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Procedure : 2016/2809(RSP)
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Texts tabled :

RC-B8-0910/2016

Debates :

PV 07/07/2016 - 7.3
CRE 07/07/2016 - 7.3

Votes :

PV 07/07/2016 - 9.3
CRE 07/07/2016 - 9.3

Texts adopted :

P8_TA(2016)0316

Debates
Thursday, 7 July 2016 - Strasbourg Revised edition

7.3. Myanmar, notably the situation of Rohingyas
Video of the speeches
PV
 

Elnök asszony. A következő pont vita hét állásfoglalásra irányuló indítványról, Mianmarról és különösen a rohingyák helyzetéről [2016/2809(RSP)].

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, Auteur. – Het is een opmerkelijke situatie: Nobelprijswinnares en een van de helden van ons tijdperk, Aung San Suu Kyi, wint in 2011 de democratie voor haar land Myanmar terug, maar erft ook de concentratiekampen van haar voorgangers en een bevolkingsgroep die etnisch gezuiverd wordt en waar de wereld waarschijnlijk weinig of niets van hoort: de Rohingya.

Deze moslimminderheid is sinds 1982, het begin van de militaire dictatuur in Myanmar, staatloos. Velen zijn gevlucht naar de buurlanden, maar ook daar zijn ze niet welkom. Het gaat om mensen die worden mishandeld, geen toegang hebben tot gezondheidszorg en voedsel. Dit alles gebeurt opzettelijk en continu.

Het is een schending van de mensenrechten en dus is het ook ónze zaak. Wij moeten de overheid in Myanmar op het hart drukken dat zij niet langer mag vasthouden aan haar eigen versie van apartheid. De EDEO moet de situatie van de Rohingya op het hoogst mogelijke politieke niveau blijven aankaarten bij Myanmar en andere ASEAN-landen. Daarnaast moet de EU blijvende steun verlenen aan het VN-vluchtenlingenagentschap om de situatie van de vluchtelingen in de regio te ondersteunen.

 
  
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  Heidi Hautala, laatija. – Arvoisa puhemies, yksi viime vuosien parhaita uutisia kansainvälisessä politiikassa on ollut se, että Myanmar on siirtynyt sotilasvallasta siviilivaltaan. Vaikka reformit vievät aikansa, Euroopan parlamentti kuitenkin edellyttäisi, että Myanmarin hallitus tarttuisi tosissaan hiljattain julkaistuun YK:n erityisraportoijan mietintöön, joka koskee rohingyamuslimien ja muiden Myanmarin vähemmistöjen ahdinkoa. Kaikenlaiset syrjivät lait olisi poistettava. On ollut myös hyvä nähdä, että jopa Aung San Suu Kyi itse on nyt vihdoin kiinnostunut rohingyaväestön asemasta. Tässä on varmaan mahdollisuuksia edetä. Tämä kysymys jos mikä estää Myanmarin kehitystä.

Haluaisin lopuksi vielä palauttaa mieleen sen, että kaikki länsivaltiot ja myös Kiina ovat hyvin kiinnostuneita käymään kauppaa Myanmarin kanssa. On huolehdittava siitä, että Myanmarin hallitus myös edistää luonnonvarojen läpinäkyvää ja vastuullista käyttöä ja yleensä hallinnon avoimuutta.

 
  
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  Ignazio Corrao, Autore. – Signor Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, anche qui ci ritroviamo a discutere di nuovo dalla minoranza Rohingya a un anno di distanza: abbiamo approvato una risoluzione sul tema il 21 maggio dell'anno scorso. Purtroppo le condizioni del popolo Rohingya non sono cambiate, anzi, probabilmente sono peggiorate e assumono la forma e l'entità di un genocidio probabilmente in Myanmar.

Il ruolo dell'Unione europea potrebbe sicuramente essere più incisivo nel dialogo con il Myanmar ma anche con i paesi vicini, che respingono i profughi quando dall'altra parte ci sono degli arresti. I Rohingya sono persone esposte alla tratta degli essere umani.

La DG ECHO ha svolto un buon lavoro fornendo aiuti umanitari per un valore di 70 milioni di EUR dal 2010 ad oggi. Noi dovremmo esercitare pressione appunto sul nuovo governo, per cercare di cambiare il passo con questa minoranza e proteggere finalmente questo popolo senza terra e senza pace.

 
  
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  Tunne Kelam, author. – Madam President, may I just say how much your presence in human rights debates is welcome, Madam High Representative, because this is confirmation that we take human rights issues seriously. The Rohingya minority is a special case for me, whose fate has not been fully understood or recognised. They have for long years not just been discriminated against, but have faced an existential danger. It is ominous and unacceptable that the whole ethnic group is not officially recognised in the country where a majority of them is living. They are not recognised as citizens of Myanmar and are treated as not wanted. The new government in Myanmar has decided to make national reconciliation their priority and therefore we call on them to provide the Rohingya people with safety against any form of discrimination, to end impunity and to grant the Rohingyas citizenship.

 
  
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  Pier Antonio Panzeri, Autore. – Presidente, la situazione mi sembra abbastanza chiara ed evidente. È inutile ritornarci sopra. Qui bisogna dare uno sbocco a questa situazione, ma non esiste solo il problema dei Rohingya, che vivono in condizioni pessime e molti scappano verso i confini del Bangladesh, ci sono anche altri problemi che dobbiamo affrontare. Ho avuto la possibilità di visitare alcuni campi al confine tra la Thailandia e Myanmar e anche li abbiamo problemi aperti.

Credo che sia necessario fare un paio di cose. Innanzitutto spingere sul governo attuale di Myanmar, che è in una fase di transizione democratica, per dire che è inaccettabile la condizione attuale dei Rohingya nella condizioni di apartheid e la seconda cosa, mi chiedo e chiedo se è possibile che l'Unione europea si attivi per realizzare un nuovo memorandum tra Myanmar e la Thailandia per risolvere anche il problema di tanti campi che sono presenti in Thailandia di popolazione birmana che deve rientrare nel Paese.

 
  
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  Urmas Paet, author. – Madam President, the Rohingyas have for decades suffered brutal oppression and discrimination. People have been fleeing Myanmar, often perishing on the way, children and mothers dying because of lack of access to hospitals; children not registered upon birth have not been able to go to school and people have not been allowed to move freely. This needs to stop. For the first time in 50 years, Myanmar has experienced a peaceful transfer of power to their first non-military president since 1962. It is a new possibility. Myanmar must seize it. The government must make an effort. Fighting has to cease and disputes need to be resolved through negotiation. The Rohingya minority must be given citizenship and the discriminatory local orders in Rakhine State must be abolished. And the European Union must help and persuade the Myanmar Government to work on this matter, be it bilaterally through projects and agreements or through ASEAN.

 
  
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  Marie-Christine Vergiat, auteure. – Madame la Présidente, une fois encore, nous parlons des Rohingyas, l'une des minorités les plus persécutées au monde: un million d'êtres humains privés de nationalité, chassés de partout dans la région, y compris d'Australie. "Rohingyas", un mot que l'on ne doit pas prononcer en Birmanie – même Aung San Suu Kyi a rappelé récemment aux ambassadeurs et aux responsables de l'ONU qu'il ne fallait pas l'utiliser.

On peut se féliciter de la victoire de la Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, mais on sait que tout est fragile. Huit mois après les élections, la répression est toujours là. C'est vrai, le défi est immense. Toute l'architecture juridique discriminatoire, basée sur la religion et l'ethnicité, doit être révisée, notamment la loi sur la citoyenneté de 1982 et les quatre lois dites de protection de la race et de la religion de septembre 2015.

L'actualité est marquée par une nouvelle flambée de violence inquiétante, islamophobe et alimentée par un bouddhisme radical qui jette de l'huile sur le feu. Deux mosquées viennent d'être détruites en une semaine, au nord et au centre du pays. Espérons que la symbolique conférence de Panglong, si elle sait être vraiment inclusive, contribuera à pacifier le pays au—delà de la question urgente des Rohingyas.

 
  
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  Pavel Svoboda, za skupinu PPE. – Paní předsedající, paní vysoká představitelko, jelikož v Myanmaru funguje vláda, v jejímž čele je nositelka Sacharovovy ceny, my jako kdybychom v hlavách měli zaškrtnuto, že máme odpracováno.

Bohužel situace Rohingyů se moc nezměnila. Naopak, spíše se zhoršuje, víme, že jim je odmítáno státní občanství, je tolerována jejich genocida ze strany budhistů, hrozí jim tedy smrt. Těm, kdo přežijí, je zakázáno mít více než dvě děti, aby se toto etnikum nemohlo rozrůstat. Sta tisíce musely uprchnout z Myanmaru.

Evropská politika musí dát jasně najevo, že takovéto zacházení s etnikem je nepřijatelné. Nesmíme podporovat a tolerovat genocidu, nesmíme tolerovat obchod s lidmi.

 
  
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  Ana Gomes, em nome do Grupo S&D. – Senhora Presidente, também eu saúdo a Sra. Mogherini por estar hoje aqui neste debate de urgência sobre os direitos humanos. O novo governo civil em no Myanmar, que resulta de eleições democráticas a que eu tive o privilégio de observar enquanto membro da delegação deste Parlamento, se quer dar, de facto, credibilidade à construção da democracia no país tem que dar prioridade a um plano de ação de combate à discriminação dos Rohingya e de outras minorias étnicas e religiosas. Isto é essencial para que haja um genuíno processo de reconciliação nacional e esse plano tem que incluir a responsabilização criminal de todos os líderes de forças budistas nacionalistas que espalham o ódio e a xenofobia.

O Prémio Sakharov, Aung San Suu Kyi, tem especiais responsabilidades enquanto membro deste governo e enquanto figura da democracia e do respeito pelos direitos humanos, não só no país como no mundo. Tem, por isso, que se pronunciar claramente, publicamente, pela proteção dos Rohingya e tem que facilitar o acesso das organizações internacionais ao Estado do Rakhine e tem que propor as reformas legislativas que são necessárias. E nós, União Europeia, temos que não apenas pressionar o Governo da Birmânia, mas pressionar os governos de outros países que têm problemas com os Rohingya, que não podem continuar a não respeitar o princípio do non-refoulement.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς, εξ ονόματος της ομάδας ECR. – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, υποστηρίζω το κοινό ψήφισμα το οποίο έχω συνυπογράψει με τους άλλους συναδέλφους. Η παραβίαση των ανθρωπίνων δικαιωμάτων στη Μιανμάρ είναι συχνό φαινόμενο, με τις διώξεις και τη βία κατά της μειονότητας των Rohingya να εντείνονται διαρκώς. Η καταστροφή της ιδιοκτησίας των Rohingya και των τόπων λατρείας τους, οι μαζικές συλλήψεις, η αυθαίρετη φυλάκιση και οι περιορισμοί στην ελεύθερη κυκλοφορία χαρακτηρίζουν τη συμπεριφορά των αρχών της Μιανμάρ απέναντι σ αυτή την μειονότητα.

Πάνω από 130.000 εκτοπισμένοι Rohingya παραμένουν σε στρατόπεδα σε άλλες περιοχές, ενώ οι αρχές της Μιανμάρ έχουν καταστήσει ανεπαρκή την πρόσβαση της ανθρωπιστικής βοήθειας στις περιοχές. Παράλληλα, εκτιμάται ότι 10.000 Rohingya έχουν τραπεί σε φυγή δια θαλάσσης για να γλιτώσουν το διωγμό και 1.700 κρατούνται υπό φρικτές συνθήκες, σε κέντρα κράτησης για πρόσφυγες.

Είναι αναγκαίο επομένως οι αρχές της Μιανμάρ να επιτρέψουν την είσοδο ανθρωπιστικής βοήθειας σε όλες τις περιοχές της χώρας και να δράσει άμεσα η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση για τη στήριξη των δικαιωμάτων των Rohingya.

 
  
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  António Marinho e Pinto, em nome do Grupo ALDE. – Senhora Presidente, Senhora Alta Representante, a tragédia dos refugiados Rohingya, em Myanmar, atinge tais dimensões que nos interpela a todos, no mais profundo da nossa consciência ética e política. Esta minoria muçulmana é discriminada e perseguida pelas autoridades birmanesas que não os reconhecem como cidadãos nacionais, obrigando muitos dos seus membros a abandonar o país em condições de grande precariedade. Homens, mulheres e crianças acabam muitas vezes por cair nas malhas de tenebrosas redes de tráfico de seres humanos que os espancam e abandonam em alto-mar sem alimentos e sem água, ou então, pura e simplesmente os assassinos. Numa época em que os ventos da islamofobia sopram cada vez com mais intensidade na Europa era bom que as autoridades da União Europeia tomassem medidas concretas para convencer o Governo de Myanmar de que há mais vantagens em respeitar os direitos da minoria Rohingya do que em violar esses direitos.

 
  
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  Marc Tarabella (S&D). – Madame la Présidente, Madame la Haute représentante, chers collègues, il y a un peu plus d'un an, on s'adressait à vous, déjà, dans cette enceinte, à propos de la situation désastreuse des Rohingyas en Asie du Sud-Est, et plus particulièrement en Birmanie.

Il est de notre devoir de continuer à dénoncer ce calvaire qu'endurent environ un million de Rohingyas, dont près de 100 000 sont parqués dans des camps de déplacés. Une représentante des Nations unies était en Birmanie il y a peu, et elle n'a pas noté de progrès sous le nouveau gouvernement pro-démocratique qui dirige désormais la Birmanie. Les Nations unies ont d'ailleurs publié un rapport très critique envers la Birmanie, qui relate différentes persécutions dont continuent à être victimes les Rohingyas.

Il est largement temps que les pays d'Asie du Sud-Est s'unissent afin d'améliorer les conditions de vie de cette ethnie et de lui reconnaître enfin un vrai statut. En effet, la Birmanie ne leur reconnaît toujours pas la nationalité, et ils n'ont donc pas de citoyenneté.

Enfin, il est de notre devoir de faire pression sur le gouvernement birman afin que leurs droits soient respectés. Par ailleurs, je soutiens l'initiative de M. Panzeri de rédiger un mémorandum sur la problématique des déplacés entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie.

 
  
 

„Catch the eye” eljárás

 
  
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  Jiří Pospíšil (PPE). – Paní předsedající, já jsem se přihlásil do catch the eye, protože jsem k tomuto tématu hovořil zde minule, když jsme před několika měsíci kritizovali poměry, které panují ve vztahu k této menšině Rohingyů. A ta situace se bohužel vůbec nezlepšila. Navazuji tedy na kolegy, kteří podrobně popsali to, jak Rohingyové nemají občanství, jsou internováni v táborech, nedostává se jim lékařské péče.

Smutné je to, co tady také bylo řečeno, že v Barmě došlo k přechodu k demokratické vládě, že nositelka Sacharovovy ceny je fakticky odpovědná za tuto současnou vládu, ale situace této muslimské menšiny se nezlepšuje. O to je to smutnější a je proto podle mého názoru na místě přijmout usnesení znovu a znovu vyzvat tentokrát demokratickou vládu v Barmě společně s paní Su Ťij, aby se situaci opravdu věnovala. Jinak se o demokracii v této zemi nedá hovořit.

 
  
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  Eduard Kukan (PPE). – Madam President, we have welcomed several times the transformation that has been taking place in Myanmar. I hope this change will improve the situation of all citizens of this country. In this way we have to look also on the situation of minorities. The persecution of the Rohingya people has a long history in Myanmar. Over past years, we have seen waves of refugees and internally displaced people from the Rohingya community as well as numerous persecutions, violations of their rights and discrimination. This minority is seen as one of the most persecuted minorities of the whole world. The Myanmar Government needs to respect the rights of the people belonging to this minority. This also applies to other countries of the region. The neighbouring countries in the region with large numbers of Rohingya refugees need to guarantee their protection.

 
  
 

(A „catch the eye” eljárás vége)

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. – Madam President, I notice that all of you who took the floor in this debate know very well that the European Union plays a special role when it comes to Myanmar. First of all, because we are international observers of national ceasefire agreements. This gives us a special responsibility and a special role to play that includes many different issues. As you mentioned, we have an historic opportunity with the new government and we do work with them in many different fields, from poverty reduction to migration to, obviously, the situation of the Rohingya minority. I will meet the President of Myanmar as well as other leaders of the region next week at the ASEM Summit, so this will again be part of our commitment and engagement with them.

The situation in the Rakhine State where the Rohingya reside has dominated our political dialogue with Myanmar, including my meeting with the former Foreign Minister last year. On the occasion of the EU-Myanmar Human Rights Dialogue, our EU Special Representative for Human Rights, Stavros Lambrinidis, who is here with us today, visited Rakhine State to assess the situation and to advocate measures to improve human rights. As you know, we have also tabled a number of resolutions on the human rights situation in Myanmar in the UN General Assembly and in the UN Human Rights Council, with a strong focus on that.

I would like to thank colleagues who mentioned the fact that the European Union has been not only a key political interlocutor on this issue, but also a key donor of humanitarian assistance for the Rohingya. In 2016 more than EUR 7 million, which means 68% of our Myanmar humanitarian envelope, is dedicated to the Rakhine State. We are working on development cooperation activities benefiting Rohingya communities, providing support especially to education assistance for children, but also poverty eradication in that part of the country.

The Government of Myanmar is well aware of the gravity of the situation and we will make sure that they stay committed to their intention to improve the situation there. Aung San Suu Kyi is taking steps to find durable solutions for both communities. She is leading a committee which aims to bring peace, stability and development to the area. A citizenship verification process started in early June to address the statelessness of Rohingya and other minorities, but obviously this work needs time, and especially this work needs our continuous support. We are intensifying our engagement with Myanmar to solve this situation in accordance with the strategy and the joint communication that we adopted at the beginning of June, and the Council conclusions that the Foreign Ministers adopted just a few weeks ago. We are encouraging the Government to launch a credible action plan to abolish all discrimination and displacement and to move towards truly inclusive development. There will be no real and stable peace in Myanmar without true reconciliation in the country.

I shall finish by saying that this process of reconciliation and peace is an historic one in Myanmar and has to include all ethnic and religious groups, and the European Union is working for that.

 
  
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  Elnök asszony. – A vitát lezárom.

A szavazásra 2016. július 7-én, csütörtökön kerül sor.

(A vitát felfüggesztik)

 
  
  

VORSITZ: MARTIN SCHULZ
Präsident

 
Last updated: 21 November 2016Legal notice