have called on the EU to ensure rapid updates to our control lists so as to ensure a level playing field with companies from other third countries.

Before the Lisbon Treaty, a different decision-making procedure was used, with the result that updates were available earlier. However, the result of this rather long exchange is a wealth of ideas about how we can adjust the wider EU policy on dual-use goods. Updating the list is also important to ensure that export controls focus on the most sensitive items and continue to contribute effectively to international security as well as to the EU’s security. As technology improves, particularly in the military domain, we can afford to desensitise carefully identified goods to ease their trade across borders.

I am conscious that during this legislative procedure the honourable Members have tabled various amendments that touch on the important issues pertaining to the overall EU export control system, its effectiveness, its contribution to our competitiveness and our security, as well as the global protection of fundamental rights. I am therefore particularly satisfied that extensive discussions took place between the three institutions and that an agreement could be found. I am confident that the ongoing review of the EU system will provide an opportunity to address these important issues.

In this respect I am happy to inform you that a Commission Communication will be adopted shortly, before the end of the month of April. The Communication will set out options for addressing the various issues raised by this Parliament and by other stakeholders in order to modernise the export control system and strike the right balance between security and competitiveness. We must be able to respond to new challenges, such as the export of cyber tools and Internet surveillance systems that could be used in violation of human rights.

The forthcoming legislature should expect to provide a political appreciation of the future of EU export controls policy very soon after July and this will probably be one of the few cases where, for understandable policy reasons, we control exports rather than keeping the markets open. Goods with sometimes life-saving civilian applications, as in health research, must not threaten human lives if used instead and inappropriately for military purposes. I am therefore confident that this file will keep our respective institutions very politically engaged.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jörg Leichtfried, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Ich glaube nicht, dass ich zur Volkspartei gehöre, sondern zur der anderen Seite, aber das macht in dem Fall nichts.

Mr President, maybe the order will change after the next elections, so we will see then.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  President. - Mr Leichtfried, because the PPE Group is not on the list, you were first. Normally the PPE is first, and that was the reason for my confusion. For the Socialists and Democrats, you have two minutes.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Jörg Leichtfried, im Namen der S&D-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident, Herr Kommissar, Herr Berichterstatter! Die Frage der Güter mit doppeltem Verwendungszweck ist hier eine sehr interessante und auch eine durchaus unterschätzte.

Man kann sich am Anfang, wenn man sich damit befasst, wenig vorstellen. Aber es geht im Wesentlichen darum, dass Zivilgüter, die exportiert werden, auch Güter sein können, die nicht für zivile Dinge verwendet werden, sondern am Ende als Waffen verwendet werden können.

Hier haben wir jetzt die Situation, dass es in Europa verschiedene Exportregime gibt. Manche Mitgliedstaaten handhaben das sehr liberal, andere weniger liberal, und die, die weniger Acht geben, haben natürlich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil. Deshalb ist es wichtig, und da stimme ich mit dem Berichterstatter und auch dem Kommissar selbstverständlich überein, dass wir auf Dauer eine europäische Regelung für die Ausführung von Gütern mitbenötigen.

Das was wir jetzt gemacht haben, nämlich die Listen zu aktualisieren, war ein Schritt in die richtige Richtung, aber es muss am Ende doch eine ganz neue Verordnung geben – ich weiß, dass die Kommission schon daran arbeitet, und das ist gut so – die insbesondere zwei Dinge unbedingt berücksichtigt: Es macht keinen Sinn, die Kontrollen erst nach dem Export stattfinden zu lassen – nein, sie müssen vorher stattfinden. Das ist Punkt[nbsp ]1, der mir wichtig wäre. Punkt[nbsp ]2: Wir müssen unbedingt darauf achten, dass mit Informationstechnologie, mit Cyber-Security-Sachen ganz vorsichtig umgegangen wird.

Es war schon so, dass deutsche Leopard-II-Panzer exportiert wurden – die haben gewissermaßen noch niemanden umgebracht. Aber deutsche Informationstechnologie, die exportiert wurde, hat schon Menschen umgebracht, das ist sehr, sehr gefährlich und darauf müssen wir beim nächsten Mal Acht geben.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Niccolò Rinaldi, a nome del gruppo ALDE. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, signor Commissario, questi prodotti a duplice uso sono per molti aspetti un vero problema. Sono la nuova frontiera del controllo delle armi, non essendo armi ma che facilmente diventarlo. Un mercato che è complesso e che tra l'altro si sposta continuamente perché tecnologicamente in costante evoluzione. Basti pensare all'aspetto – che come Alleanza dei liberal-democratici per l'Europa consideriamo molto importante – delle energie cibernetiche di sorveglianza, suscettibili di finire nelle mani di regimi dispotici che potrebbero disporne per chiudere gli spazi di libera espressione sulla rete.

La modernizzazione delle nostre regole, che come è stato ricordato dal collega Leichtfried sono in realtà diverse anche a seconda degli Stati membri, è quindi indispensabile e aspettiamo con impazienza tanto la comunicazione della Commissione quanto poi la proposta legislativa, possibilmente entro l'anno senza aspettare il 2015. Non vediamo le ragioni politiche che possano giustificare l'attesa fino al 2015.

È importante quindi avere un'idea chiara lavorando soprattutto su tre aspetti: tolleranza zero e quindi proibizioni per quanto riguarda l'esportazione di prodotti che possono determinare attacchi cibernetici o chiusure di siti; un controllo ex ante anche per i prodotti a rischio minore qualora siano esportati verso paesi sensibili, paesi a rischio; e infine la possibilità di aggiornare facilmente le nostre disposizioni in sede di esecuzione, perché una volta che noi decidiamo qualche cosa possiamo essere sicuri che dittature o terroristi aggiornano rapidamente anche la loro capacità d'innovazione.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Paul Murphy, on behalf of the GUE/NGL Group. – Mr President, this report has quite a long and somewhat polarised history here. The right wing in Parliament, the Council and the Commission all tried to avoid comprehensively dealing with the question of human rights violations. We should have a target date today from the Commission for when the regulation will be updated.

The need for this has been underlined by developments over the past number of years. According to the International Federation for Human Rights, surveillance products and services have seen a big increase in the past few years and can have a dramatic impact on human rights. The market for these products has gone from around zero in 2001 to well over USD[nbsp ]5[nbsp ]billion. A recent report from Human Rights Watch details how surveillance products created by European companies are used to crack down on opposition activists in Ethiopia. We have a case of big business being willing to walk over dead bodies in order to maximise products.

Of course, those abuses do not just take place in so-called rogue states, but also in the heart of Western democracy – consider the NSA mass surveillance scandal. What we need is regulation change but, more than that, we need system change.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  George Sabin Cutaş (S&D). - Domnule președinte, domnule comisar, stimați colegi, în primul rând doresc să salut ajungerea la un acord pentru revizuirea Regulamentului privind sistemul de control al exporturilor de produse cu dublă utilizare.

Cred că o mai bună utilizare a produselor cu dublă utilizare este necesară, în condițiile în care acestea pot fi folosite atât în scopuri civile, cât și militare, existând riscul de proliferare a armelor de distrugere în masă. Astfel, regulamentul va permite eficientizarea schimbului de informații și a procesului de actualizare a listelor de control, precum și o mai bună evaluare a eventualelor riscuri.

Unul dintre aceste riscuri este supravegherea în masă a cetățenilor, o încălcare gravă a drepturilor omului și o subminare a securității întregii Uniuni. De aceea, recentele scandaluri cu privire la supravegherea în masă trebuie să constituie un semnal de alarmă pentru Uniunea Europeană și să conducă la o supraveghere mai strictă a exporturilor anumitor tehnologii ale informațiilor și comunicațiilor utilizate pentru supraveghere, monitorizare, localizare, urmărire și cenzurare.

 
  
 

«Intervenciones con arreglo al procedimiento de solicitud incidental de uso de la palabra («catch the eye»)»

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Franz Obermayr (NI). - Herr Präsident! Güter mit doppeltem Verwendungszweck sind Güter, die sowohl zivil als auch militärisch verwendet werden können. Ebenso umfassen sie Waren sowohl für nicht-explosive Zwecke als auch für die Herstellung von Kernwaffen. In diesem sensiblen Bereich ist ja die Ausfuhr in Drittstaaten durchaus genehmigungspflichtig. Bei der strategischen Ausfuhrkontrolle ist einerseits ein hohes Maß an Sicherheit und Transparenz wichtig, aber andererseits sollten auch der Handel und der Wettbewerb nicht unverhältnismäßig behindert werden. Zudem muss man sich auch die neuen geopolitischen Bedrohungen und die raschen Veränderungen der Technologie gut anschauen. Wir brauchen daher einerseits eine Aktualisierung der EU-Kontrolllisten und andererseits eine Verstärkung der Risikobewertung.

 
  
 

(Fin de las intervenciones con arreglo al procedimiento de solicitud incidental de uso de la palabra («catch the eye»))

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Karel De Gucht, Member of the Commission. - Mr President, I do not have much to add. Let me just confirm that we hope that by the end of this month we will come forward with a Communication, and then, of course, that Communication will be discussed with the next Parliament. The Commission will take initiatives on the basis of this debate, but that is, of course, also a matter for the next College.

 
  
  

Commission Statements

Report: Christofer Fjellner (A7-0236/2014)

Commission Statement on delegated acts

In the context of this Regulation, the Commission recalls the commitment it has taken in paragraph 15 of the Framework Agreement on relations between the European Parliament and the European Commission to provide to the Parliament full information and documentation on its meetings with national experts within the framework of its work on the preparation of delegated acts.

Commission Statement on plans for updating the Regulation

In order to ensure a more integrated, efficient and coherent European approach to the movement (exports, transfer, brokering and transit) of strategic items, the Commission will put forward a new proposal for updating the Regulation as expeditiously as possible.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  Christofer Fjellner, rapporteur. - Mr President, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Commissioner De Gucht, not only for the cooperation on this file, but also for the cooperation that I have had or rather – and I think I speak for the whole Parliament – that we have had with him during this mandate. Commissioner, this might be the last time, at least for me, that I personally have a debate with you in this respect. I know you like a good debate so it is therefore in one sense sad that we did not have more conflict than we had right now.

But I think that, honestly, you can be proud of what you have achieved. During times of crisis when we need free trade the most, the appetite for free trade tends to be the smallest, so to speak. People do not like free trade in times of crisis but even though we have had one of the biggest crises ever in Europe, you can take pride in actually having promoted free trade and advanced free trade both in Europe and the rest of the world. Therefore, when you leave office – in this capacity at least – you should remember the legacy you have left in promoting free trade, because I for one will also do so.

 
  
MPphoto
 

  President. - That was a good end to this debate for you, Commissioner!

Se cierra el debate.

La votación tendrá lugar hoy a las 11.30 horas.

Declaraciones por escrito (artículo 149 del Reglamento)

 
  
MPphoto
 
 

  Tunne Kelam (PPE), in writing. The EUʼs strategic export controls regime has been long outdated and could not keep up with changing world realities and especially with ever growing dual-use technology. This report provides a new strategic framework to ensure high-level security and adequate transparency, at the same time maintaining competitiveness.

New threats are emerging constantly; rapid technological changes pose growing challenges in keeping up and being able to build up corresponding resilience. We need to reduce distortions, to create urgently a common market for dual-use items (to ensure also a uniform level playing field for exporters). It is important that the EU provides a model for arms export control to third countries.

The EU also urgently needs to streamline the process for updating the control lists, to strengthen risk assessment and exchange of information, develop improved industry standards, and reduce disparities in implementation. We have to be able to track and trace arms export and ensure that ICT and especially dual-use items are not used to violate human rights and threaten EU security. This is especially acute in the situation where Russia is invading Ukraine using military technology sold to Russia by EU Member States.

 
  
  

(La sesión, suspendida a las 11.25 horas, se reanuda a las 11.30 horas)

 
  
  

ΠΡΟΕΔΡΙΑ: ΑΝΝΥ ΠΟΔΗΜΑΤΑ
Αντιπρόεδρος

 
Last updated: 16 May 2014Legal notice