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Processo : 2016/2030(INI)
Ciclo de vida em sessão
Ciclo relativo ao documento : A8-0290/2016

Textos apresentados :

A8-0290/2016

Debates :

PV 22/11/2016 - 16
CRE 22/11/2016 - 16

Votação :

PV 23/11/2016 - 10.6

Textos aprovados :

P8_TA(2016)0441

Debates
Terça-feira, 22 de Novembro de 2016 - Estrasburgo Edição revista

16. Comunicação estratégica da UE para enfrentar a propaganda dirigida contra ela por terceiros (debate)
Vídeo das intervenções
PV
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  Die Präsidentin. – Als nächster Punkt der Tagesordnung folgt die Aussprache über den Bericht von Anna Elżbieta Fotyga im Namen des Ausschusses für auswärtige Angelegenheiten über die strategische Kommunikation der EU, um gegen sie gerichteter Propaganda von Dritten entgegenzuwirken (2016/2030(INI)) (A8–0290/2016).

 
  
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  Anna Elżbieta Fotyga, rapporteur. – Madam President, it is my pleasure and privilege to present the report on the EU’s strategic communication to counteract the propaganda against it by third parties. I consider it a matter of the utmost importance that Parliament expresses its stance on an issue so pertinent and timely.

Allow me first to strike a very personal note, because this issue is also important for me personally. My whole public life – a large part of it under communist rule and afterwards – has been dedicated to countering the narrative exerted first by the Soviet Union and then by the Russian Federation of its special traditional sphere of influence. I always considered it very dangerous for our joint sovereignty because this same issue refers to many nations of Central and Eastern Europe, so I am very privileged to present it here today before Parliament. I also have very personal experience in observing, with my own eyes, the rise of radical Islamism throughout the years. It was very important for me to monitor the elections in Lebanon in 2005 after the assassination of Rafic Hariri and to see the influence of StratCom at that time. We have, of course, now seen many transformations of the strategic communications and propaganda in these countries.

The assignment from the enlarged Bureau of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) was very clear. I was given the task of describing the hostile propaganda from both state and non-state actors. It was decided that I present in my report, together with my co—workers and experts and after consideration and joint elaboration with excellent shadow rapporteurs from the political groups, the view of two directions from which we are facing hostile propaganda. In terms of the Russian Federation, the situation is somewhat clearer now, because, after the the annexation of Crimea and the aggression by the Russian Federation in the eastern part of Ukraine, many countries in the Western world – Western democracies – are fully aware of the proceedings of disinformation, manipulation and propaganda.

 
  
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  Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the Commission. –Thank you, Madam President. Last week, the Oxford Dictionary named ‘post-truth’ the word of the year 2016. ‘Post-truth’ describes a situation – and I quote from the dictionary – ‘where objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief’. This phenomenon has always existed, for sure, but it has become even more relevant in the age of internet.

We know that the quality of the information is not always what makes content go viral. Social media and search engines tend to promote contents that confirm the user’s views instead of challenging them, and we all understand how relevant this can be in political terms, including for our European Union. So I am glad that the report we discussed today has given this Parliament the opportunity to reflect on such a delicate and crucial issue, where not only security has to be taken into account, but also everyone’s freedom of expression.

As the report states, exposing this information is an important task and I am glad that the report commends the work carried out by our East Stratcom Task Force. It is clear from the Task Force’s work that the challenge coming from this information is not receding. Let me thank the Parliament for its close interest and support for the work we have been doing with the Task Force over the past year, as well the Member States who have contributed to the team. I can only welcome the proposal that this Parliament this advanced to strengthen both our East and South Task Forces on strategic communication. As I mentioned, both of them – Stratcom East and South.

Let me stress that our work on this information is very different and depends on a case-by-case scenario. This information can be contrasted with fact-checking and rational arguments. The propaganda of terrorist groups, like Daesh, needs instead to be confronted first and foremost by taking down illegal content from the internet. To address the issue of the accessibility of terrorist materials, the Commission has established an Internet Referral Unit at Europol that actively scans for terrorist content online and refers it to the internet companies. So far we are still in the initial phase; we have referred over 15 000 pages, and in 90% of cases the material has been removed.

Yet we know that this part of our work, however crucial, cannot be enough. What matters even more is to explain what the European Union is doing and how it is making a real and positive difference to the lives of so many people inside and outside the European Union. Now the report tackles with the issue of propaganda by third parties, but let me say that this is an issue that would be interesting to see inside the European Union, starting maybe from this very Hemicycle.

We need to give voice to the people who have benefited from our policies, amplify the positive stories, simplify the messages and talk about real life. The truth – to the East, to the South and inside our Union – is that this positive added value of the European Union has to be more visible. This is why we have put public diplomacy among the key areas of implementation of our global strategy. So the East Stratcom Task Force is doing this, providing expert guidance to our delegations; working closely with governments in the Eastern Partnership Region and with the Commission; reaching out to a Russian-speaking audience that want better access to information about the European Union in real time in Russia and from a source they can trust.

Similarly, the Task Force South is addressing Arabic-speaking communities in North Africa and in the Middle East together with our delegations. In particular, it is engaging with young people, working closely with the Anna Lindh Foundation, talking to the youth of the region, but also listening to their concerns and their aspirations.

Last but not least, we need to engage with civil society, young leaders, independent journalists and NGOs – credible voices that often lack the skills or the financial resources and sometimes the space – the freedom – to express themselves. So our policies are also aimed at improving media plurality, both to the East and to the South, helping journalists get the training, the networks and the quality information they need to do their jobs. Our new young Mediterranean voices, for instance, will twin young journalist with more senior professionals and reach out to the media industry.

So to conclude, in this post-truth era, the European Union must stick to objective facts and at the same time appeal to emotions, personal beliefs and motivations. We have so many stories to tell that are positive. Stories of reform against corruption or innovative start-ups, stories of reconciliation or economic growth, and the future of our Union will also depend on our capacity to tell these stories, explaining the facts and reviving the passion for our European project. We can start in this Parliament.

 
  
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  Bogdan Andrzej Zdrojewski, autor projektu opinii Komisji Kultury i Edukacji. – Dezinformacja i propaganda jest tak stara, jak konflikty wojenne, jak wojny. Wojny i konflikty hybrydowe natomiast, jak również to, co się dzieje z terroryzmem, uwidoczniły tylko destruktywność dezinformacji. Niestety Europa w tej materii jest słabsza. Europa na dezinformację nie może odpowiadać dezinformacją, musi odpowiadać informacją, musi odpowiadać promowaniem i propagowaniem tych wartości i tych informacji, które dla nas są istotne.

W imieniu Komisji Kultury złożyliśmy kilka uzupełniających poprawek, które zostały przyjęte, za co chciałbym podziękować. Dotyczyły one przede wszystkim wzmacniania niezależnych mediów, które funkcjonują poza Europą, prowadzenia działań zdecydowanie długofalowych, a nie krótkotrwałych, docenianie znaczenia informacji i ich promowania, jak i również tego wszystkiego, co jest związane z mediami społecznościowymi. To ważne sprawozdanie pani Anny Fotygi, sprawozdanie które, wzbudziło pozytywne reakcje, i za to należy podziękować.

 
  
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  Traian Ungureanu, în numele grupului PPE. – Acest raport e un avertisment care vine la timp. Bătălia pentru mințile și sufletele oamenilor nu mai e o dezbatere deschisă, ci un război murdar bine finanțat și avansat tehnologic. E meritul raportoarei, doamna Fotyga, că a abordat această chestiune urgentă și delicată înainte ca efectele propagandei ostile să devină ireversibile. Rusia și ISIS investesc masiv în această campanie, care urmărește instituirea fricii, discreditarea UE și compromiterea ideii democratice.

Ce poate face UE? Raportul propune soluții cu referire precisă la Serviciul European de Acțiune Externă și la statele din Parteneriatul estic.

Există, însă, lucruri care nu pot fi legiferate. În lipsa lor, propaganda ostilă prosperă. Asta înseamnă că nu putem învinge propaganda prin propagandă. O putem învinge numai prin adevăr. Politicienii noștri trebuie să aibă curajul să renunțe la clișee. Presa, care a pierdut recent credibilitate în alegerile din Statele Unite, trebuie să se întoarcă la jurnalismul de informație solidă, altfel neîncrederea publică va crește și propaganda va găsi suficient spațiu de manevră.

Adoptarea acestui raport e un pas înainte. Gândirea critică, educația onestă și curajul politicienilor trebuie să fie pașii următori.

 
  
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  Eugen Freund, on behalf of the S&D Group. – Madam President, I would like to express my sympathy to the High Representative for the ordeal that she has to go through down there. I will speak in German now.

– Das neue Medienumfeld, das jetzt gar nicht mehr so neu ist, munitioniert nun auch die Gegner der Demokratie und der Pressefreiheit.

Diese Aktivitäten sind in der ganzen westlichen Welt deutlich sichtbar: durch die Verbreitung von Lügen, Unwahrheit oder durch die Manipulation der Meinungen. Freilich, es gibt nicht nur ein einziges Land, das sich dieser Methoden bedient. Wir haben das gerade in diesen Wochen im Wahlkampf in den USA vor Augen geführt bekommen. Wir sehen das täglich in der Berichterstattung von regierungstreuen türkischen Medien.

Dennoch konzentriert sich dieser Bericht auf ein Land, nämlich Russland. Was ich noch bedenklicher finde: Trotz unseres heftigen Widerstands ist darin auch der IS enthalten. Er geht zweifellos mit ähnlichen Methoden vor, aber er ist natürlich kein Staat, und darin liegt auch das große Problem. Entgegen der wohlbegründeten These der EU und vieler anderer Staaten wird hier eine Terrororganisation auf die gleiche Ebene gehoben wie ein Staat. Etwas, das wir seit Jahren ausdrücklich verhindern, nämlich den IS als Staat zu betrachten, wird in diesem Bericht quasi als sekundär weggewischt.

Wir haben damit eine rote Linie überschritten. ISIS oder IS oder Da‘esch ist kein Staat und sollte niemals wie ein solcher behandelt werden. Es ist unbestritten, dass Russland durch die Verbreitung von Unwahrheiten, durch das Nähren von Zweifeln und durch viele andere fragwürdige mediale Aktivitäten sowohl die Mitgliedstaaten zu entzweien versucht als auch einen Keil zwischen Europa und die USA treibt. Wir waren der Meinung, dass es auch andere Staaten gibt, die man in diesen Bericht hätte mit aufnehmen können, schon um eine größere Ausgewogenheit zu erreichen.

Das und die unleugbare Problematik, den IS hier mit aufgenommen zu haben, hat dazu geführt, dass wir diesem Bericht morgen unsere Zustimmung nicht geben können, sondern uns enthalten werden. Gleichzeitig ....

(Die Präsidentin unterbricht den Redner.)

 
  
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  Mark Demesmaeker, namens de ECR-Fractie. – Ik krijg de nieuwsbrieven van de East StratCom Task Force van de EU twee keer per week in mijn mailbox en als je die leest, besef je pas in welke mate en op welke gesofisticeerde manier onze open maatschappij het mikpunt is van een beschadigingspolitiek van het Kremlin. Het doel: onze democratische waarden in twijfel trekken, Europa verdelen en daarvoor zoveel mogelijk steun vinden. Ik zie al te vaak met lede ogen aan hoe de desinformatie van het Kremlin ook in onze lage landen doorsijpelt via sociale netwerken en andere kanalen. Een antwoord bieden op die informatie-oorlog is van cruciaal belang voor onze veiligheid. De taskforce strategische communicatie is erin geslaagd om met een beperkte ploeg van mensen de desinformatie aan te wijzen en ze te beantwoorden met juiste informatie. Het verslag van collega Fotyga pleit er terecht voor dat de taskforce versterkt wordt, want we moeten naar mijn mening namelijk ook de desinformatie en de radicaliseringmethodes van IS begrijpen en aanpakken. Mijn regering startte vorig jaar al met een project rond het counteren van IS-propaganda. Een performante StratCom Task Force voor het zuiden kan ons daarbij zeker beter wapenen.

 
  
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  Petras Auštrevičius, on behalf of the ALDE Group. – Madam President, 6 000 EU citizens recruited by, and fighting for, Daesh means that targeted propaganda focused on a particular individual proves more than successful. Equally successful, the Kremlin’s propaganda operates in a different way: it tries to reach out to as many people as possible, with as many different stories. It is in the Kremlin’s playbook to deconstruct the truth and to spread the lies around widely – an approach first tested by the Kremlin on its own people, citizens of Russia.

It was proven back in Soviet times that the moment the TV set wins over the fridge the regime can start feeling quite secure. To build on that further, however, it has to start gaining minds outside. The EU, the West, and our values have been chosen as a strategic target. Suddenly, Europeans who are used to information being free and based on facts become consumers of fake information and lies. The challenge is how to explain to Europeans that stories such as those of the crucified boy in Ukraine or the girl named Lisa kidnapped and raped in Germany have nothing to do with reality.

I am more than convinced that setting up the East StratCom Task Force within the European External Action Service was the right and timely response to those massive campaigns of anti-EU propaganda. I must highly commend the East StratCom Task Force team: it is extremely professional and is doing a great job. However, as we initiate a proposal to increase the budget allocation to that team, I would ask the High Representative’s office to ensure that sufficient resources are made available to guarantee that the East StratCom Task Force delivers more in operational costs than is already covered in the 2017 budget.

 
  
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  Javier Couso Permuy, en nombre del Grupo GUE/NGL. – Señora Presidenta, este es un informe demencial que alimenta la paranoia antirrusa y el virus neomacartista a la europea: la peor caricatura de la Guerra Fría. Mirar la realidad con estas gafas delirantes desnorta a la Unión Europea, todavía más, en el campo geoestratégico.

Es un informe peligroso, va hacia la confrontación y es un ataque a la libertad de información. Poner al mismo nivel a un grupo terrorista como el Dáesh, que en sus vídeos realiza asesinatos y torturas en directo, con un país miembro del Consejo de Seguridad y otras organizaciones multilaterales que, además, es un vecino con el que tenemos intercambios de todo tipo, es un insulto a la inteligencia de los europeos.

Enfocar el periodismo desde una óptica militar con la pamplina de la guerra híbrida es algo muy peligroso para la libertad de información diversa y para la seguridad de los periodistas. Llamar a crear medios propagandísticos proeuropeos, calificándolos de independientes, debe de ser una broma en sí misma. Obviar la propaganda afín, como la que desarrolló toda la gran prensa estadounidense en la mentira de Irak, es, cuanto menos, sospechoso.

Y, por último, decidir qué debemos ver los europeos, hacer listas negras de medios supuestamente propagandísticos, es un ataque a la libertad de información que tenemos los ciudadanos. Yo veré Russia Today y veré la Fox. Y ustedes no me lo impedirán.

 
  
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  Rebecca Harms, im Namen der Verts/ALE-Fraktion. – Frau Präsidentin! Herr Kollege, niemand hindert Sie, Sie haben ja gesprochen. Eine Vorbemerkung zum Bericht und seiner Struktur: Der Bericht setzt keineswegs den IS und den russischen Staat gleich. Der Bericht beschäftigt sich mit zwei Herausforderungen durch Propaganda und hat deshalb auch zwei unterschiedlich strukturierte Kapitel. Also die Herausforderung durch russische Propaganda und die Herausforderung durch das, was der IS im Netz macht, sind völlig getrennt bearbeitet.

Zweitens: Ich glaube, dass es höchste Zeit gewesen ist, dass sich das Europäische Parlament mit den Herausforderungen des Krieges um Informationen tatsächlich einmal beschäftigt und zu guten und klugen Schlussfolgerungen kommt. Ich finde das sehr richtig, gerade nachdem wir jetzt nochmal in den Vereinigten Staaten im Wahlkampf oder auch vorher in der Brexit-Kampagne beobachten konnten, wie Propaganda Einfluss nimmt und wie Propaganda darauf zielt, auch innerhalb der Europäischen Union Zusammenhänge zu schwächen.

Meine Fraktion und ich sind überzeugt, dass die Kernbotschaften des Berichts sehr gut sind, nämlich, dass wir Propaganda erkennen müssen, dass wir Lügen erkennen müssen, dass wir systematische Verbreitung von Lügen erkennen müssen. Dafür ist die stratcom bei Frau Mogherini gut. Aber sie ist nicht stark genug, um das zu leisten, was sie leisten muss. Darüber muss diskutiert werden. Umgehen mit den Lügen wollen wir dann nicht mit eigener Propaganda, sondern wir wollen Qualitäts- und unabhängigen Journalismus fördern, um eben für Information und Aufklärung gegen Propaganda zu sorgen.

 
  
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  James Carver, on behalf of the EFDD Group. – Madam President, after decades of relative peace in Europe – with the exception of the Yugoslavian civil war – this report is worryingly reminiscent of the Cold War. The breakdown in relations between the West and Russia, of which both parties are guilty, has produced far more insecurity in Europe; we know that. Diplomacy and deterrents are delicate mechanisms. When used correctly, they help guarantee security for our citizens, but when it goes wrong there is hell to pay. Escalation can spiral out of control and lead us to places that, I trust, nobody in this Chamber wishes to go. You have to stop your neo-colonialism and your justifications for more European Union and remember the hard-learned lessons of the Cold War – careful deterrents, sophisticated diplomacy, and cooperation where possible.

 
  
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  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser, au nom du groupe ENF. – Madame la Présidente, chers collègues, ce rapport est une farce! Oui, une farce! La communication russe, qui s'appuie sur la réalité des faits de notre politique extérieure, le mensonge en Iraq, l'action hors mandat des Nations unies en Libye, la destruction de l'État syrien avec également le coup d'État en Ukraine et l'extension de l'OTAN contre la parole donnée avec cette logique de l'union sans frontières, devient de la propagande. La propagande mensongère européenne dénoncée par les peuples européens et même américains, par contre, devient vérité.

C'est une farce également au regard de la démocratie et du droit. Les faits sont de la propagande extérieure selon les bonnes logiques bolchéviques. Tout comme les dissidents étaient autrefois des agents américains, maintenant ce sont des agents russes. Le parallèle entre la Russie et Daech, par ailleurs, est une bête provocation, une honte!

Mais cette farce va se transformer en tragédie par votre vote. Cette négation de la réalité par votre propagande détruit toute légitimité à votre assemblée.

 
  
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  Σωτήριος Ζαριανόπουλος ( NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η έκθεση «Στρατηγική επικοινωνίας της ΕΕ για την αντιμετώπιση της προπαγάνδας εναντίον της από τρίτους», ένα παραλήρημα του πιο χυδαίου αντικομμουνισμού, δώρο κυριολεκτικά στους εγκληματίες ναζιστές, είναι μνημείο και απόδειξη της αντιδραστικότητας της Ένωσης και του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου, που, παραποιώντας την ιστορία, εξισώνει τον φασισμό με τον κομμουνισμό.

Δεν στοχεύει στο Ισλαμικό Κράτος, που άλλωστε στήριξαν οι Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες, το ΝΑΤΟ και η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Με πρόφαση ανταγωνισμούς με την καπιταλιστική Ρωσία, ανασύρετε κάτι που ισχυρίζεστε ότι νικήσατε οριστικά, αλλά -δικαιολογημένα- ακόμα φοβάστε: το φάντασμα του κομμουνισμού, της δουλειάς, της παιδείας, της υγείας, των κοινωνικών δικαιωμάτων για όλους.

Διαστρεβλώνοντας την έννοια «ριζοσπαστικοποίηση», προτείνετε δίκτυα καταδοτών, στοχοποιείτε σαν πράκτορες και στήνετε στον τοίχο εκατομμύρια ανέργους και φτωχούς που αμφισβητούν την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, τις αστικές κυβερνήσεις και το σύστημά τους. Ζητάτε περιορισμό των δημοκρατικών δικαιωμάτων και των ελευθεριών ποινικοποιώντας σκέψη, λόγο και πολιτική δράση. Δηλητηριάζετε τη νεολαία στα σχολεία, στον πολιτισμό, με μέσα ενημέρωσης χρηματοδοτημένα και ελεγχόμενα από την Ένωση.

Να είστε σίγουροι: ό,τι κι αν κάνετε, το μέλλον της ανθρωπότητας δεν είναι η σαπίλα του συστήματός σας, αλλά η ανατροπή του.

 
  
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  Cristian Dan Preda (PPE). – Madame la Présidente, ce rapport a été élaboré à l’initiative du groupe PPE et nous sommes très contents parce que Mme Fotyga, qui a eu le rapport au nom du groupe conservateur, a très bien travaillé.

Débattre maintenant de cette contre-propagande que nous avons tous en vue, sauf les extrêmes, gauche et droite, est important parce que nous sommes à un moment où beaucoup de voix parlent d'une normalisation des relations avec la Russie. Cette idée d'une normalisation est tout à fait déplacée quand on voit ce qui se passe dans la réalité: la manipulation des médias par les Russes, le chantage avec la charte énergétique et le financement illicite des organisations et des partis politiques, y compris dans ce Parlement.

Face à la propagande russe, nous avons besoin d'une stratégie claire, mais aussi de plus d'argent pour le plan d'action sur la communication stratégique. La commission des affaires étrangères a d'ailleurs approuvé, pour le budget de l'année prochaine, la mise à disposition de moyens supplémentaires pour la mise en œuvre de ce plan.

Il est aussi important de comprendre l'importance de la liberté de la presse, parce que ce que les Russes n'aiment pas, ce que nos extrémistes n'aiment pas, c'est la liberté. Ils veulent la contrainte, ils aiment la dictature de Poutine et ils sont fascinés par ce contrôle d'un homme fort. Par conséquent, la vraie réponse à donner à ces gens-là, à Poutine et à ses amis de gauche et de droite, ici des extrêmes, c'est la liberté, voilà le mot.

 
  
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  Victor Boştinaru (S&D). – Madam President, we have just heard how Russian propaganda works in this House. It is strong evidence. Allow me now to speak in Romanian.

Propaganda rusească și cea practicată de Daesh sunt evident diferite ca și metode de lucru, dar scopurile sunt în egală măsură toxice și, aș spune, mortale, pentru proiectul european înainte de orice. În Ucraina, propaganda rusească a acoperit și justificat ocuparea Crimeii, a utilizat atacurile cibernetice pe scară largă și, în sfârșit, a urmărit divizarea pozițiilor între statele membre ale Uniunii Europene.

Pentru cei care se întreabă dacă propaganda rusă este sau nu reală, îi invit să citească o carte faimoasă, La France russe, publicată de un foarte respectat jurnalist de la Le Monde, și să asculte evaluarea șefului Serviciului Secret German despre riscul ca alegerile din Germania să fie afectate negativ de intervenția rusească.

Am două propuneri, doamnă președintă, zece secunde. Cred că trebuie să practicăm identificarea...

(Președinta a întrerupt discursul vorbitorului.)

 
  
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  Yana Toom (ALDE). – Head kolleegid. Ma olen sündinud ja saanud hariduse Nõukogude Liidus ja lugedes seda resolutsiooni ja kuulates mõningaid sõnavõtte ma tabasin end mõttelt, et tuleb tuttav ette. Kas me tõesti oleme mänginud end sinna nurka, kus me võtame kasutusele totalitaarse režiimi retoorika? Kas me tõesti seisame tsensuuri eest? Kas me panustame anonüümsete autorite toodangule, mis ajakirjanduslikult on samasugune propaganda nagu see, mille vastu ta võitleb? Ja kas me tõesti, olles täie mõistuse juures, paneme võrdusmärgi Kremli ja ISISe vahele?

Minu koduriigis Eestis suleti kuu aega tagasi suuromaniku poolt kaks viimast venekeelset lehte, mis tähendab, et nende lugejaskond liigub sujuvalt Venemaa meedia orbiiti ning tänane või homne hääletus seda ei muuda. Kultuurikomisjonis me lähenesime asjale konstruktiivselt, rääkides ajakirjanike probleemide lahendamisest, aga dokument, mis täna on laual, sihib pigem seda, et keskenduda propagandale või siis vastupropagandale. See on tupiktee. Demokraatlikus maailmas poliitikud ei suuna meediat, isegi püha eesmärgi nimel, mõelgem selle peale.

 
  
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  Mario Borghezio (ENF). – Signora Presidente, onorevoli colleghi, il grande rispetto di chiunque abbia a cuore la libertà e la storia e il culto della storia per il sacrificio di coloro che, come ci ha ricordato la relatrice, hanno combattuto per la libertà e contro i tentacoli del comunismo internazionale ai tempi della Guerra fredda, non ci deve però impedire di renderci conto di qualcosa di anomalo in questa relazione, che mette inopinatamente sullo stesso piano la propaganda – perché sicuramente c'è propaganda da parte della Federazione Russa – e le attività di Daesh.

Quindi, semmai, si dovevano fare due relazioni ben distinte, nelle quali parlare di una cosa – e l'avremmo votata – cioè del pericolo della propaganda islamica che viene dappertutto (con il consenso di quelli che hanno sempre minimizzato il pericolo delle moschee e che adesso improvvisamente se ne accorgono).

Per quanto riguarda invece gli inviti a considerare questa relazione una relazione che difende le nostre libertà, io mi domando come mai, da questo Parlamento, quei signori non ci chiedano controlli sulla propaganda delle grandi multinazionali, delle banche e delle lobby, che sono padrone in questo Parlamento e che tutti i giorni fanno propaganda contro gli interessi della nostra gente.

 
  
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  Sandra Kalniete (PPE). – Madam President, I would like to praise Vice—President Mogherini for the great work done by the small team East StratCom in the External Action Service. I would also like to praise Ms Fotyga for her excellent report. I believe that the very small amount of money spent on the work of the team is some of the most efficiently used in the EU budget. However, the strategic communication efforts remain seriously underfunded and understaffed. Countering the hybrid information operations is critical for preserving our democracies, and indeed our Union. I therefore call on Vice—President Mogherini immediately and significantly to increase the resources allocated to this task, particularly to the task of countering the billions of propaganda dollars spent by Putin’s agencies.

 
  
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  Andrejs Mamikins (S&D). – Priekšsēdētājas kundze! Godātie kolēģi!

Līdz šim es domāju, ka Eiropas Savienībai ir nelokāma morālā pozīcija, ka pret propagandu var cīnīties ar faktiem un objektivitāti. Kad es ieraudzīju šo ziņojumu, sapratu, ka es esmu maldījies.

Tieši tā izskatās īsta propaganda! Vienā ziņojumā teroristiskas organizācijas apvienošana ar konkrētu valsti ir spilgts propagandas paņēmiens. Galvenais mērķis ir skaidrs – parādīt, ka Krievija un Daesh ir teju viens un tas pats.

Vēl viens propagandas paņēmiens ir parādīt, ka problēmas ir tikai vienā valstī. Izņemot Daesh un Krieviju, nav minēts neviens cits piemērs, kaut gan ziņojuma nosaukumā ir runa par trešajām pusēm. Vai tas nozīmē, ka visā pasaulē vairs neviens neizmanto propagandu? Es ļoti šaubos.

Līdz ar to par objektīvu un vispusīgu šo ziņojumu nosaukt nevar. Mums tiek piedāvāts nekvalitatīvs propagandas izstrādājums, kas pieņemšanas gadījumā diskreditēs Eiropas Savienību. Un ja Parlaments nobalsos par, tad nākamajā ziņojumā starp tiem, kas izmanto propagandu, mēs droši varam minēt Eiropas Savienību.

 
  
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  Андрей Ковачев (PPE). – Г-жо Председател, г-жо Комисар, в последните години виждаме, за съжаление, агресивни опити да се поставят под съмнение демократичните устои на Европейския съюз и да се подкопае нашето политическо единство. Разпространяват се манипулации, полуистини, откровени лъжи. Използват се Интернет, социалните медии и медийни тролове, информационни и по-точно дезинформационни агенции, които постоянно насаждат омраза към ЕС.

Ще дам два примера от моята страна. В началото на годината няколко сайтове, част от хибридната война срещу ЕС, а те са десетки такива в моята страна, разпространиха информацията, че Европейският съд е забранил и обявил за престъпление кръщаването на деца в църква. Тази седмица докладът, който в момента обсъждаме, стана повод за нова атака срещу Европейския съюз, като подобни медии твърдят, че Европейският парламент готви в последния момент тайна поправка към доклада, която да забрани православието. Това са два класически примера за хибридна информационна война и показват защо Европейският съюз трябва да противодейства на пропагандата и днешният дебат е абсолютно навременен и необходим.

Много съжалявам това, което чух от колегите от Европейските социалисти и демократи, че те ще се въздържат при гласуването. Ако не сме единни по тази тема, ние няма да бъдем и ефективни.

Най-зловещите посегателства срещу свободата на медиите и религиозните свободи в страните от Източна Европа бяха извършени точно от комунистическите режими, които се опитаха да наложат комунизма като държавна религия, следвайки указанията на Кремъл.

Нужно е европейските институции да наблюдават и анализират дезинформационните кампании срещу ЕС. Затова приветствам оперативната група „East StratCom“ в рамките на Европейската служба за външна дейност (ЕСВД), която да анализира и да се противопоставя на насочените срещу ЕС пропаганда и дезинформация. Докладът …

(Председателят прекъсна оратора)

 
  
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  Andi Cristea (S&D).(begining of the speech without microphone) ... and honest about is that there will be no successful EU global strategy and European Neighbourhood Policy if we do not have a credible and effective EU strategic communication. If we look at the Russian disinformation warfare in the Eastern Partnership countries – and not only those countries – I think we have sufficient reasons to feel nervous, and if you want to see how propaganda has already translated into political gain, just have a look at the presidential elections in the Republic of Moldova. I believe that we must first address the visibility of what the EU does. If we do not explain our work and our achievements, we only provide fertile ground for propaganda. Less visible means more vulnerable.

Second, we need to work on the framework and the legal deficits that allow propaganda to flourish. This means added funding to support media freedom and pluralism. Third, we must ourselves counterbalance disinformation with impartial and objective information. For this, we need a stronger and reinforced EU Strategic Communication Task Force.

 
  
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  Jaromír Štětina (PPE). – Jsme ve válce. Jsme ve válce s Ruskou federací. Neuvědomujeme si, že slovo může být silnější než raketové systémy nebo stíhací letouny Su-25. Je to hybridní válka, kterou proti nám, proti EU vede Kreml. Je to válka, ve které Kreml vítězí.

Anna Fotyga se rozhodla proti ruské nepřátelské propagandě zaujmout silný obranný postoj. V její zprávě se jasně deklaruje, že ruská strategická komunikace je součástí rozvratné kampaně. Rád bych Vás upozornil, paní vysoká komisařko, že Vaše obrana v této informační válce je slabá a neefektivní a nejen to, myslím si, že je také trestuhodně podfinancovaná. Jak chcete, paní komisařko, vzdorovat se svým nepatrným týmem milionům dolarů, kterými ruské tajné služby financují agentury, jako jsou např. Russia Today nebo Sputnik? Vzpamatujme se, dámy a pánové, prohrát tuto informační válku znamená začátek konce EU.

 
  
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  Tunne Kelam (PPE). – Madam President, I am happy that Madam Mogherini started her speech with an idea from my draft, namely the ‘post-truth era’, where the line between what is false and what is true is being deliberately blurred. This report brings home the alarming fact that, parallel to Daesh, the Russian leadership is engaged in a full-scale disinformation and propaganda war to undermine the EU democratic narrative and to separate Europe from its main democratic ally. And may I say that the irritation shown in this Hemicycle by the far left and far right is proving that Madam Mogherini’s message has reached its targets. It is working. The EU, its institutions and Member States now need to recognise that information warfare is in full swing and requires immediate widespread and comprehensive reforms, and I would like also to support the idea that East StratCom needs a serious boost in its financing and role.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – (Die Präsidentin spricht ohne Mikrofon)...... mehr Rednerinnen und Redner auf der Catch-the-eye-Liste, als ich aufgrund der fortgeschrittenen Zeit nehmen kann. Ich werde von jeder Fraktion, wo sich jemand gemeldet hat, eine Person zu Wort kommen lassen.

Catch-the-eye-Verfahren

 
  
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  Laima Liucija Andrikienė (PPE). – Madam President, tonight we are discussing how vulnerable democracies are – or could be – in the age of networks and networking, freedom of speech and the right to information. This is a timely and extremely important report, Ms Fotyga; thank you very much.

According to many experts, the Baltic States are expected to be the next hotspot for Russian information warfare. We, in the Baltics, have a substantial Russian media presence that has long targeted Russian-speaking audiences with false narratives and propaganda. Simultaneously, this propaganda tends to stoke anxiety among Lithuanian audiences over the country’s perceived security and economic weaknesses. Finally, the work of StratCom is of high value, and cooperation among Member States’ intelligence services should be enhanced, though it should not mean that the autonomy of national intelligence services is lost.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Madam President, as a member of the Culture and Education Committee, I believe that support for independent media and promotion of the freedom of the press, recognising the role of education and media literacy and the need for putting in place a strategic cultural diplomacy platform at EU level must be the pillars of EU actions aiming at countering propaganda. Supporting freedom of press and independent media must, in my view, include actions of support for imprisoned and persecuted journalists and human rights activists. On top of promoting media literacy and critical thinking, which are really the keys to many of the challenges we are facing, we need further regulation of hate speech online, including a greater collaboration with online platforms and social media. Finally – and most importantly for me – I want to emphasise further the role of intercultural dialogue, people-to-people contacts and encouraging the EU communication strategy to include local populations and civil society.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Gospođo predsjednice, kolegica Fotyga sjajno je prepoznala sve oblike propagandnog rata koji se vodi protiv Europe i Zapada općenito. Danas je lakše nego ikada plasirati lažne vijesti ili iskrivljene informacije koje potom u nekoliko sekundi obiđu svijet i privuku pozornost milijuna ljudi.

Bojim se da nema univerzalnog lijeka koji bi u ovo vrijeme procvata informacijskih tehnologija uspio učinkovito suzbiti neprijateljsku propagandu. Najsigurniji korak u pravom smjeru svakako je povećanje transparetnosti europskih institucija i vlada država članica, otvoreno partnerstvo među članicama bez fige u džepu i donošenje odluka važnih za živote građana što bliže njima kako bi bile podložnije njihovoj kontroli.

Propaganda protiv Europe i Zapada pada na plodno tlo jer građani sve manje vjeruju onima koji ih vode i za njih donose važne odluke. Ponovna izgradnja tog povjerenja najučinkovitiji je način borbe protiv propagande.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Jako už tolikrát v minulosti se vůbec nevěnujeme tomu podstatnému. Problém je přeci v tom, že občané EU mají čím dál menší důvěru v evropské instituce, protože se nedomnívají, že jim evropský projekt přináší užitek. Často řeší velmi složité osobní a rodinné socio-ekonomické problémy a ano, jsou proto náchylní k anti evropským náladám.

Co tedy řešit raději než propagandu? To jak našim občanům opravdu pomoci. Co takhle zkusit je více zatáhnout do rozhodovacího procesu, reflektovat jejich témata a starosti? V posledních letech jim ukazujeme jen to, že bohatší se stávají bohatšími a že předsedové Komise mají luxusní místa v byznysu po tom, co odejdou z vrcholných funkcí EU. Občané takovou Evropu nechtějí. My jim nedáváme alternativu, po které tak zoufale volají.

Poslední věc, věřme lidem. Oni vědí, co čtou, a vědí, jak s tím pracovat. Lidé nejsou hloupí, hloupí jsou ti, kteří se zabývají tématy, které jim rozhodně v životě nepomůžou.

 
  
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  Tatjana Ždanoka (Verts/ALE). – Thank you Madam President. In my opinion, all red lines are crossed in the texts under discussion here. The enormous number of resolutions adopted by this Parliament critical of Russia and the Russian people has remained in my memory. But a resolution so offensive in both form and content is a new development for the European Parliament. The very principle of freedom of expression and information is challenged in this resolution. Russia is accused of – and I quote – ‘aggressively employing a wide range of tools and instruments, such as think tanks and special foundations [...], special authorities [...] multilingual TV stations [...]’ – end of quote. But every state has its think tanks, special foundations, special authorities dealing with compatriots living abroad, and its TV stations.

It is impossible to understand what happens if you watch only channels like CNN, BBC, Euronews, TDF and France24. For example, the coverage by those channels of events in Aleppo and Mosul is based on evident double standards, so the Russia Today channel effectively contributes to the principle of media pluralism.

 
  
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  Γεώργιος Επιτήδειος ( NI). – Κυρία Πρόεδρε, η προπαγάνδα είναι μία δραστηριότητα η οποία έχει τις ρίζες της στην αρχαιότητα και εφαρμόζεται ακόμη και σήμερα. Οι αρχές και οι στόχοι της ισχύουν ακόμη και σήμερα. Όμως στη σημερινή εποχή, κατά την οποία η δυνατότητα πρόσβασης του κόσμου σε μέσα ενημερώσεως είναι μεγάλη, πρέπει να είμαστε ιδιαίτερα προσεκτικοί στην αντιμετώπιση της οποιασδήποτε εχθρικής προπαγάνδας.

Η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση πρέπει να λέει στους λαούς της την αλήθεια. Δεν είναι δυνατόν να βάζει στο ίδιο επίπεδο την προπαγάνδα της Ρωσίας και εκείνη του ISIS και να περιμένει να γίνει αυτό αποδεκτό από τον κόσμο. Δεν είναι δυνατόν να στοχοποιεί ομάδες ή πολιτικά κόμματα στις διάφορες χώρες και να περιμένει να μην κατηγορηθεί ως αντιδημοκρατική.

Όσα χρήματα και αν δώσουμε, όση προσπάθεια και αν καταβάλουμε, όσους δημοσιογράφους και αν προσλάβουμε, δεν θα μπορέσουμε να κάνουμε τίποτε, εάν προηγουμένως δεν φροντίσουμε να περάσουμε, κυρίως, στους νέους τις αρχές επάνω στις οποίες στηρίχθηκε η Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, ούτως ώστε να τους κάνουμε άτρωτους από την προπαγάνδα του ISIS.

 
  
 

(Ende des Catch-the-eye-Verfahrens)

 
  
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  Marianne Thyssen, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, I would like, also on behalf of High Representative and Vice-President Mogherini, to thank this House again for its support. We are all in the process of developing our capacity to communicate in a more strategic and more focused way. To do this we need to work together across all institutions and in partnership with Member States so that our messaging on what we are doing within the European Union and externally strikes a deeper resonance.

 
  
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  Anna Elżbieta Fotyga, rapporteur. – Madam President, in the course of its preparation this report was also the target of hostile propaganda. I would like to thank Madam Mogherini and the whole team of East StratCom for their work in this respect, as well as the European Endowment for Democracy and the secretariat of the Committee on Foreign Affairs for their contributions. Last, but absolutely not least, I wish to thank my personal co-workers and excellent shadow rapporteurs for their contributions and ability to strike a consensus, making a very valuable contribution to this report.

 
  
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  Die Präsidentin. – Die Aussprache ist geschlossen.

Die Abstimmung findet am Mittwoch, 23. November 2016, statt.

Schriftliche Erklärungen (Artikel 162 GO)

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE), napisan. – Izvješće gđe Fotyga o propagandi ISIS-a i Rusije protiv EU-a je kontraproduktivan materijal. Nedopustivo je izjednačavati ISIS i Rusiju neovisno o temi. Nedvojbeno je da i ISIS i Rusija koriste mnoge propagandne kanale kako bi naštetili EU-u, državama članicama i pojedincima, ali njihovo izjednačavanje i u toj situaciji je politički potpuno neprihvatljivo.

Dodatno, naši odnosi prema ISIS-u i Rusiji moraju biti potpuno različiti. ISIS je teroristička tvorevina koja ugrožava veliki dio čovječanstva i utječe direktno na mnoge negativne pojave u svijetu i samom EU-u. Oni okrutno upravljaju tzv. Islamskom državom i potiču terorizam u Europi. S druge stane, Rusija je stalna članica Vijeća sigurnosti UN-a te s ogromnim utjecajem i snagom koju svi respektiraju. Uporno tvrdim da bi se trenutne odnose EU-a i Rusije trebalo mijenjati i graditi ih na partnerstvu i suradnji u obostranom interesu.

 
  
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  João Pimenta Lopes (GUE/NGL), por escrito. – Este relatório mais não é do que um elemento do aprofundamento do caráter reacionário e antidemocrático da União Europeia. Partindo de valores que diz defender, alarga o seu âmbito às liberdades de comunicação, informação e expressão, valores que as políticas da União Europeia contrariam e comprometem, de que é o mais crasso exemplo a crise humanitária dos refugiados. Seriam muitos os exemplos e, de resto, nem seria preciso sair desta casa para os dar.

Segue-se uma estratégia de vitimização a que não falta uma retórica anticomunista retrógrada e bafienta. A UE é vítima de uma poderosa ofensiva mediática, diz-se, comprometendo a sua integridade – argumentos usados para avançar para a limitação e mais controlo dos meios de comunicação social, da Internet, de programas escolares e até de partidos políticos.

Absolutiza-se como verdadeira a informação da UE, distinguindo propaganda e crítica, balizando o que é a crítica aceitável. Abrem-se, assim, as portas da censura, que tantas páginas negras escreveu em solo europeu. Práticas dignas de regimes autoritários e ditatoriais.

 
  
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  Alfred Sant (S&D), in writing. – The EU needs a clear information policy. It already disposes of huge soft power. Otherwise, why would irregular immigrants and refugees wish to reach its territories to live and find refuge there? The European Union is now finding that its presence, policies and achievements are being countered by manipulative propaganda programmes. However, the best way to counter them is not by developing similar mechanisms, even if we wrap them in highly virtuous declarations of intent. Even less should they be meant to contain the aims of this or that power, no matter how antagonistic it may seem to have become. This is especially so given the fact that the EU’s soft power is still very effective.

What we need is a sober assessment of the current scope and reach of the EU’s soft power, not least in its impact on societies outside the EU, and in whether it is projecting distorted images of the European reality. Secondly we need a revamp carried out in good faith of the EU’s information and dissemination policies that projects a no-holds-barred view of the European reality, both for internal and external consumption. This report does not provide adequate basis for such an exercise.

 
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