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Procedure : 2013/0024(COD)
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Texts tabled :

A8-0154/2015

Debates :

PV 19/05/2015 - 13
CRE 19/05/2015 - 13

Votes :

PV 20/05/2015 - 10.5

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2015)0202

Debates
Tuesday, 19 May 2015 - Strasbourg Revised edition

13. Prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing - Information accompanying transfers of funds (debate)
PV
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  Elnök asszony. – A következő napirendi pont a Gazdasági és Monetáris Bizottság és az Állampolgári Jogi, Bel- és Igazságügyi Bizottság ajánlása második olvasatra: A pénzügyi rendszerek pénzmosás vagy terrorizmusfinanszírozás céljára való felhasználásának megelőzése (05933/4/2015 - C8-0109/2015 - 2013/0025(COD) (Előadó: Krišjānis Kariņš, Judith Sargentini (A8-0153/2015).

 
  
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  Krišjānis Kariņš, referents. Mēs šodien un rītdienas balsojumā noslēdzam procedūru, kas ir ilgusi gandrīz divus gadus. Proti, mēs esam izstrādājuši jauno pretnaudas atmazgāšanas likumdošanu.

Vispirms es gribētu izteikt paldies, protams, Sargentini kundzei, līdzziņotājai no LIBE komitejas, kolēģiem – ēnu ziņotājiem, Eiropas Komisijai, protams, un arī Itālijas prezidentūrai, ar kuru mums bija iespēja noslēgt gala vienošanos starp Parlamentu un Padomi.

Tad jautājums – ko mēs šajos divos gados esam izdarījuši?

Pirmkārt, no Eiropas Komisijas, kā zināms, nāca priekšlikums uzlabot pretnaudas atmazgāšanas likumdošanu, lai likums varētu turēties līdzi un pat priekšā noziedzīgajai pasaulei. No Eiropas Komisijas nāca vairāki vērtīgi priekšlikumi, kuri ir apstiprināti, proti, tagad tiks virzīta uz risku balstīta pieeja noziedznieku noķeršanai, teiksim, naudas pārskaitījumos, kur Eiropas Komisija spēlēs ļoti nozīmīgu lomu un palīdzēs arī bankām veikt savu darbu, uzzināt, kas tad viņu klienti īsti ir vai nav, un, protams, tiks izveidots tā saucamais melnais saraksts, kas palīdzēs tiesībsargājošām bankām utt. saprast, kuros gadījumos būtu jāveic padziļināta izpēte par potenciālajiem klientiem vai naudas pārskaitījumiem.

Bet mēs no Parlamenta puses arī esam ieviesuši jaunumu, kas beigās ir guvis atbalstu, un tas ir – kā papildus līdzekli cīņā pret naudas atmazgāšanu izveidot Eiropas Savienības mēroga patiesā labuma guvēju reģistru.

Kas ir šis reģistrs? Līdz šim mums visās dalībvalstīs ir uzņēmumu reģistrs, kas norāda uzņēmuma īpašnieku struktūru. Bet mēs zinām, ka īpašniekos var būt indivīdi un var būt firmas, sabiedrības, kur īpašnieks kārtēji var būt cita firma utt., un veidojas tā sauktās ofšorizētās ķēdes pat Eiropas Savienības iekšienē, un visbeidzot neviens nevar saprast, kurš tad beigās stāv aiz kura uzņēmuma. Tagad mūsu priekšlikums, kas ir atbalstīts jaunajā likumā, līdz ar uzņēmumu reģistriem izveidos prasību visās dalībvalstīs, ar visiem uzņēmumiem, atklāt patiesā labuma guvēju, tātad līdz indivīdam, kurš no tā gūst labumu.

Ko tas nozīmē? Tas nozīmē, ka šajā ofšorizācijas ķēdē, kas padara likumsargājošo darbu ļoti apgrūtinātu, mēs ieviesīsim atklātumu, ka beidzot varēs redzēt, kas stāv aiz kura uzņēmuma un vai tā nauda vai naudas pārskaitījumi ir vai nav likumīgi. Tas pat palīdzēs nodokļu iekasēšanas ziņā, jo šādas shēmas droši vien tiek izmantotas ne tikai tādēļ, lai atmazgātu noziedzīgi iegūtus līdzekļus, bet arī vienkārši tādēļ, lai rupji izvairītos no nodokļu nomaksas.

Tātad šis ir jauninājums, kas liks noziedzīgajai pasaulei reāli reaģēt. Ko tas darīs? Tas padarīs šīs shēmas aizvien grūtākas, kas savukārt nozīmēs, ka noziedzīgajai pasaulei būs jāiet aizvien tālāk no Eiropas Savienības. Bet Eiropā mums ir viss, ko sirds varētu vēlēties – mums ir likumu vara, mums ir drošas bankas, tātad finanšu sistēma. Mums, protams, ir arī visi īpašumi utt., ko jebkurš varētu vēlēties. Tas nozīmē, ka ar šo likumu maiņu mēs ne tikai padarīsim naudas atmazgāšanu daudz grūtāku, bet spiedīsim noziedzīgo pasauli, izspiedīsim lēnām ārpus Eiropas Savienības robežām, spiežot viņiem darboties jurisdikcijās, kur likuma varai nav tik lielas nozīmes.

Paldies visiem par sadarbību! Aicinu rītdienas balsojumā atbalstīt šo likumprojektu.

 
  
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  Judith Sargentini, rapporteur. Madam President, thank you to my co-rapporteur, Mr Kariņš, to the shadows who have helped us in this term and in the previous term, to the Chair of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs, Roberto Gualtieri, and thanks to the Council, particularly the Italians, and the Commission.

It has been a very long process. We started in the previous term and we managed to conclude last December, and let me remind you that we had a plenary vote before the elections that gave Mr Kariņš and myself a mandate that was very strong: 643 votes in favour of a public register for ultimate beneficiary owners and 30 against. It gave us a mandate that did not allow us to backtrack, and that I really appreciate. We acted on that and my motivation has always been to deal with tax avoidance and tax evasion.

We had Thabo Mbeki visiting this House and he said that the amount of money fleeing out of Africa because multinationals are not paying their taxes in the country where the work is done is immense. We had the scandal with the son of the former President of the Ukraine, who put the money he stole from the Ukrainian people into a shell company in the Netherlands and then we had LuxLeaks. That helped to clarify why we are doing this.

The FATF and the Commission made tax offences a predicate offence, which is good, which helped us work, and then we created this public register on ultimate beneficiary owners. It is Article 30. We agreed to have 28 registers. There are countries that do not have an ultimate beneficiary ownership register at the moment and they are now obliged to have one. In future, these 28 registers will be interconnected, allowing people to search from shell company to shell company, from country to country.

Who can look at these registers? Well the authorities, of course, they have full access, the obligatory entities – banks, casinos, etc. – but also anybody who has a legitimate interest, anybody who can show they have an interest in looking at them because of money-laundering, terrorism and issues like corruption, tax crime and fraud. So in the near future journalists and NGOs and every citizen in Europe will be able to look at the register and make sure that we collectively clean up our act, that we do not allow shell companies to steer away funding, to steer away tax money that can be used for education, for health, for everything we need in our society.

I am proud of that, and if Member States want to go further than that, if they want to add more causes, they can, and I think they should. We cleaned up the data protection and may I thank Commissioner Jourová, because as soon as the file moved from DG Markt to DG Justice we got a better hearing on the issue of data protection. So we made sure that the data subject, the person who wants to know something – perhaps they have a feeling that something went wrong with their data – has rights to redress, without tipping off criminals, but they have the right to redress. We respect data retention rules. Data retention is set at five years and I am happy to have that. That is Article 40.

So let us make this an example for other countries in the world. Would it not be fantastic if the USA were to follow us, would it not be marvellous in our fight against tax avoidance and tax evasion? I want everyone to help us reach that.

 
  
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  Timothy Kirkhope, rapporteur. Madam President, with anti-money laundering, if you cut off the flow in money, you cut off the long reach of criminal groups and terrorists and help better protect the stability of our economy as a whole and individuals in it. The damage that money laundering can cause should never be underestimated. Where criminal activity in our economic markets is concerned, transparency is a powerful weapon. Therefore, the opportunity presented to myself, my fellow rapporteurs and shadows to right the wrongs of past legislation has been both a challenge and a privilege.

Throughout the process, we have looked at international standards, at FATF, and at the need to combat money laundering beyond the borders of the EU and in full cooperation with the rest of the world. The ability to follow money across borders and seize back assets is important, and so is the space in which criminals are able to operate.

I believe that this package will help both to diminish that space for criminals and also to assist us in our ability to follow the money across those borders. For years, both consumers and businesses have run into difficulties with implementing previous legislation on this subject. Our aim has been to create, this time, a sensible, proportionate and effective way forward in the fight against money laundering. I have to say that the second Anti—Money Laundering Directive – with which I and others here were concerned – was interpreted ultimately and implemented in my own country, in the UK, in a way that made life almost intolerable for small investors and those who desired a normal, balanced relationship with their financial institutions.

This kind of undue burden must not be recreated with an even tougher new regime. The need to create fuller transparency, balanced with considering the wider impact upon privacy and the need to provide data protection, has also been a key element of our work. The terms ‘proportionality’ and ‘necessity’ are brought up time and time again in our work here in Parliament, never more relevantly than in our work on this package.

Previous directives have had the effect of providing an excuse, sometimes, for institutions, including banks and building societies, to move their decision-making further away from their consumers and to introduce totally proscriptive and impractical ways of assessing customers. Businesses and financial services need to know what they are looking for and how to address the problem. There needs to be an effective reporting and supervisory system, but equally countries need to comply with, and not just sign up to, international principles and methods, as well as to ensure good cooperation with third countries.

If businesses and our trading partners around the world are going to continue to invest in Europe, and if the single market is to grow and prosper, it is essential we have the right legislative tools and European cooperation in place in order to prevent and prosecute financial crime. Above all else, I hope we have delivered something which is consistent and workable here. For me the ability to effectively implement the package was at the forefront of my mind when I was dealing with the section that I was responsible for. You can have the best laws in the world, but if they are not well implemented, you gain nothing. I now believe, thanks to this package, we will be gaining a lot.

I would like finally to thank all those involved as far as my work is concerned: my co-shadow Mr Simons, the shadow rapporteurs and the other co-rapporteurs. I hope that the vote tomorrow is the start of a new era in the fight against money laundering, using common sense, but also bringing public acceptance at the same time.

 
  
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  Peter Simon, Berichterstatter. Frau Präsidentin! Schätzungen zufolge werden jährlich Gelder in Höhe von circa 1 600 Milliarden Dollar gewaschen. Das entspricht fast 3 % der jährlichen Wirtschaftsleistung. Allein in der EU geht durch Steuerbetrug und Steuervermeidung jedes Jahr eine Billion Euro verloren – eine Summe, die höher ist als der EU-Finanzrahmen über sieben Jahre. Wir als Europäische Union, als Europäisches Parlament, müssen deshalb bei der Bekämpfung von Geldwäsche ebenso wie beim Kampf gegen Steuersünder eine Vorreiterrolle übernehmen. Deswegen war es von größter Wichtigkeit und Dringlichkeit, die alte, die dritte Anti-Geldwäsche-Richtlinie von 2005 zu überarbeiten. Wir Sozialdemokraten haben die Vorschläge der EU-Kommission in der vierten Anti-Geldwäsche-Richtlinie und der begleitenden Verordnung über die Übermittlung von Angaben zum Auftraggeber bei Geldtransfers stets konstruktiv unterstützt und auf eine zeitnahe Einführung der neuen EU-Anti-Geldwäsche-Gesetzgebung hingearbeitet.

Beide Gesetzestexte verfolgen einen risikobasierten Ansatz auf europäischer Ebene, der erhöhte Sorgfaltspflichten für Bereiche mit hohem Geldwäscherisiko einführt. Dieser risikobasierte Ansatz spiegelt sich auch im Anwendungsbereich der Richtlinie wider. In Zukunft werden auch Kasinos und Anbieter von Glücksspielen mit erfasst.

Dreh- und Angelpunkt im Kampf gegen Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung ist unserer Meinung nach aber Transparenz und damit die Feststellung der Identität der wirtschaftlich Berechtigten und der wahren Nutznießer hinter verschachtelten, oft undurchsichtigen Unternehmenskonstruktionen und Briefkastenfirmen. Deshalb ist es aus unserer Sicht ein großer Erfolg im Kampf gegen Geldwäsche, dass das Europäische Parlament auf Druck von uns Sozialdemokraten und anderen zentrale öffentliche Unternehmensregister durchsetzen konnte, die detaillierte Informationen zu den wirtschaftlich Berechtigten von Unternehmen, Trusts, Stiftungen und Holdings beinhalten. Denn Transparenz ist die beste Waffe gegen kriminelle Machenschaften im Verborgenen.

Die Einführung dieser Register war aber kein Selbstläufer, da sie deutlich über den ursprünglichen Vorschlag der Kommission hinausgehen. Auch die Mitgliedstaaten im Rat stemmten sich lange dagegen. Doch das Europäische Parlament konnte sich mit dieser zentralen Forderung letztlich durchsetzen.

Diese Register sind für alle Verpflichteten wie Rechtsanwälte, Notare, Banken und Finanzbehörden frei zugänglich, ebenso für jeden, der ein legitimes Interesse nachweisen kann, wie zum Beispiel Journalisten. So weit, so gut. Allerdings hätten wir Sozialdemokraten uns gewünscht, dass eine EU-weite Verknüpfung dieser nationalen Register nicht auf die lange Bank geschoben und erst in vier Jahren geprüft wird, sondern sofort auf den Weg gebracht wird. Denn Transparenz und Informationsfluss dürfen nicht an Ländergrenzen Halt machen.

Darüber hinausgehend würden wir Sozialdemokraten es auch gerne sehen, wenn der jetzt geschaffene Standard der zentralen Register zu wirtschaftlich Berechtigten auch in Drittstaaten zur Anwendung käme. Mit einer solchen Transparenzoffensive würden obskure Praktiken enthüllt werden, und der Kampf gegen Geldwäsche, Steuerhinterziehung und Steueroasen könnte noch wirksamer geführt werden. Auf Drängen des Europäischen Parlaments sieht der finale Gesetzestext aber vor, dass eine Liste mit EU-Drittstaaten erstellt wird, die im Vergleich zur EU Defizite im Kampf gegen Geldwäsche aufweisen. Verpflichtete müssen im Umgang mit Staaten, welche auf dieser Liste stehen, erhöhte Sorgfaltspflichten walten lassen. Entgegen den Bestrebungen des Rates sind wir als Parlament durch delegierte Rechtsakte an der Erstellung dieser Liste beteiligt, die alle drei Monate aktualisiert wird.

Wir hätten uns gewünscht, dass wir an manchen Punkten weitergehen. Aber es bleibt abschließend festzuhalten, dass wir mit der Einrichtung eines zentralen öffentlichen Registers unser vorrangiges Anliegen durchsetzen konnten. Dies, gepaart mit anderen Errungenschaften, ist durchaus ein Erfolg der Richtlinie. Es bleibt aber vieles offen und somit in den nächsten fünf Jahren Arbeit für uns.

 
  
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  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. Madam President, the adoption of the fourth Anti—Money Laundering Directive and the Regulation on the information accompanying transfers of funds, which are strategic texts for the European Union, will represent a significant step towards the improved effectiveness of our efforts to combat the laundering of criminal proceeds and to counter the financing of terrorist activities.

I would like to express my gratitude to Parliament and in particular to the two co—rapporteurs, Mrs Sargentini and Mr Kariņš, as well as the shadow rapporteurs, for the strong support which they gave this file and all their hard work. The consecutive presidencies also put a lot of effort into this, especially the Italian Presidency under which the work and the trilogue negotiations were finalised in December last year.

I am convinced that today we have a result which we can be satisfied with. Tomorrow’s vote marks another step closer to stronger rules to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe and the adoption of a European security agenda, it is crucial that these rules become operational as soon as possible. We now have the tools at hand to better detect and trace billions of euros which come from criminal proceeds or financial flows which support terrorist groups and activities.

Enhancing beneficial ownership transparency has also been at the heart of the international agenda. I particularly welcome the ambitious approach adopted by both Parliament and the Member States to introduce registers of beneficial ownership for companies and legal arrangements. Work must now begin to ensure that this framework, which focuses on greater effectiveness and improved transparency, is quickly put in place. The Commission will work with Member States to speed up the process of implementation of the new anti-money laundering requirements. I would like to encourage Parliament to give its final assent by its vote, which will mark the adoption of a stronger framework to combat money laundering and to counter terrorism financing.

 
  
  

VORSITZ: RAINER WIELAND
Vizepräsident

 
  
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  Емил Радев, от името на групата PPE. Уважаеми г-н Председател, по данни на ООН прането на пари коства около 2,7 % от световния БВП или около 1,6 трилиона долара на година.

Реално цената е много по-висока, защото организираната престъпност и тероризмът, които са финансирани чрез пране на пари, засягат живота и съдбите на милиони хора по света. Затова четвъртият законодателен пакет на Европейския съюз за борбата с прането на пари е изключително важен. Той ще доведе до повече прозрачност в една все по-сложна финансова система, която без този пакет би предоставила множество възможности за измами.

Постигнатите споразумения за централен регистър на бенефициентите от дадена компания, за включването на данъчни престъпления в обхвата на пакета, за по-строг контрол върху финансови трансфери, за задължението на междинните платежни посредници да сътрудничат с компетентните органи са важни нововъведения в европейското законодателство. Те ще позволят да бъде изяснена собствеността на фирмите и да има повече прозрачност в бизнес взаимоотношенията, което ще доведе до укрепване на функционирането на единния пазар на Европейския съюз.

В същото време ще бъде улеснена борбата с организираната престъпност и тероризма и по-точно, проследяването на тяхното финансиране, което е от значение в сегашната обстановка на терористична заплаха над Европа и бе препотвърдено като приоритет в програмата за европейска сигурност, представена в края на месец април.

Дами и господа, вярвам, че четвъртият пакет за борба с прането на пари взема под внимание сегашните и бъдещи заплахи за европейската сигурност и предоставя адекватни инструменти.

(Председателят отне думата на оратора)

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. Senhora Presidente, como relatora-sombra na negociação da IV Diretiva antibranqueamento de capitais, julgo que ela cria um regime de combate ao crime financeiro mais robusto, ao qual, espero, os Estados-Membros associem recursos humanos e técnicos capazes e suficientes. A maior novidade é a criação de registos centrais com informações detalhadas sobre propriedade efetiva de todas as estruturas corporativas instaladas na União Europeia, por que se bateu este Parlamento.

Tenho de dizer, porém, ser dececionante que, no rescaldo de tantos escândalos financeiros, a União Europeia fique aquém das promessas de transparência, já que os Estados—Membros bloquearam a proposta parlamentar de garantir um sistema único de acesso público ao registo. Caberá, ao invés, aos Estados-Membros decidir sobre quem e em que condições os jornalistas, investigadores, ONG e cidadãos poderão aceder aos dados, criando 28 diferentes sistemas de acesso, o que diminui o alcance amenizador da diretiva. Para mais, os trusts estão fora deste regime, não sendo permitido acesso público aos seus beneficiários últimos.

A ligação entre esta legislação e a luta contra a fraude e ilisão fiscais é evidente. A criação de um registo público pode ser um poderoso instrumento na luta contra a fraude e a evasão fiscais por empresas multinacionais. É uma preocupação para todos os cidadãos da Europa, especialmente os mais afetados pela criminalidade económica e financeira que a crise expôs nos últimos anos. Um registo público, mesmo sem alterar as leis fiscais, certamente contribuiria para expor esquemas e estruturas corporativas fictícios e opacos, utilizados para evitar e fugir aos impostos.

Deixo aqui um apelo aos Estados-Membros para que transponham a diretiva, garantindo acesso público alargado, efetivo e rápido, e para que estabeleçam mecanismos de cooperação eficientes. É preciso também promover este padrão de registo em países terceiros, com uma estratégia diplomática concertada na negociação do TTIP, no G20 e noutras instâncias, para pormos fim, de vez, aos paraísos fiscais.

O orador aceita responder a uma pergunta "cartão azul" – artigo 162.°, n.° 8, do Regimento

 
  
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  Tibor Szanyi (S&D), Kékkártyás kérdés. Tisztelt képviselő asszony, Ön a beszédében nagyon sok olyan hibára hívta fel a figyelmet, ami veszedelmes lehet itt az irányelv alkalmazása tekintetében, s utolsó szóként is említette, hogy az adóparadicsomokkal szembeni fellépés. Ön mit gondol, mi annak az oka, hogy az európai intézményrendszer – és ez a kérdésem – mi az oka Ön szerint, hogy az európai intézményrendszer a mai napig adós az adóparadicsomok pontos definíciójával?

 
  
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  Ana Gomes (S&D), blue-card answer. I believe this because there is denial and the lack of will from Member States and also from the Commission to actually tackle the absolute need for tax harmonisation, without which we do not have real competition, healthy competition in the internal market. That is exactly the job we are trying to achieve through our tax committee, and I am pretty sure that if we in Parliament do our job we will be able to make that case with governments and the Commission.

 
  
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  Beatrix von Storch, im Namen der ECR-Fraktion. Herr Präsident, liebe Kollegen! Wir reden heute über verbesserte Maßnahmen zur Bekämpfung der Geldwäsche. Die Gründe klingen vernünftig: Terrorbekämpfung, Schwarzarbeit, Steuerhinterziehung. Aber wenn wir davon sprechen, taucht am Horizont ganz langsam noch ein anderes Thema auf, und das ist die Abschaffung des Bargeldes insgesamt. Sollten wir nicht alle Zahlungen bargeldlos machen, damit sie transparent sind im Kampf gegen den Terror? Und sollten wir dann nicht irgendwann das Bargeld abschaffen und verbieten? Peter Bofinger, deutscher Wirtschaftsweiser, und auch Willem Buiter, Chefökonom der Citibank, fordern das bereits, wenn auch aus anderen Gründen.

Sollen der Staat und seine Beamten unser ganzes Leben in unseren Kontoauszügen ablesen können? Der Staat wüsste, in welcher Kneipe ich mein Bier trinke und wann ich abends mit dem Taxi nach Hause gefahren bin.

Ist Anonymität Schutz für Terroristen und Kriminelle, oder ist Anonymität ein grundlegendes Freiheitsrecht für uns Bürger? Darf der Gebrauch der Freiheit durch einige für Straftaten dazu führen, dass wir alle diese Freiheit verlieren? Wenn Sie mich fragen: Niemals! Erhalten wir das Bargeld!

 
  
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  Nils Torvalds, för ALDE-gruppen. Herr talman! Som vi vet är penningtvätt ett allvarligt problem. Det är en stor inkomstkälla för kriminella organisationer, och det skadar vår ekonomi i högsta grad.

Detta lagförslag arbetade vi ganska länge med. Jag vill tacka föredragandena som visade sig ytterst samarbetsvilliga. Jag vill också tacka de skuggföredragande som har arbetat med detta.

För det första utgick vi från riskanalys. Att man har en noggrann riskanalys som bakgrund är naturligtvis en förutsättning för att få en hygglig lagstiftning till stånd. Den andra viktiga frågan handlade om den egentliga ägaren. Den kanske största segern vi lyckades åstadkomma under trepartssamtalen var att vi nu får ett register på de egentliga ägarna. När vi vet hur invecklade strukturer vi kan ha i fråga om till exempel kasinon och i fråga om penningtvätt, så var det av största nytta.

Sedan är jag speciellt glad över att vi också lyckades lösa en del av de problem som vi så lätt råkar ut för, att vi skapar en lagstiftning som drar alla över en kam. Då hamnar så att säga penningtvättande kriminella på samma linje som sociala företag i till exempel Finland.

Av den orsaken vill jag ännu en gång tacka mina medarbetare och mina medparlamentariker för att vi lyckades åstadkomma ett lagförslag som vi kan försvara hemma, som vi kan var stolta över, och som vi också tror löser de problem vi har framför oss.

 
  
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  Rina Ronja Kari, for GUE/NGL-Gruppen. Hr. formand! Jeg vil gerne som skyggeordfører for gruppen takke kollegaerne for et rigtig godt samarbejde. Jeg synes, at vi må kunne sige i dag, at vi faktisk er nået rigtig langt, så tusind tak for det.

Det er jo også et yderst vigtigt emne, vi diskuterer. F.eks. hvad angår udviklingen i den sydlige del af verden har FN sagt, at alene de afrikanske lande mister omkring 50 mia. dollars om året på grund af skattesvindel og på grund af hvidvaskning af penge. Det er altså næsten dobbelt så mange penge, som de modtager i udviklingsbistand.

I kampen mod ulovlig kapitalflugt er gennemsigtighed det helt afgørende våben. Det er vigtigt, at myndighederne og offentligheden kan afdække skuffeselskaber og svindelfonde, som de multinationale selskaber bruger til at hvidvaske deres penge og til at gemme deres overskud, så de så at sige slipper for at bidrage til fællesskabet via skatten. Derfor har vi også støttet, at vi skal have indført et offentligt register, som skal gøre det muligt for offentligheden at følge sporet af skuffeselskaber tilbage til virksomhedernes rigtige ejer. Dog mener vi helt ærligt ikke, at det kun skal være myndighederne, som skal have adgang til denne information. Også almindelige borgere og journalister og NGO'er bør have denne adgang. Det er jo trods alt takket være deres indsats, at skandaler som Lux Leaks er kommet frem i lyset.

Desværre har det ikke været muligt at opnå et fuldt offentligt register denne gang. Det skyldes, at der har været stærke kræfter både i Kommissionen og blandt enkelte regeringer i Rådet, som ikke ønskede denne gennemsigtighed. Jeg vil derfor opfordre regeringerne, herunder min egen fra Danmark, som støttede indførelsen af et fuldt offentligt register, til at gå det skridt videre, som vi har sikret dem mulighed for at gøre.

 
  
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  Eva Joly, au nom du groupe Verts/ALE. Monsieur le Président, Madame la Commissaire, je tiens à saluer le travail déterminant des rapporteurs, et je pense notamment à Judith Sargentini.

Malgré les nombreuses pressions, nous voterons demain la création de registres sur les bénéficiaires effectifs des sociétés offshore. C'est une victoire chèrement acquise. En effet, certains États membres ont tout fait pour limiter au maximum cette avancée. Le Royaume-Uni a ainsi obtenu la non-publicité des registres sur les trusts. Il nous faudra aussi être vigilants sur la manière dont certains États membres définiront, chez eux, l'accès des ONG et des journalistes aux autres registres.

C'est pour cela que le vote de demain n'est qu'une première étape dans notre marche contre les flux financiers opaques et illicites, qui servent les intérêts des riches individus, des multinationales ou des réseaux criminels ou terroristes.

Demain, nous montrerons que le statu quo n'est pas une fatalité et j'espère...

(Le Président retire la parole à l'oratrice)

 
  
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  Laura Ferrara, a nome del gruppo EFDD. Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, in Europa sono migliaia i gruppi criminali organizzati che spesso si avvalgono di società con sedi in diversi paesi, collegate tra loro come scatole cinesi, per nascondere e ripulire i proventi delle proprie attività.

La previsione dell'elaborazione di una valutazione sul riciclaggio di denaro e sui rischi di finanziamento del terrorismo che incidono sul mercato interno nonché una cooperazione e uno scambio di informazioni maggiori anche con i paesi terzi sono aspetti significativi delle finalità che si vogliono perseguire.

Combattere il riciclaggio significa combattere evasione, corruzione, criminalità, finanziamento del terrorismo e altri fenomeni illeciti e distorsivi dell'economia legale.

La trasparenza in questa battaglia assume un ruolo fondamentale. Oltre a migliorare la tracciabilità dei trasferimenti dei fondi all'interno dell'Unione europea, deve essere compiuto ogni sforzo per rendere trasparenti le attività di società e altri enti dotati di personalità giuridica, in modo da poter individuare chi beneficia di tali attività, chi ha la proprietà e chi ha effettivi poteri decisionali. Essenziale è l'istituzione di registri pubblici dove raccogliere, aggiornare e conservare questo genere di informazioni e renderli accessibili a quanti più soggetti possibile.

Nonostante siano stati compiuti dei progressi nel quadro normativo in materia, permangono ancora delle scappatoie e dei vulnera da colmare. Per alcuni istituti giuridici, come i trust, l'accesso condizionato alle informazioni non agevola la lotta a importanti operazioni finanziarie che possono nascondere fenomeni di riciclaggio ed evasione.

Pur salvaguardando le garanzie per la protezione dei dati, la direzione da seguire è quella di evitare qualsiasi forma di limitazione nell'accesso ai dati che contraddica l'idea stessa della trasparenza che si vuole promuovere.

 
  
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  Mario Borghezio (NI). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, mi pare che in questa relazione manchi, o quantomeno sia molto sfumato, uno dei temi che a mio avviso avrebbero invece dovuto essere al centro, data la situazione di pericoli gravissimi che stiamo correndo, e cioè quello del rischio del finanziamento attraverso canali opachi finanziari – pensiamo soltanto all'espansione della finanza islamica.

Ma soprattutto pensiamo al fatto che esiste in Europa una vasta rete di call-centre, macellerie islamiche, negozi alimentari ecc., attività o investimenti di cui non si riesce mai a capire bene l'origine. E non penso che con questi modesti strumenti si risolva il problema di una penetrazione lenta ma costante, forse di portata molto più vasta di quello che noi pensiamo, di capitali che riconducono a interessi oscuri, probabilmente legati anche alle organizzazioni non solo criminali ma anche terroristiche.

E allora domandiamoci: vogliamo finalmente lavorare per identificare chi ancora oggi tutela questi circuiti illegali? ...

(Il Presidente interrompe l'oratore)

 
  
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  Eva Paunova (PPE). Mr President, for our economy to prosper, we need two ‘T’s in place – trust and transparency. In Europe each year, the volume of laundered money reaches EUR 600 billion. This is double the funds we need for the Juncker plan. This is money that we could now be investing in innovation, in education and in research. With these two proposals today, we want to reverse this negative trend through improving traceability in the transfer of funds. This is how we will improve the integrity, proper functioning, reputation and stability of the financial system.

The new measures on due diligence are very much needed. They will ensure a better knowledge of customers and a better understanding of the nature of their business. The creation of central registers for information on beneficial ownership will enhance transparency and improve the trust of our citizens in the financial system. Data privacy of subjects on the register, though, must be respected. These are rules we cannot do without at European level. Money laundering and terrorist financing cannot be tackled by individual states. Together we stand strong in fighting financial fraud. This type of legislation creates trust: trust in our financial system; trust that we put our money to good use; and trust that Europeans can thrive and develop in a fair environment that rewards initiative and prevents unlawful practices.

 
  
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  Elisa Ferreira (S&D). Senhor Presidente, Senhora Comissária, Caros Colegas, também eu quero começar por agradecer à equipa de relatores e relatores-sombra o esforço e a qualidade do trabalho que permitiram um acordo tão importante, conseguido ainda na Presidência italiana.

Trata-se, de facto, de um dossiê fundamental para evitar a fraude e a evasão fiscais e, sobretudo, a utilização do sistema financeiro para o branqueamento de capitais e o financiamento do terrorismo.

A identificação dos beneficiários efetivos, ou melhor, dos verdadeiros proprietários nas transações empresariais na União Europeia é um passo fundamental nesse sentido.

Mas o Grupo dos Socialistas e Democratas vê, com particular satisfação, a constituição de um registo público e europeu desses beneficiários efetivos, embora lamente que o acesso a tal informação não seja mais livre ou então organizado a nível europeu.

De facto, quando a legislação limita o acesso a tal registo ao reconhecimento de um chamado interesse legítimo, sendo que interesse legítimo é um conceito vago, a legislação acaba por colocar nas mãos dos Estados-Membros menos exigentes em matéria de transparência a possibilidade de limitarem seriamente, na prática, o acesso a essa informação. Acresce a possibilidade adicional de os Estados-Membros limitarem ainda mais o acesso a essa informação em casos considerados excecionais, nomeadamente quando o beneficiário efetivo é menor ou incapacitado, mas também quando haja risco para o beneficiário de vir a ser vítima de fraudes, chantagem, rapto, violência ou intimidação, riscos estes bastante difíceis de antecipar de forma precisa.

Portanto, em resumo, a legislação que vamos votar é um passo essencial, uma melhoria fundamental no caminho da transparência, mas é um primeiro passo. Nos aspetos em que não foi possível ir mais longe prevaleceu a necessidade de compromisso num texto que, na sua globalidade, é, como digo, claramente positivo.

É um passo importante e agora confiamos que os Estados-Membros sigam na mesma… (O Presidente retira a palavra à oradora.)

 
  
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  Anna Elżbieta Fotyga (ECR). Panie Przewodniczący! W 2004 r. po atakach w Madrycie państwa członkowskie Unii Europejskiej zobowiązały się uczynić wszystko co w ich mocy dla zwalczania finansowania terroryzmu, zarówno aktów terroru, jak i sieci terrorystycznych. Niestety od tamtego czasu poziom zagrożenia terroryzmem nie zmalał. Narzędzia prawne, administracyjne, finansowe okazały się niewystarczającymi. Dlatego jutrzejsze głosowania, pakiet, który ma służyć przeciwdziałaniu finansowaniu terroryzmu, uważam za prawdziwy kamień milowy w funkcjonowaniu Unii Europejskiej. Chciałabym podziękować wszystkim, którzy przyczynili się do jego powstania.

 
  
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  Petr Ježek (ALDE). Mr President, I would like to thank all of those involved on Parliament’s side for their strong stand during the trilogue negotiation. For me, this directive underlines the importance of Parliament in the legislative process. The idea of a public register of ultimate ownership, which is key in this regulation, came from Parliament and we strongly defended it throughout the trilogue.

The agreement we reached last December reflects the legitimate public demand for more transparency and marks a significant step forward in the fight against money laundering. However, there is still room for improvement when it comes to the accessibility of the public register, but the directive leaves the door open for those Member States which are ready to move forward and widely interpret the notion of legitimate interests.

After Parliament’s vote, it will be time for Member States to take responsibility and swiftly and fully implement the new EU anti-money laundering and transfer of fund rules. I strongly encourage them to use the available flexibility to provide unrestricted public access to public registers with access to beneficiary ownership information to companies and trusts.

 
  
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  Κώστας Χρυσόγονος ( GUE/NGL). Το ξέπλυμα βρώμικου χρήματος αποτελεί μια τεράστια πληγή για την οικονομική ζωή της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Το ελάχιστο άμεσο κόστος από το οργανωμένο έγκλημα ξεπερνάει τα 166 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ τον χρόνο, σύμφωνα με τις εκτιμήσεις της Εuropol. Αυτό σημαίνει, λιγότερα χρήματα για την ανάπτυξη, λιγότερα χρήματα για κοινωνικές παροχές και, τελικά, επίταση της κοινωνικής ανισότητας και αδικίας.

Γιατί όμως το ξέπλυμα βρώμικου χρήματος δεν έχει καταπολεμηθεί αποτελεσματικά ως τα σήμερα από το ευρωπαϊκό δίκαιο; Η απάντηση είναι απλή: διότι ποτέ ως σήμερα δεν υπήρξε η απαραίτητη πολιτική βούληση για αυτό.

Εδώ έγκειται η χρησιμότητα των δύο νομοθετημάτων που συζητάμε σήμερα. Φαίνεται πως επιτέλους κάτι αρχίζει να κινείται. Οι προτάσεις από την Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή έρχονται με βελτιώσεις σε σχέση με τα όσα ήδη ισχύουν. Η τήρηση αρχείων με τους τελικούς πραγματικούς δικαιούχους ιδιοκτήτες των νομικών προσώπων, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των καταπιστευμάτων, που θα είναι ανοιχτά προς έλεγχο σε όσους αποδεικνύουν έννομο συμφέρον, αποτελεί ένα πρώτο βήμα προς την καθιέρωση ενός καθεστώτος διαφάνειας.

Χρειάζονται όμως και παραπέρα αποφασιστικά βήματα προς την κατοχύρωση της διαφάνειας στις οικονομικές συναλλαγές. Αυτή είναι η πραγματική και μεγάλη διαρθρωτική μεταρρύθμιση που χρειαζόμαστε και όχι η απορρύθμιση της αγοράς εργασίας σε όφελος του κεφαλαίου την οποία προωθούν με κάθε τρόπο οι κυρίαρχες σήμερα στην Ένωση πολιτικές δυνάμεις.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, sicuramente con questo quarto pacchetto sull'antiriciclaggio si fanno dei passi avanti rispetto alla situazione antecedente, anche se, a mio modo di vedere, siamo ancora lontani dall'avere uno strumento effettivo, efficiente e concreto per il contrasto a quello che è un fenomeno di grandissima portata.

Come diceva giustamente il collega Chrysogonos si tratta di una piaga, ma è anche qualcosa di molto conveniente per chi vede arrivare sul proprio mercato questi capitali freschi di dubbia provenienza, anzi di sicura provenienza illecita.

Bene, io credo che questa direttiva sia stata un po' annacquata o ridimensionata dalle negoziazioni che vi sono state con il Consiglio, negoziazioni purtroppo al ribasso. Rischia di essere una bellissima cornice che però deve essere riempita dai diversi Stati in maniera diversa, e non possiamo essere sicuri che i diversi Stati lo faranno nel modo più opportuno o comunque in modo conforme.

Insomma, secondo me abbiamo perso un'opportunità per fare passi avanti.

 
  
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  Steeve Briois (NI). Monsieur le Président, tout renforcement de la législation contre le blanchiment de capitaux et le financement du terrorisme va, a priori, dans le bon sens. Cependant, un tel renforcement ne doit pas avoir pour conséquence le sacrifice de la souveraineté des États car ce sont les États membres qui sont les mieux placés pour lutter efficacement contre ces réseaux mafieux.

Par ailleurs, cette législation doit être accompagnée d'un renforcement du contrôle de l'entrée des capitaux sur le marché intérieur de l'Union. Il ne faut pas être naïf, les réseaux de blanchiment de capitaux et de financement du terrorisme tirent parti de l'absence de frontières entre les États membres. En effet, la libre circulation des capitaux et des personnes ainsi que la liberté d'établissement dans les vingt-sept pays ont créé un terreau juridique favorable au développement de ces faits délictueux.

C'est pourquoi, en l'absence du renforcement de la coopération policière et judiciaire entre les États membres, il convient d'abord de suspendre l'application de l'accord de Schengen et des principes de libre circulation.

 
  
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  Thomas Mann (PPE). Herr Präsident! In jedem Jahr wird weltweit eine Geldmenge zwischen 615 Milliarden und 1,5 Billionen Euro gewaschen. Kriminelle und Terroristen nutzen die Geldwäsche, um Vermögenswerte als rechtmäßig erscheinen zu lassen. Dazu gehören Briefkastenfirmen, Konten in den Offshore-Ländern und oft schwer durchschaubare Manipulationen im Netz. Diese massiven Bedrohungen unseres gesamten Zusammenlebens beeinträchtigen die Solidität und die Stabilität der Kreditinstitute, gefährden das Vertrauen in das gesamte Finanzsystem.

Für wirksame Gegenmaßnahmen reicht nationales Handeln nicht aus. EU-Rechtsvorschriften müssen internationalen Normen und neuen technologischen Entwicklungen Rechnung tragen, damit effizient reagiert werden kann. Wir brauchen in der Tat das öffentliche Zentralregister, um zuständigen Behörden und Meldestellen Angaben zum wirtschaftlichen Eigentum von Unternehmen zugänglich zu machen. Die EU-Kommission sollte eine supranationale Risikobewertung durchführen. Benötigt wird auch eine lückenlose Rückverfolgbarkeit von Geldtransfers.

Transparenz ja, aber die Rechtsvorschriften müssen immer in Einklang sein mit dem europäischen Datenschutz, mit dem Schutz der in der Charta verankerten Grundrechte. Personenbezogene Daten dürfen natürlich nicht für irgendwelche gewerblichen Zwecke nutzbar gemacht werden. Internationale Kooperation und Koordination sind also unumwunden wichtig. Es muss gelingen, angemessen und zielgerichtet der Geldwäsche und der Finanzierung des Terrorismus Herr zu werden.

Herzlichen Dank, Krišjānis Kariņš und den anderen Berichterstattern. Ihr habt einen tollen Job gemacht!

 
  
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  Roberto Gualtieri (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, vorrei dire che quella che ci ha portato all'approvazione del pacchetto antiriciclaggio è stata una bella pagina di democrazia parlamentare europea, un successo per questo Parlamento che deve molto alla tenacia dei relatori, del team negoziale e anche al ruolo positivo svolto dalla presidenza italiana.

Il risultato porta l'Europa non all'altezza degli standard internazionali più avanzati ma più avanti di questi standard. Altro che compromesso al ribasso: il Parlamento ha migliorato la proposta, ha realizzato un passo avanti molto significativo, quello appunto del registro pubblico sui beneficiari delle imprese, compresi i trust. E vorrei aggiungere che il considerando 14, quello collegato all'articolo 30, aggiunge che l'interesse legittimo riguarda non solo l'antiriciclaggio e l'antiterrorismo ma anche i reati collegati, come la corruzione, i crimini fiscali e la frode. In questo senso il Parlamento è stato davvero un passo avanti rispetto all'ambito originario della proposta e ha collegato quest'azione alla più grande iniziativa che stiamo svolgendo sulla questione dell'evasione fiscale e dei crimini fiscali. Quindi si tratta davvero di un passo avanti importante.

Sono d'accordo con la relatrice: questo dovrebbe essere un modello a cui l'Europa dovrebbe chiedere agli altri di adeguarsi e, soprattutto, questo Parlamento non si limiterà a ben legiferare ma vigilerà anche sulla .... ... (Il Presidente interrompe il relatore)

 
  
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  Stanisław Ożóg (ECR). Szanowny Panie Przewodniczący! Szanowni Państwo! W obecnym czasie finansowania terroryzmu oraz prania brudnych pieniędzy te sprawy stają się coraz większym problemem. Cieszy mnie, że proponowany pakiet legislacyjny uwzględnia szerokie spektrum zadań spoczywających zarówno na Komisji Europejskiej, jak i organach oraz instytucjach państw członkowskich, mających na celu przeciwdziałanie tym zjawiskom. Uważam, że obszary wymagające szczególnego wzmocnienia zostały trafnie zidentyfikowane, zwłaszcza że schematy działalności przestępczej zmieniają się w sposób nieustanny. Przy tym wszystkim należy jednak zachować szczególną ostrożność, jeśli chodzi o koszty działań, i kierować się zasadą proporcjonalności i racjonalizacji, a także mieć na uwadze dostawców usług płatniczych, którym niektóre działania mogłyby przecież poważnie utrudnić świadczenie tych usług.

Ważne jest również, aby wytyczne wynikające z ochrony międzynarodowego systemu finansowego i dotyczące wdrożenia ewentualnych działań na poziomie krajowym były jednolite i spójne. Dziękuję bardzo.

 
  
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  Marco Valli (EFDD). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, prima di tutto vorrei fare i complimenti al Parlamento, che ha lavorato e ha fatto davvero un ottimo lavoro. I passi in avanti sono evidenti e sono molti. Purtroppo su alcuni punti – e ripeto purtroppo – il Consiglio, pressato da alcuni Stati membri, è riuscito ad annacquare, ripeto, l'ottimo lavoro e testo che ha fatto questo Parlamento.

Le nostre principali perplessità riguardano le restrizioni all'accesso al registro centrale dei titolari effettivi – i beneficial owner – delle società fiduciarie e altre strutture giuridiche nonché il largo margine di discrezionalità lasciato agli Stati membri. In particolare l'accesso ai registri centrali non sarà aperto in modo trasparente al pubblico, come richiesto da Parlamento e società civile, ma sarà limitato alle autorità e a chi riesce a dimostrare di avere un interesse legittimo, criterio peraltro non definito in modo chiaro e univoco. Inoltre la maggior parte dei fiduciari rimarrà al di fuori del registro centrale. Anche l'identificazione dei titolari effettivi risulta complessa e comunque limitata ai soggetti che possiedono o controllano oltre il 25% del capitale sociale.

Infine, anche se nulla impedisce a uno Stato di adottare misure ancora più stringenti, sappiamo che il rischio di un ulteriore annacquamento a livello di recepimento è molto alto. L'ampia discrezionalità a livello nazionale rischia inoltre di portare un'implementazione disomogenea tra gli Stati membri creando nuove scappatoie e possibilità di arbitraggio regolamentare.

Bisogna, appunto, stare molto attenti a questa questione legata alle fiduciarie perché abbiamo visto come il crimine organizzato spesso ricicla attraverso questi strumenti.

 
  
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  Alojz Peterle (PPE). V okvir monetarne unije, bančne unije in skupne fiskalne politike spada tudi skupni boj proti nezakonitemu prenosu sredstev, ki velikokrat služi kriminalnim namenom, brez spoštovanja pravil in preko nacionalnih meja.

V tem smislu pozdravljam sporazum, ki sta ga Parlament in Svet uskladila brez večjih zapletov.

V času, ko se pogovarjamo o zunanjepolitični strategiji in skupni varnostni in obrambni politiki, spadajo tudi take uredbe v bran integritete Zveze in njenih državljanov.

Vemo, da nezakoniti finančni tokovi velikokrat končajo v davčnih oazah, zato je tudi odgovornost Zveze, da poveča pritisk na tiste države, ki take možnosti dopuščajo, da sodelujejo v boju proti takšnim nezakonitim finančnim tokovom ter izboljšajo preglednost.

V tem smislu je tudi pomembno, da Zveza vodi pristopne procese tako, da kandidatke konvergirajo k istim principom preprečevanja kriminalnih in nezakonitih finančnih tokov.

 
  
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  Илияна Йотова (S&D). Три законодателни пакета до този момент са приети в битката с прането на пари. За съжаление резултатите са много по-слаби от очакванията ни. Престъпността е гъвкава и винаги една крачка пред нас. Нещо трябва да се промени.

Трябва ни нова, холистична политика с обвързващи закони и общ подход за борба с корупцията, организираната престъпност и прането на пари. Европа трябва да бъде лидер в борбата с данъчните убежища, а не да си затваря очите пред тях.

В момента Европейската комисия наблюдава две страни – България и Румъния, за напредъка в областта с борбата за престъпността, но този механизъм е изчерпан и неработещ.

Докладът за корупцията на комисар Малстрьом показва огромни размери във всички страни. Трябва ни общо европейско законодателство, сближаване на наказателните норми в държавите членки, за да не се възползват трансграничните престъпни мрежи от различията и вратичките в националните закони.

Очакваме тази политика да бъде основната част от новата стратегия за сигурност до 2020 г.

 
  
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  Peter van Dalen (ECR). Het witwassen van geld kost de mondiale economie jaarlijks 1 300 miljard euro, een enorme som illegaal verkregen geld, bijvoorbeeld verkregen door mensensmokkel en drugshandel. En dat wordt nu in de reguliere economie gebracht. Ik vind dat onrechtvaardig.

Met deze nieuwe wetgeving kunnen wij het witwassen van geld en de financiering van terrorisme beter aanpakken, omdat economisch eigendom en risico's inzichtelijk worden gemaakt. Dat steun ik. Dat komt de eerlijke handel ten goede. Het aanpakken van frauduleuze praktijken doet ook recht aan ondernemers en andere burgers die zich gewoon aan de wet houden, zoals het hoort.

Eén kanttekening over de gegevensbescherming. Kunnen persoonlijke data die zijn verkregen voor witwassen niet voor andere doeleinden worden gebruikt, bijvoorbeeld commerciële? Ik wil graag het antwoord daarop van de commissaris, want zij moet hier echt de vinger strak aan de pols houden. Was witwassers de oren, maar zorg ervoor dat burgers en hun gegevens goed beschermd zijn.

 
  
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  Monica Macovei (PPE). Domnule Președinte, directiva spălării banilor face un pas înainte, dar nu anihilează toate canalele prin care banii noștri se scurg în valizele infractorilor sau iau calea terorismului și finanțează acte de terorism în care mor oameni. De exemplu, directiva cere companiilor datele beneficiarilor reali, datele persoanelor care au profit de pe urma activității companiilor, însă accesul la aceste date este permis presei și cetățenilor numai dacă aceștia dovedesc un interes serios și legitim. Prin urmare, avem o barieră pentru aflarea publică a beneficiarilor reali ai acestor companii. Mai departe, companiile fantomă nu sunt eliminate prin această directivă. În continuare avem companii gigant, care fac profituri uriașe, în paradisuri fiscale. Sigur, nu sunt aceste companii de vină, ele se duc unde au un profit mai mare. De vină suntem noi în Uniunea Europeană pentru că permitem paradisuri fiscale, cum e de pildă Luxemburgul, în interiorul Uniunii. Aceasta înseamnă miliarde de euro pierduți din banii cetățenilor noștri pentru că aceste companii nu plătesc taxele așa cum le plătesc în alte țări. Mai departe, cazinourile - locul unde se spală banii în mod frecvent și seară de seară, noapte de noapte - sunt scutite de verificarea identității clienților. O altă problemă este că frauda fiscală este numai o infracțiune subsidiară spălării banilor. Vreau să fac un apel colegilor ...

(Președintele a întrerupt vorbitorul)

 
  
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  Elly Schlein (S&D). Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, ringrazio l'enorme sforzo dei colleghi relatori e anche la Presidenza italiana. Dopo lunghi negoziati l'Europa sta per compiere un passo in avanti nella lotta contro il riciclaggio, la corruzione, la criminalità organizzata e l'evasione fiscale. Di particolare importanza è l'istituzione di un registro pubblico centralizzato e obbligatorio per ogni Stato membro nel quale dovranno essere registrati i dati riguardanti la proprietà effettiva delle società e dei trust.

Certo avremmo voluto più coraggio da parte del Consiglio nel garantire, come chiedevamo, l'accesso aperto ai registri, e non solo a chi dimostra un legittimo interesse. Ma questo è un buon inizio e sarà fondamentale garantire l'accesso ai giornalisti e alle ONG.

La trasparenza è cruciale per proteggere l'economia legale – si stima che il 70% dei casi di corruzione coinvolge società fantasma – ma anche per contrastare la criminalità organizzata e la piaga dell'evasione fiscale, che in Europa costa centinaia di miliardi all'anno, e ancora di più nei paesi in via di sviluppo. È un problema globale e servono soluzioni globali.

Speriamo che questa direttiva sia un primo passo di un cammino ancora lungo.

 
  
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  Kazimierz Michał Ujazdowski (ECR). Panie Przewodniczący! Szanowni Państwo! Jestem zwolennikiem oszczędnej regulacji, ale w tej sprawie, w sprawie walki z praniem brudnych pieniędzy, nie mam wątpliwości, że Unia Europejska powinna nie wahać się i ustanowić skuteczne regulacje. Potrzeba nam zdecydowania, po pierwsze w stworzeniu instrumentów organizacyjnych do walki z praniem brudnych pieniędzy – i muszę powiedzieć, że nie tylko cieszę się z tego, iż powstaje rejestr rzeczywistych właścicieli, ale nie podzielam też tego przekonania, iż ma on zagrozić prywatności. Nie wahajmy się przy stwarzaniu instrumentów, które zwalczają najgorsze formy przestępczości, w tym wypadku pranie brudnych pieniędzy. Nie używajmy argumentu z zakresu ochrony danych osobowych.

I wreszcie potrzeba nam wdrożenia tego, co uchwaliliśmy – niestety w bardzo wielu państwach zalecenia międzynarodowe ONZ, Rady Europy dotyczące walki z praniem brudnych pieniędzy, konfiskaty mienia nie są jeszcze wdrożone. Chciałbym, żeby Komisja pilnowała i ...

(Przewodniczący odebrał mówcy głos)

 
  
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  Julia Pitera (PPE). Panie Przewodniczący! Znany od lat proceder prania brudnych pieniędzy wiąże się głównie z funkcjonowaniem przestępczości zorganizowanej. Zjawisko to oddziałuje na międzynarodowy system finansowy i światową gospodarkę. Biuro Narodów Zjednoczonych ds. Narkotyków i Przestępczości w swoim sprawozdaniu z badań podało w 2011 r., że coroczna wartość dochodów pochodzących z tego przestępstwa może sięgać nawet 2,7% globalnego PKB i szacuje się, że co roku wzrasta. Sprzyja temu proces globalizacji, skomplikowania rynków światowych oraz rozwój technologiczny, podobnie jak swobodny przepływ kapitału i różnorodność instrumentów finansowych. Sprzyja temu też niewątpliwie anonimowość i poufność danych klienta banku, które – w usługach bankowych online szczególnie – ułatwiają ukrywanie źródeł dochodów. A źródła te poza przestępczością zorganizowaną finansują również światowy terroryzm.

Dokonywanie ataków terrorystycznych wymaga zazwyczaj znacznych nakładów finansowych i na przygotowanie, i na realizację. Dlatego proponowane rejestry mające zapobiegać wykorzystywaniu systemu finansowego do prania pieniędzy lub finansowania terroryzmu, mam nadzieję, że okażą się skutecznym sposobem ograniczania możliwości działania grup przestępczych i terrorystycznych i otworzą drogę do dalszego doskonalenia systemu walki ze światem przestępczym.

 
  
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  Tomáš Zdechovský (PPE). Pane předsedající, paní komisařko, vážení zpravodajové a stínoví zpravodajové, nejdříve mi dovolte vám poděkovat za výbornou práci na této směrnici. Jsem rád a jsem hrdý na to, že právě česká komisařka přinesla mezi nás tento klíčový dokument, který posouvá Evropu dál v boji proti nelegálním obchodům a praní špinavých peněz.

Suma, která zde padla a která je odhadována, týkající se praní špinavých peněz je velice alarmující. Ale ještě závažnější je fakt, že nikdo z nás není s jistotou schopen určit, odkud a kam takové peníze tečou a komu slouží. Proto považuji za nezbytné, aby takové transakce byly sledovány pečlivě a dlouhodobě, ale také i transparentně. Osobně jsem i zastánce bezhotovostní ekonomiky a na rozdíl od kolegyně von Storch se domnívám, že právě bezhotovostní ekonomika může výrazně přispět k tomu, aby Evropa pokročila o kus dál v boji proti praní špinavých peněz.

Jednu věc bych chtěl zmínit na závěr, kterou tady nikdo nezmínil. Pro tyto nelegální aktivity je typický mezinárodní rozsah, rychlý vývoj a nepředpokládatelný směr. Proto se tedy nesmíme spokojit pouze se zavedením opatření na úrovni Evropské unie, to je jenom začátek, ale usilovat o úzké propojení a spolupráci všech našich partnerů.

 
  
 

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Ildikó Gáll-Pelcz (PPE). Tisztelt Biztos Asszony, tisztelt jelentéstevők! Először is szeretném megköszönni az Önök munkáját. Kiváló munkát végeztek. Napjainkra a pénzmosás az egyik legjövedelmezőbb és legnagyobb szabású üzletté alakult át. Jogszabályok persze léteznek, újabbak és újabbak lesznek, azonban a bűnszövetkezeteknek a mozgását nagyon nehéz követni. Ez egy nagyon jelentős és kihívásokkal teli feladat.

Egyetértek azzal a megállapítással, ami arról szól, hogy a külföldi jogalanyoknak meg kell felelniük az információ átláthatóságával kapcsolatban az adott országban érvényes követelményeknek. Egyetértek azzal is, hogy a cégnyilvántartásoknak a működését javítani kell, hogy a végső tulajdonosról legyen információnk. Ez nem egy könnyű feladat, a tagállamoknak is nagyon sok munkájuk van itt, és egyébként az Európai Uniónak magának. Ha a végső célt látom, azt gondolom, ez egy kiváló eszköz lehet.

 
  
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  Doru-Claudian Frunzulică (S&D). Mr President, I welcome the inclusion in this report of our group regarding the setting up of a public register on beneficial owners. Access to the public register on beneficial owners is subject to a legitimate interest. This formulation will allow those Member States which wish to be more transparent to adopt a broad definition of legitimate interest. Then Member States may provide for an exemption to access to all or part of the beneficial ownership information on a case-by-case basis in exceptional circumstances, if this would expose the beneficial owner to the risk of fraud, kidnapping, blackmail, violence or intimidation, or if the beneficial owner is a minor or otherwise incapable. The Fourth AMLD will provide a sound basis for providing maximum transparency in respect of beneficial ownership of corporate structures across the European Union.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). Κύριε Πρόεδρε, οι ενδο-ομιλικές συναλλαγές έδωσαν την ευκαιρία στις πολυεθνικές να φοροδιαφεύγουν διότι δεν φορολογούνται εκεί όπου παράγονται τα κέρδη τους, αλλά σε φορολογικούς παραδείσους. Και αυτό σημαίνει απώλεια δισεκατομμυρίων ευρώ από τις χώρες της Αφρικής ή τις χώρες του ευρωπαϊκού Νότου.

Ταυτόχρονα, πολλές μεγάλες πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις, που δραστηριοποιούνται στην Ελλάδα, φοροδιαφεύγουν, έχοντας εγκατασταθεί φορολογικά είτε στην Ολλανδία, είτε στο Λουξεμβούργο, που είχαμε και το γνωστό σκάνδαλο του 'Lux Leaks'. Πρέπει επίσης να κτυπηθεί η πρακτική των "Οφ-σορ" εταιρειών που συμβάλλουν στο ξέπλυμα μαύρου χρήματος. Τέλος πρέπει να ληφθούν μέτρα για να καταπολεμηθούν οι Τζιχαντιστές που χρηματοδοτούνται με την πώληση πετρελαίου στις χώρες της Δύσης.

Για τον λόγο αυτό συμφωνούμε με την τήρηση κεντρικών δημοσίων αρχείων για τους πραγματικούς ιδιοκτήτες των επιχειρήσεων. Πρέπει όμως να υπάρξουν εγγυήσεις για τη χρήση των προσωπικών δεδομένων. Διαφωνούμε όμως με την εξαίρεση των καζίνο και των τυχερών παιχνιδιών από την εφαρμογή της νομοθεσίας.

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). Gospodine predsjedniče, gospođo povjerenice, kolege izvjestitelji, htio bih svakako pozdraviti novo zakonodavstvo i htio bih reći da je to odličan korak naprijed. Ali, mislim da je to samo jedan korak naprijed.

Dakle, nešto što je svakako pozitivno, nešto što pokazuje da se želimo razračunati s onima koji peru novac, financiraju terorizam, kradu naše građane, naše gospodarstvo, naše proračune i mislim da je to sjajna inicijativa i da imamo odlična riješenja.

Međutim, ono što vidim kao problem su dvije stvari: 1. činjenica je da će sada sve na neki način ovisiti o aktivnostima i željama država članica i njihovom uspjehu u borbi protiv tog kriminala, pranja novca i financiranja terorizma kao i problem trećih zemalja. Tu moramo biti potpuno jasni - taj problem nećemo riješiti ako aktivno ne surađujemo s trećim zemljama.

 
  
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  Igor Šoltes (Verts/ALE). Torej oba dokumenta, in direktiva in uredba, sta dokumenta v pravo smer.

Seveda to še ni razlog za odpiranje šampanjcev, ker pranje denarja predstavlja dejansko realno grožnjo glede stabilnosti finančnega sistema.

Če torej več kot tisoč milijard vsako leto operemo na ta način, če se izogibamo davkov, če torej tudi v sami Evropi vzpostavljamo pogoje za to, da lahko pride do izogibanja davkov, to seveda ni dobro in upam, da bodo ta nova pravila, ko bodo stopila v veljavo, dala korak v pravo smer.

Posebej se poudarja tudi transparentnost pri vseh teh stvareh, tudi register, ki naj bo javen, saj se popolnoma strinjam pri transparentnosti seveda tako, kot so nekateri rekli, da je tako kot Sveti Gral, da seveda veš, da obstaja, pa ga nikakor ne moreš doseči.

Mislim pa, da seveda to področje pranja denarja predstavlja pravzaprav enega največjih izzivov, zato da lahko stabiliziramo gospodarstvo in finance tudi naprej.

 
  
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  Milan Zver (PPE). Najprej čestitam kolegu Kariņšu in njegovim sokolegom poročevalcem za odlično opravljeno delo.

Danes smo že slišali, da globalno gospodarstvo zaradi pranja denarja izgublja 5 % obsega proizvodnje, kar seveda neposredno vpliva na revščino, saj imajo od tega zla koristi le kriminalci in teroristi.

Si lahko predstavljate razmere, ko bi ves ta denar vložili v človeški kapital? Kaj bi to pomenilo zlasti za revnejše države?

Nova evropska zakonodaja uvaja učinkovite ukrepe policije, davčnih uradov in tudi drugih organov pri izkoreninjenju tega družbenega zla.

Uvedba registracije finančnih akterjev ter ukrep črnih seznamov za tretje države z visokim tveganjem za pranje denarja se mi zdita dobra ukrepa v boju proti pranju denarja.

Nenazadnje, globalni problem zahteva globalni in seveda holistični pristop. Verjamem, da smo na dobri poti in da bomo na ta način otežili delo kriminalnim združbam in očistili finančno gospodarstvo.

 
  
  

Președinte: IOAN MIRCEA PAȘCU
Vicepreședinte

 
  
 

(Încheierea intervențiilor la cerere)

 
  
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  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. Mr President, the discussion I have just heard gives me quite a strong impression that tomorrow’s vote could help things happen and help to achieve all the positive results which we spoke about that we need to achieve through this new package of two pieces of legislation.

I heard Members speaking also about criminal law and about data protection, so let me also tell you in a few words about these angles from which we can look at the problem of organised crime. I would like to tell you that we are taking a very comprehensive approach to combating crime in the criminal law sphere. We are now strengthening the functions of, and cooperation between, the Eurojust and Europol agencies, especially in relation to strengthening security in Europe. Members also spoke about third countries and the necessity to enlarge our activities there and to focus on third country nationals, so I would like to inform you that also under the security agenda we plan to enlarge the ECRIS register, which is the register of criminal offenders for third country nationals, which can also help us to have a better information flow regarding suspects and probable perpetrators.

The second thing Members mentioned was data protection. I am very glad that I am responsible also for this new regulation. The data protection reform which we are now preparing – and hopefully finalising this year in the Council, followed by the trilogue in the next year – is a real revolution, because it replaces 28 national regimes by one strong pan-European regime for protection of personal data.

So speaking about data protection in relation to the Anti-Money Laundering Directive and related things in the new legislation, I can say that we pay very high attention to protecting fundamental rights and especially the right to privacy and the right to the protection of personal data. These two pieces of legislation are very compatible and they can work together very well when they are introduced in practice.

As for the package itself, I am happy that I heard here that Members find the package a practical, reasonable, necessary and proportionate set of rules for combating crime in the financial sphere. Besides that, it is to combat organised crime such as money laundering, tax evasion and other related crimes, but also – many times mentioned here – terrorism. It is not here only to save money and to prevent money from going into a black hole somewhere, but to use the money for much better purposes, which was said several times. It is not only about saving money, it is, I may say, about saving human lives, because financial transactions are usually, or very often, the first signs that a terrorist attack or some terrorist action is being prepared, so this has an essential role for strengthening security in Europe.

I would like to thank Parliament once again for its support. I hope tomorrow’s vote will push us forward.

 
  
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  Krišjānis Kariņš, referents. Vēlreiz paldies visiem par sadarbību šīs direktīvas tapšanā!

Debatēs runāja daudz, bet faktiski frakciju viedoklis ir ļoti vienots. Tas ir, Eiropas Parlamenta frakcijas tiešām ir apņēmības pilnas atbalstīt šo direktīvu, kas tik tiešām uzlabos cīņu pret naudas atmazgāšanu, izveidojot konkrēti šo Eiropas Savienības mēroga patiesā labuma guvēju reģistru.

Paldies visiem!

 
  
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  Judith Sargentini, rapporteur. Mr President, many of my colleagues pointed out that the public register would not be ‘public’ because you have to have a legitimate interest. I would like to point out that we made sure that in the proposal it says that the authority has to clarify whether you do or not, so they have to prove that you do not have a legitimate interest.

I would like the first journalist who has been told he or she does not have a legitimate interest to go to court, clarify it and, at the same time, open up the public register and make it even more public. I do not think any authority can say that you, as a citizen, do not have a legitimate interest to look into a register to look for fraud, corruption and anti-money laundering issues. You will get that access.

It is also a self-fulfilling prophecy: if we start saying here that it has its limitations, it will have its limitations. If we say here, ‘let us try it out’, we will open up that register even more.

 
  
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  Timothy Kirkhope, rapporteur. Mr President, it has been a most interesting debate. I thank the Commissioner particularly for her comments both at the beginning and after the debate. I would just like to point out that my primary aim in my part of this has been to try and get the fourth Anti—Money Laundering Directive just about right. I heard some concerns and if I may just say on the issue of trusts and wills: trusts and wills contain some of the most private and personal information that there is about a person, and we are a parliament that respects data privacy, hence disclosure for trusts has to be proportionate within our proposals.

New payment methods are emerging every day with increasingly sophisticated technological capabilities by criminals, individuals and groups in the digital and in the cyber world, as has been expressed by a number of people. We do indeed face a very tough challenge, but I think we have dealt with most of the concerns. I think we have found workable solutions and addressed concerns generally. So I want to again express my thanks to all those involved and I hope that we will have a successful outcome in the vote.

 
  
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  Peter Simon, Berichterstatter. Herr Präsident! Auch ich möchte allen Beteiligten noch einmal für die Zusammenarbeit danken und zum Abschluss feststellen, dass wir im Großen und Ganzen mit dem erzielten Kompromiss, insbesondere mit der Einführung der öffentlichen zentralen Register, zufrieden sein können, mit dem Register, das sämtliche Informationen zu den wirtschaftlich Berechtigten hinter undurchsichtigen Firmenkonstruktionen enthält.

Wir müssen uns aber auch darüber im Klaren sein, dass der Kampf gegen Geldwäsche und Betrug ständig aufs Neue aufgenommen werden muss, denn die Methoden der Geldwäscher entwickeln sich ständig weiter. Deshalb müssen wir als Gesetzgeber auch über den morgigen Tag, über die Abstimmung hinaus nicht nur reagieren, sondern ambitioniert handeln und vorgehen. Deshalb ist der mit dem Rat erzielte Kompromiss zwar ein erneuter, weiterer wichtiger Schritt, dem aber auch in Zukunft weitere folgen müssen. Wir müssen wachsam sein, dass die Vorgaben der neuen EU-Geldwäscherichtlinie effektiv umgesetzt werden und dass die Mitgliedstaaten insbesondere den Zugang zu den zentralen Registern für Personen mit legitimem Interesse nicht unnötig erschweren oder behindern.

Ebenso müssen wir die Kooperation der nationalen Ermittler durch eine schnellstmögliche Verknüpfung der nationalen Register erleichtern. Es ist und bleibt schwer verständlich, warum wir mit der Verlinkung der nationalen Register vier Jahre lang warten sollen, obwohl die Informationen theoretisch verfügbar sind, der Informationsaustausch aber hierdurch verhindert wird.

Ich glaube, hier müssen wir alle gemeinsam ansetzen, denn der Kampf gegen Geldwäsche und Betrug kennt keine Grenzen und muss auf europäischer und auf globaler Ebene geführt werden.

 
  
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  Preşedinte – Dezbaterea a fost închisă.

Votul va avea loc mâine, 20 mai 2015.

Declaraţii scrise (articolul 162)

 
  
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  Kinga Gál (PPE), in writing. We welcome the approval of this second reading agreement on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing. In our fight against organised crime, we must ensure that the transparency of the financial system will be a serious obstacle to financing criminal activities and terrorist operations. These rules improve the traceability of payments, so important in preventing and detecting money laundering and terrorist financing when transferring funds. They also regulate payment service providers to send information on the payer throughout the payment chain for the purposes of prevention, investigation and detection of money laundering and terrorist financing. We need to strengthen the EU’s repressive response to money laundering as well as harmonise criminal law for this offence. One effective way to fight terrorism is by cutting their sources of funding. We can achieve this by increasing transparency in financial transfers and strengthening the EU financial system.

 
  
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  Sandra Kalniete (PPE), rakstiski. Jaunās direktīvas par naudas atmazgāšanu mērķis ir cīnīties pret noziegumiem nodokļu jomā un teroristu organizāciju finansēšanu. Gaidāms, ka tiks apstiprināti arī jaunie noteikumi, kas uzlabos naudas līdzekļu pārvedumu izsekojamību. Eiropas Parlamentam ir izdevies panākt, ka uzņēmumu faktiskie īpašnieki būs jāreģistrē ES dalībvalstu centrālajos reģistros, kas būs pieejami gan kompetentajām iestādēm, gan personām, kam ir likumīga interese par šo informāciju, piemēram, pētnieciskajiem žurnālistiem. Likumprojektā ir iestrādāta prasība par vienota patiesā labuma guvēju reģistra izveidi ES. Tas būs spēcīgs ierocis, kas neļaus kriminālajām aprindām slēpties aiz ofšoru anonimitātes, kā arī tas tiesībsargājošajām iestādēm dos jaunu instrumentu efektīvai cīņai pret naudas atmazgāšanu, kā arī nodokļu krāpšanās shēmām. Reģistrs ļaus uzzināt, kam un kur ir jāmaksā nodokļi, veicinās godīgu konkurenci un līdz ar to arī uzlabos investīciju klimatu dalībvalstīs. Likumprojektā noteikts, ka tiesībsargājošajām iestādēm, kā arī bankām, juristiem, auditoriem un citām likumprojektā atrunātajām institūcijām būs pieejama informācija par patiesā labuma guvējiem visā ES teritorijā. Vienotajam patiesā labuma guvēju reģistram būs jāsāk darboties divu gadu laikā kopš likuma stāšanās spēkā. Likumprojekts nosaka “melnā saraksta” ieviešanu trešo valstu jurisdikcijām ar nepilnībām naudas atmazgāšanas novēršanā. Līdz ar to uzņēmumi vai personas no “melnā saraksta” valstīm tiks stingri pārbaudīti.

 
  
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  Evelyn Regner (S&D), schriftlich. Wir verhandeln nun seit zwei Jahren über die vorliegenden Gesetzestexte. In diesen zwei Jahren wurden Offshore Leaks und Lux Leaks bekannt, und es liegen auch Schätzungen vor, welche uns die enorme Dimension der Steuerhinterziehung und Geldwäsche vor Augen führen: Allein der Europäischen Union entgehen jährlich Steuern in der Höhe von einer Billion Euro; weltweit wird eine Geldmenge zwischen 615 Mrd. EUR und 1,54 Bio. EUR gewaschen. Transparenz ist eine wesentliche Voraussetzung, um Geldwäsche und Steuerhinterziehung effektiv zu bekämpfen. Der vorliegende Kompromiss schafft Unternehmenstransparenz und wird die Identität von eigentlichen Nutznießern, wirtschaftlichen Eigentümern von Briefkastenfirmen offenlegen. Dieser Erfolg des Europäischen Parlaments ist ein wichtiger Schritt bei der Bekämpfung von Steuerhinterziehung und Geldwäsche. Doch die Überprüfung der Kooperation zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten wird erst in vier Jahren erfolgen. Eine unnötig lange Zeit! Auch die Ausweitung des Unternehmensregisters auf Drittländer anhand einer schwarzen Liste ist eine positive Entwicklung. Aber auch hier könnten wir mehr erreichen und sollten eine Ausweitung des Unternehmensregisters auf Drittländer forcieren.

 
  
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  Lola Sánchez Caldentey (GUE/NGL), por escrito. La importancia de la movilización de recursos domésticos se ha convertido en un tema recurrente en los debates de cooperación para el desarrollo y en un objetivo declarado de la UE. Se reconoce, cada vez más, el papel positivo de los impuestos que aumentan los ingresos del Estado para financiar un desarrollo sostenible y equitativo que reduzca la pobreza y la desigualdad. Sin embargo, es práctica común el uso de entidades legales anónimas para blanquear ganancias ilícitas. Se estima que hasta un 2,7 % del PIB mundial es dinero lavado procedente de actividades delictivas. El Banco Mundial estima que en más del 70 % de los casos de corrupción a gran escala participan compañías anónimas. La gente decente no va a contentarse más con simples palabras duras contra el lavado de dinero que no vayan acompañadas de acciones concretas. El sistema actual y las reglas impuestas hasta ahora por los legisladores no logran detener estos flujos ilícitos. Es hora de un cambio, es hora de medidas concretas y efectivas contra el blanqueo de capitales.

 
Last updated: 9 July 2015Legal notice