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четвъртък, 12 май 2016 г. - Страсбург Редактирана версия

7. Предотвратяване и борба с трафика на хора (разискване)
Видеозапис на изказванията

Presidente. – L'ordine del giorno reca la relazione di Catherine Bearder, a nome della commissione per i diritti della donna e l'uguaglianza di genere, sull'attuazione della direttiva 2011/36/UE del 5 aprile 2011 concernente la prevenzione e la repressione della tratta di esseri umani e la protezione delle vittime da una prospettiva di genere (2015/2118(INI)) (A8-0144/2016).


  Catherine Bearder, rapporteur. – Mr President, this debate must focus on the victims – people taken from their homes, forced or deceived into exploitative, demeaning and often dangerous situations, at risk of violence, abused, and too often arrested for crimes that they have been coerced into committing. The most marginal in our communities are the most vulnerable to exploitation. Imagine a young Eastern European woman: smart and ambitious, seeking a good life with opportunities, she meets a young man and falls in love with him and his promises of a good life together. She follows him to London, only to find that he has brought her to a brothel. Her passport and personal possessions are taken, she is pushed into a bedroom with no sheets on the bed, and she is beaten if she refuses any client that is brought to her. She is too brutalised to make any decision about escape or where to seek for help. Her boyfriend has deserted her, probably recruiting other victims. Other girls in the brothel like her: young, scared, beaten, raped and isolated. The men who come to the brothel don’t ask questions, not concerned about the bruises or the fact that she can’t speak the language.

The EU trafficking legislation is now 5 years old. It is an excellent framework for the protection of victims and is a great example of how EU countries can come together to address issues that can’t be tackled alone. But many countries are slow in implementing this. They, and we, are failing the victims across Europe. Victims experience terrible brutality and suffer many long—term physical, mental and emotional effects. I’m confirming the need that victims are properly provided for, with healthcare, accommodation, material assistance and legal support. This legal support should include claiming compensation, which victims are entitled to but very rarely get. Legal support should be available and free of charge. Victims who have been exploited are in no position to pay for that help. I’m also calling for an extension of the 30—day minimum recovery and reflection period, particularly for victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The effects of this form of trafficking demand specialist support over a very long period. In the UK we have 45 days, but even this is a short time for survivors who have been repeatedly raped over many months. We owe them more than just this month of recovery.

Professionals need to be trained to spot trafficked people. This is clearly failing now. This includes front—line law—enforcement and border staff, judges, magistrates, healthcare professionals, counsellors, teachers and others. Sadly, we will never know how many victims are not found. We must also step up awareness campaigns for groups vulnerable to the traffickers, as well as the wider public, to help them spot the signs of trafficking. Trafficking in human beings is happening where you all live. Open your eyes to the signs of trafficking. We should suspect trafficking when we spot sleeping bags in restaurant kitchens, or factory workers working long hours in poor conditions. It’s in the porn movies and the brothels where the girls can’t speak the local language and never leave to go to the shops. The directive asked Member states to consider criminalising the knowing use of services of trafficked people. To me, it’s scandalous that this is not already a crime. Where else is it acceptable for someone to knowingly engage in an illegal act but not be prosecuted for it? I am pleased that I have been able to work on this report and to play my part in stamping out this vile crime. I look forward to listening to the coming debate.


  Malin Björk, föredragande av yttrande från utskottet för medborgerliga fri- och rättigheter samt rättsliga och inrikes frågor. – Herr talman! I mitt tidigare jobb arbetade jag bland annat med att bekämpa kvinnohandel. Jag arbetade med kvinnojourer, poliser, åklagare och överlevare från prostitution.

En del av det jag lärde mig av dem har jag försökt omsätta i Europaparlamentets text som vi ska rösta om idag. Jag ska lyfta fram de viktigaste delarna.

Det första är att vi måste ha olika strategier för olika former av människohandel. I Europa är den absolut vanligaste formen av människohandel den för sexuellt utnyttjande, även om det naturligtvis finns människohandel för arbetskraftsexploatering, som det här betänkandet också hanterar.

Vi måste ha ett könsperspektiv. De som utsätts är i majoritet kvinnor och flickor. Vi måste förstärka rättigheterna för dem som utsätts, precis som Miss Bearder har sagt. De ska ha allt stöd, och de ska också ha rätt till uppehållstillstånd.

Kollegor, vi måste följa pengarna och bekämpa dem som tjänar på handeln. Vi måste bekämpa efterfrågan. Det är nyckeln i arbetet, och det här betänkandet lyfter fram det på ett tydligt sätt.

När vi pratar om efterfrågan så vill jag säga några ord om efterfrågan i sexindustrin. Det här huset måste sätta ner foten och säga att utnyttjande av kvinnor och flickor, pojkar och män i prostitutionsindustrin inte är okej.

De flesta går in i det här när de är barn, och det är inte okej, även om de sedan blir vuxna. Istället för att gång på gång straffa dem som är utsatta, och dem som är utnyttjade, är det dags att lägga ansvaret där det hör hemma. Det vill säga att vi ska angripa hallickarna, bordellägarna och sexköparna, Johns, eller torskar, som vi säger på svenska.

Jag vet att det är radikalt här i huset att våga föreslå att män inte ska ha rätt att köpa tillgång till kvinnors kroppar. Men vi lever inte i 1800-talet längre. Det är 2016 – det är dags och ta ställning för en mer progressiv syn på sexualitet och på relationen mellan kvinnor och män.

Det är en fråga om att stå upp för mänskliga rättigheter, för feminism och för jämställdhet.

Att avkriminalisera dem som utsätts, och att istället kriminalisera dem som utnyttjar, både sexköpare och hallickar, är också ett effektivt sätt att bekämpa efterfrågan. Tar du bort efterfrågan blir det ingen handel med människor.

Det är ett steg i rätt riktning att det här betänkandet vill kriminalisera dem som köper tjänster från dem som utsatts för människohandel, men vi kan komma ännu längre nästa gång. Tack för ett gemensamt arbete!


  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, firstly I would like to thank the rapporteur, Mrs Bearder. I am committed to ensure that we will continue to stress the gender dimension of trafficking and ensure a victim-centred approach.

With the same proactive manner we will continue to ensure that European Union law and standards related to anti-trafficking efforts are properly transposed. Out of the 27 concerned Member States, 26 have communicated to the Commission full transposition of the anti-trafficking Directive. The one remaining, Germany, has informed us about a political agreement reached and we are expecting information on the transposition soon. Our services are currently in the process of analysing the information officially notified by the Member States, with the help of a compliance study.

The report on the extent to which the Member States comply with the Directive is foreseen to be presented by the Commission in the fourth quarter of 2016. The Commission has been particularly pro-active in monitoring the transposition: only one month after the transposition deadline in May 2013, the Commission had opened 13 infringements based on non-communication. In November of the same year the Commission had sent four reasoned opinions as part of infringement proceedings for non-communication - to Spain, Luxembourg, Italy and Cyprus. This demonstrates the commitment of the Commission not to hesitate in taking actions for ensuring implementation of EU law. The Commission will soon present the first report assessing the progress made in fighting trafficking in human beings. With this report we identify areas of progress and achievement, but also expose gaps and efforts that are still to be made. Clearly, the EU has delivered but still a lot remains to be done.

Our message should be clear: we cannot allow people, human beings, to be treated like commodities. We must work together to ensure we prevent the crime from happening because then it is too late. We must crack down on trafficking where it matters for traffickers the most, on their profits. At the same time, we must ensure that we also crack down on the demand for services and cheap labour that fosters all forms of exploitation. Here we all have a role to play; we must ensure we do not foster a culture of impunity for those who exploit and use the victims. We must ensure that the victims are not treated like the criminals. To do this, we must do it together and I count on this Parliament to continue working in this direction. This year is a turning point and there is only one way: the way forward.


  Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, on behalf of the PPE Group. – Mr President, trafficking in human beings is the new slavery of our times. The figures are stunning, and the stories are heartbreaking: behind every story, there is a human tragedy. It is time to stop impunity. There should be no hiding place in Europe for traffickers.

The majority of victims are women and girls to be exploited for prostitution in Europe. More and more are migrants. Trafficking is a serious organised crime and should be prosecuted as such. It is a huge business with high profits and too low a risk. The networks are sophisticated and cross-border. We should step up our common European response on all fronts: police and judicial cooperation, better sharing of information, strengthening Europol, Eurojust, Frontex and the hot spots, and tracking the money and confiscating the assets of the traffickers.

And, of course, Member States should do more to prevent and combat trafficking and protect the victims, including on the Internet, by increasing sanctions, training officials and giving victims access to healthcare, including sexual and reproductive rights assistance and psychological support, paying particular attention to the most vulnerable, such as children. It is also very important to reduce demand and to criminalise the users of sex services.

The PPE Group will continue to be committed to zero tolerance against trafficking in human beings and will keep women’s and girls’ rights at the top of our agenda. It really is time for them to be freed.


  Mary Honeyball, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Mr President, this report is very timely. As more and more refugees and asylum seekers come to Europe, so more are vulnerable to trafficking, and we in this Parliament and the European Union have to take a two—pronged approach to the terrible issue of human trafficking.

First of all, zero tolerance: we will not tolerate human trafficking in any form at all, whether it is women and girls – who are by far the majority of victims – or other human beings who are trafficked for labour exploitation and other forms of exploitation.

As part of the two-pronged strategy, we also need to focus on victims, and that is difficult. Most of the victims, as has already been said, are vulnerable women who have been trafficked away from where they came from and who face appalling abuse. But we need to make sure that we and the Member States provide adequate services for them so that they can come forward. We should do this because we should do it, but we should also do it because victims can play a key role in identifying traffickers and making sure that those traffickers – the majority of whom, interestingly, are men – can be prosecuted and convicted, because unless we address this, we will not wipe out trafficking. We also need to make it a criminal offence across all EU countries to employ the sexual services of, and to use, somebody who has been trafficked.


  Arne Gericke, im Namen der ECR-Fraktion. – Herr Präsident! Es geht heute um den europaweiten Kampf gegen Menschenhandel, und als Berichterstatter der ECR-Fraktion sage ich: Dieser Kampf muss ein gemeinsamer sein. Daher an die Adresse vieler nationaler Regierungen: Seit 2011 haben wir es verpasst, Menschenhandel, Zwangsprostitution, Kindesentführung, Drogenkartellen, aber auch menschenverachtender Leihmutterschaft entscheidend einen Riegel vorzuschieben. Es ist ein komplexes Thema, es fordert klare Kante.

Die Situation hat sich mit der Flüchtlingskrise noch einmal verschärft. Mindestens 10 000 unbegleitete Flüchtlingskinder sind in Europa verschwunden, allein 6 000 von ihnen in Deutschland. Das sind schreckliche Zahlen. Auch sie erfordern konsequentes Handeln. Menschenhandel ist eine kriminelle Mafia und muss entsprechend im Strafrecht berücksichtigt werden. Gleiches gilt für Zwangsprostitution – ein schreckliches, dreckiges Milliardengeschäft Krimineller. Geschätzte 80 Prozent der Prostituierten in Europa arbeiten nicht wirklich freiwillig. Sie werden gezwungen, ausgebeutet und benutzt. Das muss man strafrechtlich bekämpfen.


  Beatriz Becerra Basterrechea, en nombre del Grupo ALDE. – Señor Presidente, señora Jourová, quiero en primer lugar dar mi más calurosa felicitación a mi colega liberal británica, Catherine Bearder, por el excepcional trabajo que ha realizado en este informe.

La trata de personas priva de su dignidad a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Es importante recordar que no solo constituye una violación de los derechos humanos, como reconoce la Carta de los Derechos Fundamentales de la Unión, sino que es uno de los negocios ilícitos más lucrativos de Europa. Los traficantes obtienen millones, miles de millones al año de beneficio en nuestro continente. Engañan a hombres, mujeres y niños, como motivo principal para someterlos a explotación sexual, pero miles de víctimas están destinadas a la mendicidad, al trabajo forzoso o a la extracción de órganos.

El 80 % de las víctimas de trata son mujeres. La mayoría son jóvenes engañadas con falsas promesas de empleo y después violadas, drogadas, amenazadas, chantajeadas, despojadas de su pasaporte, cargadas de deudas... En Europa, unas 140 000 mujeres están sometidas a explotación sexual y a trata de personas.

Para un problema de escala europea necesitamos soluciones europeas, cómo no. Es esencial la cooperación entre Europol, Eurojust y las autoridades nacionales y de terceros países, con un intercambio sistemático de información entre los Estados miembros.

Déjenme una última reflexión: seguimos sin saber el paradero de, al menos, 10 000 menores no acompañados que entraron en la Unión el pasado 2015. No es descabellado temer que muchos puedan estar en manos de traficantes de personas. Quizá podría la señora Comisaria responderme hoy a la pregunta urgente que les trasladé hace ya tres meses: ¿qué datos de registro tienen sobre estos menores? ¿Saben su edad, saben su origen? ¿Cuál es la nueva estrategia global anunciada en la Agenda Europea de Migración como refuerzo de las funciones entre Frontex y Europol para combatir así las mafias que trafican con menores refugiados también?


  Κωνσταντίνα Κούνεβα, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας GUE/NGL. – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, γυναίκες, άνδρες, παιδιά από κάθε γωνιά της γης παγιδεύονται στη βρώμικη αγορά του κόσμου, στην αγορά ανθρώπινου σώματος. Μας σοκάρει φράση, αλλά έτσι βλέπουν οι σύγχρονοι δουλέμποροι τα 27 εκατομμύρια θύματά τους. Πάνω από 880.000 είναι τα θύματα του "trafficking" στην Ευρώπη, αλλά μόνον 8.000 υποθέσεις τον χρόνο φτάνουν στις κρατικές αρχές. Μόνο 1% των θυμάτων διασώζεται και ελάχιστοι δουλέμποροι καταδικάζονται. Ναι, έχουμε μια καλή οδηγία για την πρόληψη και την καταπολέμηση της εμπορίας ανθρώπων, αλλά τα αποτελέσματά της είναι φτωχά, διότι έρχεται σε αντίφαση με άλλες πολιτικές της Ένωσης, ιδιαίτερα την μεταναστευτική πολιτική. Για να το πούμε πιο απλά: η άρνηση της Ευρώπης να ανοίξει νόμιμους δρόμους μετακίνησης στέλνει τους μετανάστες στην αγκαλιά των διακινητών. Ας αναλογιστούν τις τεράστιες ευθύνες τους οι χώρες των κλειστών συνόρων. Με την υιοθέτηση της έκθεσης Bearder πρέπει να στείλουμε ένα ξεκάθαρο μήνυμα ότι η Ευρώπη πρέπει να κόψει κάθε σχέση συνενοχής με αυτό το απάνθρωπο εμπόριο ψυχών.


  Ernest Urtasun, en nombre del Grupo Verts/ALE. – Señor Presidente, cada año miles y miles de personas son víctimas de tratantes. El fenómeno en estos momentos es uno de los negocios ilícitos más lucrativos del mundo y tenemos un instrumento jurídico a escala de la Unión Europea, pero que lamentablemente se está aplicando muy mal: en materia de identificación de las víctimas, en materia de lo que establece el artículo 18, por ejemplo, de dar la formación necesaria a los servidores públicos y a los policías que están en contacto con las víctimas de trata; en la aplicación del artículo 8, por ejemplo, que pide que no se penalice a personas que cometen una infracción que son víctimas de trata, y se sigue multando en estos momentos a personas que son consideradas víctimas; y tampoco, por ejemplo, en dar la protección internacional por razones de trata que se exige la Directiva. Países como España, por ejemplo, no lo están haciendo.

Tenemos un grave problema de aplicación de la Directiva y tenemos un problema también, señora Jourová, tengo que decírselo, de la información que nos dan, porque la Comisión aún no nos ha facilitado el informe sobre la implementación de la Directiva. Y con eso, nosotros hemos tenido que realizar un informe —quiero dar las gracias a la ponente Bearder, porque ha hecho un excelente trabajo—, pero tenemos un grave problema en la aplicación y en la información, también, que ustedes nos dan.


  Margot Parker, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Mr President, Eurostat says that between 2010 and 2012 over 30 000 people were victims of trafficking. According to Europol over 10 000 migrant children are missing in Europe. The UK’s National Crime Agency reported that 3 309 people were potential victims of trafficking for exploitation in 2014, an increase of 21%.

Why are we seeing this modern day form of slavery on the rise? Well, a UK Government report in 2014 said free movement within the EU is extensively exploited by organised criminals to bring human trafficking victims to the United Kingdom, and in 2013 Europol even admitted that the free movement of people reduces the chance of detection of such crimes. So even the EU’s agencies and cheerleaders say that free movement is the big problem.

The EU has created the perfect environment for trafficking to flourish. I am sure business for criminals could not be better with the open door European leaders gave in response to the migrant crisis, once in Europe, and the free movement of people. By encouraging millions of people to come to Europe you are playing into the hands of the traffickers, both within and outside Europe.

Whether it is individuals paying criminals to get them into Europe or families sending off their children for the hope of a better life, the EU has put hundreds of thousands at risk of exploitation and endangered lives by encouraging an exodus across the dangerous Mediterranean Sea. But not satisfied with that, you want Turkey to join the EU and to liberalise visas. Opening the door to a country like Turkey, giving 70 million people access to the UK and Europe, will without doubt increase trafficking.

There is a simple way to deal a blow to traffickers. It is to end the free movement of people, close down the Schengen Area and stop open door immigration. It is for Member States to take back sensible control of their national borders and to conduct criminal background checks. If you want to deal a blow to trafficking, if you want to protect innocent victims, if you want to save lives and to gain a sensible ethical control of the United Kingdom borders, then the only way, I am afraid, is to vote to leave the European Union on 23rd June.


  Sylvie Goddyn, au nom du groupe ENF. – Monsieur le Président, 80 % des victimes du trafic des êtres humains sont des femmes. Il est temps de lutter efficacement contre le proxénétisme, la mendicité forcée, le mariage forcé, le travail forcé ou encore le prélèvement d'organes qui se développe de plus en plus en Europe.

Que propose ce rapport pour y remédier? De pénaliser les clients des prostituées, de sanctionner les employeurs esclavagistes et, surtout, de régulariser toutes les femmes clandestines victimes de traite.

A-t-on pensé aux conséquences qu'une telle mesure entraînerait? Je vais vous le dire: pour obtenir des papiers, les femmes seront systématiquement prostituées, réduites en esclavage ou mariées de force par les criminels qui les exploitent. Le remède serait pire que le mal, c'est une évidence.

Quelle peut être la solution? Ce n'est évidemment pas la régularisation automatique des victimes de traite. La solution, c'est de mener un combat acharné contre les trafiquants, de contrôler nos frontières nationales, de s'attaquer aux causes, et non aux conséquences, et, enfin, de faire preuve de bon sens et de fermeté.

Je voterai donc contre ce rapport car il ne s'attaque pas aux réseaux mafieux qui exploitent les femmes, il vient en quelque sorte les épauler.


  Teresa Jiménez-Becerril Barrio (PPE). – Señor Presidente, señora Comisaria, Señorías, dos de cada tres víctimas de trata son niñas, niñas como esta que, a pesar de todos los esfuerzos que hagamos por recuperarlas serán irrecuperables después de haber sido vendidas y explotadas hasta despojarlas de toda su dignidad.

Casi el 80 % de las víctimas de trata cruzan una frontera y la gran mayoría de ellas acaban en Europa, víctimas de organizaciones criminales que, tras falsas promesas de trabajo, las obligan a prostituirse. Si no tienen la fortuna de ser liberadas por la policía, muchas de ellas acaban enfermas o muertas.

No podemos seguir cerrando los ojos. Por ello, pido a la Comisión que evalúe el cumplimiento por parte de los Estados miembros de esta Directiva contra la trata, comprobando si verdaderamente se está actuando contra la impunidad que rodea la venta de seres humanos, preferentemente mujeres y niñas.

La medida principal es la prevención. Hay que actuar contra los traficantes, aumentando el enjuiciamiento y protegiendo a las víctimas que colaboran con la policía. En segundo lugar, hay que potenciar la protección de las víctimas, identificándolas y protegiéndolas para que puedan salir del infierno en el que viven, ofreciéndoles una vida digna para que no vuelvan a caer en las redes criminales. Finalmente, creo que necesitamos una mayor cooperación judicial e intercambio de información entre Estados miembros.

Y para que niñas como esta no acaben muertas en vida, estamos obligados a desalentar la demanda que aumenta la trata. Si la explotación sexual no fuera un negocio, esta chiquilla no acabaría en un burdel, piénsenlo.


  Iratxe García Pérez (S&D). – Señor Presidente, señora Comisaria, hemos hablado en esta Cámara en muchas ocasiones de la violencia de género, y evidentemente está muy ligada a la trata de seres humanos y la trata de mujeres: una violación de los derechos humanos; una gran forma de ver cómo en esta sociedad desigual se está utilizando a las mujeres como si fueran mercancías.

Se ha hablado aquí de conceptos como «compraventa», como «mercancía» como «utilización», y creo que es necesario que se pongan en marcha todos los instrumentos para que se obligue a los países a establecer las medidas legislativas, jurídicas y de cooperación policial para luchar contra la trata de seres humanos. Porque hablamos sobre todo de mujeres.

Hemos tratado mucho la cuestión relativa a las refugiadas y hemos visto cómo, también en este caso, están siendo estos grupos organizados los que están utilizando a las mujeres para hacer negocio en esta cuestión. Y, por lo tanto, si hablamos de evitar el negocio, si hablamos de evitar la prostitución, seamos conscientes de que hay que reprimir la demanda, de que hay que poner en marcha medidas contra la prostitución para evitar que se compre y que se venda a las mujeres como si fueran una mercancía.


  Terry Reintke (Verts/ALE). – Herr Präsident! Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Liebe Frau Kommissarin! Menschenhandel ist nicht nur ein Verbrechen, sondern es ist in der Europäischen Union auch ein widerwärtiges Geschäftsmodell. Mit diesem Geschäftsmodell werden jedes Jahr Millionen von Euro gemacht, und wir müssen diesen Verbrechern endlich das Handwerk legen. Aber eines ist klar: Solange die Opfer von Menschenhandel Angst haben müssen, dass sie, wenn sie vor Gerichten gegen die Täter aussagen, abgeschoben werden, wird sich nichts bewegen. Deswegen müssen wir – auch mit dieser Richtlinie – mehr Druck auf die Mitgliedstaaten ausüben, damit endlich geltendes Recht umgesetzt wird. Dass damit Opfer von Menschenhandel ein Bleiberecht bekommen, dass damit sie psychologische und rechtliche Beratung bekommen, und damit wir den Verbrechern, die hinter diesem Geschäftsmodell stehen, endlich das Handwerk legen können.


  Daniela Aiuto (EFDD). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, noi sosterremo questa relazione, anche se a nostro avviso in molte parti esula dalle competenze della commissione FEMM. Ci soddisfa, tuttavia, il cuore del dossier perché è incentrato principalmente su due fattori: da un lato, sulle forti sanzioni e punizioni auspicate per le organizzazioni criminali, ma anche per i singoli individui che si macchiano dell'orrendo crimine del traffico di essere umani; dall'altro, sull'attenzione e sulla tutela delle vittime della tratta stessa, che sono principalmente le donne, che vengono vergognosamente sfruttate a causa della loro disperazione sociale ed economica nei paesi d'origine.

Tuttavia, mi dispiace non aver visto inserito all'interno di questo dossier qualche riferimento ad una forma di tratta di essere umani, in particolare di neonati, della quale occorre parlare molto di più: sto parlando della maternità surrogata. Ricordiamo che nel marzo scorso il Consiglio d'Europa si espresse in maniera contraria nei confronti di tale pratica e che anche in questa Aula nel dicembre scorso abbiamo approvato un emendamento che la condanna. Quindi auspico che vi siano altre occasioni per affrontare questo tema che vede le donne, oltre che i bambini, come vittime principali.


  Mireille D'Ornano (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, lorsque l'on souhaite s'attaquer à l'exploitation d'êtres humains, il faut regarder du bon côté. Les milliers d'enfants immigrés clandestins disparus depuis plus d'un an ont malheureusement dû alimenter les réseaux de prostitution et d'esclavage moderne. C'est la conséquence directe de la politique migratoire irresponsable de l'Union. Cet appel d'air au flux de clandestins est la perfusion des systèmes mafieux.

Un autre point fondamental, mais qui ne fait l'objet que d'un timide article dans ce rapport: l'exploitation des femmes pour la gestation pour autrui (GPA) et autres méthodes de procréation. Ces techniques de GPA sont des formes de commercialisation des femmes et des enfants triés sur catalogue. L'Union ne doit ouvrir aucune voie dans le droit européen qui pourrait favoriser ou reconnaître une telle horreur, une véritable régression. Il faut lutter contre toutes les formes d'exploitation d'êtres humains et traiter les causes de ces maux – immigration massive et libéralisme libertaire en font partie. Navrée de décevoir certains idéalistes!


  Ελισσάβετ Βόζεμπεργκ-Βρυωνίδη ( PPE). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, κυρία Επίτροπε, ξέρετε ότι η εκμετάλλευση των ανθρώπων με σκοπό το κέρδος είναι σήμερα το πιο σύνηθες, επικίνδυνο και απεχθές οργανωμένο διεθνικό έγκλημα, κυρίως διότι γνωρίζουμε ότι υπάρχει τζίρος δισεκατομμυρίων: 3 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ είναι ο τζίρος κατά έτος. Η ευρωπαϊκή νομοθεσία είναι επαρκής και για την κατοχύρωση των δικαιωμάτων και για την πρόληψη και καταστολή και για την προστασία των θυμάτων, όμως υπάρχουν προβλήματα στην εφαρμογή και κυρίως στον εντοπισμό των πιθανών μελλοντικών θυμάτων, διότι οι καταγγελίες δεν είναι επαρκείς. Προσκρούουν σε ταμπού, σε αδύνατες δομές, σε αυτοθυματοποίηση των θυμάτων, με αποτέλεσμα οι στατιστικές να μην είναι πλήρεις. Πρέπει να δώσουμε κίνητρα για να καταγγέλλουν, και ιδιαίτερα τα νέα κορίτσια και οι γυναίκες, αυτό το απεχθές έγκλημα. Να εστιάσουμε στην ενδυνάμωση του κοινωνικού ρόλου των γυναικών και των αδύναμων κοινωνικών δομών, στην άρση των ανισοτήτων, που έχουν το ψευδεπίγραφο ισχυροί εναντίον των αδυνάτων και κυρίως να ευαισθητοποιήσουμε την κοινή γνώμη. Η ανθρώπινη αξιοπρέπεια δεν μπορεί να είναι αντικείμενο ούτε συμφωνίας, ούτε συναλλαγής, ούτε εμπορευματοποίησης, ούτε διαπραγμάτευσης, διότι κάτι τέτοιο αποτελεί ντροπή για την ανθρωπότητα και προσβολή για την ευρωπαϊκή κουλτούρα και τις αξίες μας.


  Maria Noichl (S&D). – Herr Präsident, sehr geehrte Kolleginnen und Kollegen! Wir sprechen heute wieder einmal über Menschenhandel, und zwar über Menschenhandel nicht irgendwo, sondern Menschenhandel hier direkt in Europa.

Lassen Sie uns doch sprachlich ein bisschen konkreter werden: Es ist Sklavenhandel! Wir müssen der Tatsache ins Auge sehen, dass wir so viele Sklaven in Europa haben wie nie zuvor, dass so viele Menschen entrechtet, entwürdigt, ohne Freiheit und ohne Menschenrechte hier leben. Viele Vorrednerinnen und Vorredner haben es bereits beschrieben: Sie leben in Küchen, in Kellern, sie leben in der Prostitution, sie leben in der Ausbeutung. Als Europäisches Parlament sind wir hier die Bürgervertretung, und als Bürgervertretung haben wir drei klare Ansagen zu machen: Eine klare Ansage an die Sklavenhändler und an die Sklavennutzer. Statistisch gesehen sitzen auch Sklavennutzer unter uns hier im Parlament – statistisch gesehen. Diese klare Ansage heißt: Wir werden es nicht dulden, und wir werden die Opfer schützen. An die Opfer muss unsere Ansage sein: Ihr seid nicht verloren. Wir sehen euer Leid, auch wenn es hinter verschlossenen Türen passiert. Und an die Gesellschaft muss unsere Ansage ganz klar sein, dass wir aufklären müssen, aufklären müssen, aufklären müssen! Denn zu viele Menschen in Europa haben die Dimension der Sklaverei in Europa noch nicht erkannt.


  Мария Габриел (PPE). – Г-н Председател, г-жо Комисар, първо искам да поздравя докладчика за забележителната работа. Пълното прилагане на Директивата за предотвратяване и борба с трафика на хора е ключово в борбата ни с робството на 21-ви век. Искам да обърна внимание на четири момента:

На първо място, няма да се изморим да го повтаряме – превенция. Нужни са широки информационни кампании по проблема трафик на хора, включително по въпроса за равенството на половете още в ранна ученическа възраст. Образованието и обучението са крайъгълен камък за намаляване на риска от попадане в мрежата на трафика на хора.

Второ, ранно идентифициране, подходяща помощ и закрила на жертвите. Държавите членки трябва да подобрят системите си за идентификация на жертвите. Необходимо е да се увеличи броят на кризисните центрове за настаняването им и укрепване на програмите за тяхната реинтеграция в обществото.

Трето, проследяването на парите е ключова стратегия за разследване и наказателно преследване на мрежите на организираната престъпност, които печелят от трафика на хора. Тук е важна ролята на Европол и Евроюст.

Не на последно място: засилено сътрудничество с трети страни. Нито Европа сама, нито държавите членки поотделно, са в състояние да се справят с това глобално предизвикателство. Само с координиран подход на международно, национално и междуинституционално ниво можем да дадем достоен отговор.

Накрая искам да поздравя Мириа Василиаду – европейския координатор за борба с трафика на хора, за нейния силен ангажимент и отдаденост и да поздравя нея и екипа ѝ за добрата работа.


  Илияна Йотова (S&D). – Г-н Председател, изследването на Европейския парламент е стряскащо. Какво се оказва – имаме всички законодателни условия, предприети са мерки от агенциите по сигурността, а реални резултати за намаляване на трафика на жени и деца няма. Още повече, големият процент на жертвите и престъпниците са именно от европейските страни.

Броят на документите за гарантиране на правата на човека се оказва обратно пропорционален на реалните резултати. Как иначе да си обясним, че именно в европейските страни в 21-ви век може да се говори за „бели робини“, за търговия и експлоатация на деца?

Имаме и нови предизвикателства. Заети сме да правим политики за ограничаване на миграцията и бежанската криза, но нищо не правим за добре развитите каналджийски мрежи, които буквално продават жени за сексуална експлоатация или работна ръка на черния пазар на труда.

Г-жо Юрова, Европейската комисия трябва да засили контрола върху държавите членки по изпълнението на тази директива, защото почти нищо не се прави за превенцията и защитата на жертвите. Имаме нужда и от по-добра координация между службите за сигурност и европейските агенции за разбиване на транснационалните престъпни организации.


Procedura catch-the-eye


  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospodine predsjedniče, osuđujem svaki oblik trgovine ljudima i smatram da moramo učiniti sve što je u našoj moći da zaštitimo ljudsko dostojanstvo. Obzirom da je surogatstvo moderan oblik trgovine ljudima koji u mnogim zemljama EU-a nije adekvatno reguliran, a industrija surogatstva i surogat turizam uzimaju maha, smatram da je u ovom izvješću trebalo osuditi praksu surogatstva. Tim više jer smo to već učinili u godišnjem izvješću o ljudskim pravima i demokraciji u svijetu za 2014.

Žalosti me što Odbor za prava žena i ravnopravnost spolova, koji bi trebao štititi dostojanstvo žena, nije imao sluha ni interesa uhvatiti se u koštac s ovim problemom. Ne smijemo pristati na to da se djeca kupuju i prodaju, a reproduktivne funkcije žene po narudžbi iznajmljuju. Kako to nazvati nego trgovinom ljudima?

Žene i djeca nisu objekti i roba, već ljudska bića koja imaju svoje dostojanstvo. Vijeće Europe odbilo je ozakoniti surogatstvo i mi moramo ustrajati u njegovoj zabrani, jer je riječ o trgovini ljudima.


  Nicola Caputo (S&D). – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, la prevenzione e la repressione della tratta di esseri umani sono priorità assolute per l'Unione europea. Le strategie fino ad ora adottate nel campo del controllo della criminalità, della tratta e dell'assistenza alle vittime sono state molteplici, ma i risultati, ahimè, non sono affatto rassicuranti.

È necessario uno sforzo straordinario da parte della comunità internazionale, volto alla prevenzione delle situazioni inumane e degradanti. L'intollerabile fenomeno della tratta di esseri umani non è solo il risultato di disuguaglianze economiche e sociali: esso è frutto anche della disparità di genere. Le discriminazioni strutturali, infatti, fanno sì che le vittime siano per l'80 % di sesso femminile: donne e ragazze, e spesso bambine.

Evidenzio infine che il traffico di migranti e la tratta degli esseri umani, pur rappresentando fenomeni diversi, tendono spesso a sovrapporsi. Una risposta adeguata e ben calibrata potrebbe giungere quindi da un'accurata analisi delle ultime tendenze, ivi compresa l'influenza che l'attuale crisi migratoria sta esercitando sul fenomeno della tratta degli esseri umani.


  Νότης Μαριάς ( ECR). – Κύριε Πρόεδρε, η εμπορία ανθρώπων θεωρείται ένα από τα σοβαρότερα εγκλήματα παγκοσμίως και αποτελεί σοβαρή παραβίαση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων. Παγκοσμίως, το 70% των θυμάτων της εμπορίας ανθρώπων είναι γυναίκες, και ιδίως νέα κορίτσια, ενώ στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση για το διάστημα 2010 - 2012, το ποσοστό αυτό έφτασε περίπου στο 80%. Φυσικά η εμπορία ανθρώπων μπορεί να λάβει πολλές διαστάσεις, όπως η σεξουαλική εκμετάλλευση, η καταναγκαστική εργασία, η αφαίρεση οργάνων και η αναγκαστική επαιτεία. Επιπλέον, ο αριθμός των θυμάτων της εμπορίας ανθρώπων που προέρχονται από μειονοτικές ομάδες είναι δυσανάλογα μεγάλος, εξαιτίας της περιθωριοποίησης αυτών των πολιτών. Οι τεράστιες προσφυγικές και μεταναστευτικές ροές εντείνουν το πρόβλημα της εμπορίας ανθρώπων και ιδίως των παιδιών. Επομένως, είναι αναγκαίο κάθε κράτος μέλος της Ένωσης να έχει κατάλληλους μηχανισμούς ώστε να εμποδίζει έγκαιρα και, ταυτόχρονα, να εντοπίζει τα θύματα και να τους παρέχει βοήθεια σε συνεργασία με ειδικές ομάδες στήριξης. Παράλληλα, θα πρέπει να αντιμετωπιστεί η ανισότητα των δύο φύλων και να προωθηθεί η ανεξαρτησία των γυναικών, και ιδίως των νέων κοριτσιών, ώστε να καταστούν τα άτομα αυτά λιγότερο ευάλωτα στην εμπορία ανθρώπων.


  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE). – Gospodine predsjedniče, procjene govore da je preko 10 000 osoba godišnje žrtva trgovine ljudima. Od toga je 70 % državljana EU-a. Ovdje to ne ističemo dovoljno. Od tog broja, 80 % su nažalost žene, a više od 16 % maloljetnici i maloljetnice.

Govori se da je to posao težak više od milijardu eura godišnje. Gospodo, oni koji sada ovdje na neki način liju suze zbog tog problema i kada smo neki dan govorili o Europolu, nisu htjeli govoriti o snažnijem produbljivanju svega onoga što Europol može učiniti, o jačim ovlastima Europola. Nećemo se sami moći boriti s tim kriminalcima koji rade u nekoj određenoj zemlji zato što je riječ o prekograničnoj trgovini ljudi. Dakle, ja sam za to da kaznimo sve kriminalce, ali moramo ojačati i Europol.


  Rosa Estaràs Ferragut (PPE). – Señor Presidente, efectivamente, tratamos aquí una de las nuevas formas de esclavitud del siglo XXI, uno de los delitos más vergonzosos que existen.

Se trata no solamente de un tema delictivo; es también un atentado a la dignidad humana y también un atentado a las libertades fundamentales, sin duda, una vulneración en toda regla de los derechos humanos. Las víctimas a menudo son invisibles por temor, por miedo por las posibles venganzas.

Y engloba no solamente la explotación sexual, sino también la mendicidad forzada, el trabajo forzoso, el comercio de órganos. Requiere por lo tanto una respuesta inmediata de todos los Estados miembros, y especialmente de la Comisión.

Se engaña a millones de hombres y mujeres de todos los rincones del planeta. Es por eso que la responsabilidad es de las autoridades y de la sociedad. Necesitamos sensibilización para todos los servicios implicados en la investigación. Necesitamos colaboración de la sociedad civil, pero también cooperación y diálogo abierto entre todos los sectores sanitarios, judiciales, policiales, y también necesitamos cooperación transfronteriza.

Le ruego una respuesta y una implicación inmediata a la Comisión para que pueda dar la respuesta que lleva una demora de un año y podamos priorizar este tema como uno de los más importantes de la agenda de la propia Comisión.




(End of catch-the-eye procedure)


  Věra Jourová, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I have listened to the speakers with great attention and I want to reassure you that this is a priority for the Commission. Personally, sitting here and listening to the honourable Members, I fully share the sense of urgency. We see and we hear these cases: each individual story, of a woman, a young girl, a child, is a human tragedy, and we need to combat these awful crimes against human dignity by all possible means. As I said before, we will continue to address trafficking in human beings and work towards its eradication.

We are now developing a post-2016 policy, and elements raised in this report will be considered very carefully. I count on this Parliament’s commitment and cooperation as a long-standing institutional partner in advancing our ambitious legal and policy framework to eradicate this scourge in our society.


  Catherine Bearder, rapporteur. – Madam President, I would like to thank the Commissioner for her commitment to this issue and it is very good to hear that Germany is now coming on board. I would also like to thank my colleagues and the shadows, and the Secretariat of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) and ALDE, for all their support and work on this, including those in my own office.

Just a few points. Prostitution: not all those in prostitution have been trafficked and controlling prostitution is not an EU competence. It has been a very fine line to talk about this in the report, but it is part of the market demand and so that is how it has been addressed.

Surrogacy is not trafficking. Forced surrogacy is a crime in anybody’s language and also needs to be tackled.

Migrants: migrants are not always victims of trafficking but their vulnerability and the lack of care that we are affording them make them very easy prey for the traffickers.

Organised crime: yes, this is the fourth largest organised crime. It is much easier to traffic human beings than it is drugs. Police dogs do not smell out trafficked people and for the lady who said that we should get out because it is free movement of people that causes it, the UK is not in Schengen and yet it is still one of Europe’s biggest markets for trafficking people. Traffickers do not care what sort of border control is there; they will work a way around it. We have all to be vigilant on this issue.

I look forward to building on the progress that has been achieved by the Office of the Anti-Trafficking Coordinator, Madam Vassiliadou, and for all those who tonight and for the next who knows how long, face heaven knows what, we need all of us to be committed and vigilant and to work to make sure that we catch the traffickers and rescue those who are held in in slavery.


President. – The debate is closed.

Последно осъвременяване: 21 октомври 2016 г.Правна информация