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Verfahren : 2017/2086(INI)
Werdegang im Plenum
Entwicklungsstadium in Bezug auf das Dokument : A8-0403/2017

Eingereichte Texte :

A8-0403/2017

Aussprachen :

PV 15/01/2018 - 18
CRE 15/01/2018 - 18

Abstimmungen :

PV 16/01/2018 - 5.5
CRE 16/01/2018 - 5.5

Angenommene Texte :

P8_TA(2018)0005

Plenardebatten
Montag, 15. Januar 2018 - Straßburg Überprüfte Ausgabe

18. Frauen, Gleichstellung der Geschlechter und Klimagerechtigkeit (kurze Darstellung)
Video der Beiträge
PV
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  La Présidente. – L’ordre du jour appelle le débat sur le rapport de Linnéa Engström, au nom de la commission des droits de la femme et de l’égalité des genres, sur les femmes, l’égalité des genres et la justice climatique (2017/2086(INI)) (A8-0403/2017)

 
  
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  Linnéa Engström, föredragande – Fru talman! Jag är väldigt stolt över att stå här i dag och presentera det första betänkandet i Europaparlamentet om klimaträttvisa. Ett stort tack till alla skuggföredraganden för ett excellent samarbete.

I och med detta betänkande erkänner Europaparlamentet det faktum att klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser är ojämnt fördelade och inte könsneutrala. De påverkar kvinnor, barn och ursprungsbefolkningar oproportionerligt mycket mer. FN uppskattar att 70 procent av de 1,3 miljarder människor som lever i fattigdom världen över är kvinnor, som ofta lever i de länder som är mest utsatta för översvämningar, stigande havsnivåer, torka och stormar. Kvinnor och barn löper också 14 gånger större risk än män att dö i naturkatastrofer.

Klimaträttvisa avser att skydda de allra mest utsatta och säkerställer en rättvis fördelning av bördor och fördelar med klimatförändringen och dess effekter. Kvinnor är lika viktiga aktörer som män och kan spela en avgörande roll för att utveckla vår klimatpolitik. Därför måste kvinnor representeras jämlikt i beslutsprocessen och genomförandet av klimatpolitik.

Betänkandet innehåller också en viktig hänvisning till det faktum att klimatförändringar är en drivkraft för migration. Den utveckling vi ser i delar av Afrika och Mellanöstern kommer med sannolikhet att bidra till politisk instabilitet, ekonomiska påfrestningar och en upptrappning av flyktingströmmar och migration. Runt år 2050 uppskattar FN att världen kan ha uppemot 200 miljoner människor som har drivits från sina hem på grund av klimatförändringarna. Detta är ett framtidsperspektiv som vi inte kan fortsätta att ignorera. Vi måste utveckla FN:s system för migration och befintliga definitioner och verktyg, så att de inkluderar denna kategori av flyktingar.

På det senaste klimattoppmötet i Bonn antogs den första jämställdhetsplanen inom ramen för Parisavtalet. Alla medlemsstater bör nu välja en kontaktpunkt för arbetet med jämställdhet och klimat – ett stort steg framåt för en fråga som har varit så nedprioriterad och motarbetad.

I FN-systemet pågår arbetet med att inkludera klimatflyktingar i den globala strategin för migration, och i det arbetet uppmanar vi EU att vara pådrivande. EU:s flyktingpolitik är ett haveri och ett fatalt misslyckande vad gäller rättssäkerhet och ansvarstagande. Med prognosen om en ännu mer orättvis värld, brist på resurser och ökande temperaturer globalt som driver människor på flykt så förstår politiker över hela det politiska spektrumet att något måste göras. Människor som förlorat allt genom översvämningar och torka har i dag inga rättigheter och blir i allt ökande grad klimatflyktingar.

Klimatflyktingar handlar om höjda temperaturer och vattennivåer, men när vi pratar om klimaträttvisa så pratar ofta om människor i andra delar av världen, i de länder som drabbats hårdast av de här konsekvenserna. Men även i mitt land, Sverige, i norr, märks klimatförändringarnas konsekvenser på dramatiskt vis. De renskötande samerna i Norrland lever i frontlinjen av klimatförändringarna. 300 renar gick genom isen när de skulle vallas till nya betesmarker förra året. Det ska egentligen inte kunna hända, men vintrarna blir allt varmare och de gamla stigar där samerna vallat sina djur i generationer och där isarna fungerat som färdväg håller inte längre. Detta skapar enorma problem för människor och djur i norr.

Hela ekosystem förändras nu snabbt inför våra ögon och det är därför det är så viktigt att lyfta samtalet om rättvisa. Mest utsatta är de diskriminerade och marginaliserade i våra samhällen, för att inte nämna hur djuren drabbas. På två år har ett ekosystem stort som hela Italien försvunnit på havsbottnen. Det handlar om unika korallrev i Stora barriärrevet utanför Australiens kust. Ett tydligare exempel på den skenande klimatkrisen tror inte jag finns.

Svaret på alla dessa utmaningar handlar om att stoppa och anpassa oss till klimatförändringarna och skydda de allra mest utsatta genom en inkluderande och feministisk klimatagenda. I och med detta betänkande kommer vi att ha antagit en gemensam definition av vad klimaträttvisa faktiskt är och en rad verktyg som kan kanalisera resurser till dem som behöver det allra mest.

 
  
 

Interventions à la demande

 
  
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  Michaela Šojdrová (PPE). – Tato zpráva konstatuje, že klimatické změny, zejména tedy výkyvy počasí, sucho, záplavy, negativně více ovlivňují život těch, kteří jsou nějakým způsobem ohroženi chudobou, negramotností nebo také jejich důstojnost není brána dostatečně vážně ve společnosti. Jsou to tedy většinou ženy.

Tato zpráva uvádí důležité skutečnosti, které bychom měli vzít v úvahu, když chceme nalézt řešení, např. to, že ženy nejvíce pociťují dopady všech klimatických výkyvů, protože většinou zajišťují chod domácnosti a pečují o její členy. Ženy v průměru ve světě vykonávají více než 70 % veškerých činností spojených s obstaráváním vody, a to v oblastech, které jsou zasaženy změnou klimatu. Tam pracuje 70 % všech žen v odvětví zemědělství, ale ženy se většinou nepodílejí na rozhodování o hospodářské nebo environmentální politice. Také situace, kdy 781 milionů osob ve věku 15ti let je negramotných a z toho 2/3 jsou ženy, ukazuje, že je potřeba v této věci se angažovat.

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Madam President, as a feminist I am very happy about this report because it underlines the gender aspects of climate change, and encourages the Commission and the Member States to take them into account. I am happy to see that the report highlights the fact that women are indeed more affected by climate change than men, especially when it comes to displacement. More than 50% of the current refugee and migration flow comprises women and children and many of them are climate refugees.

Women are highly dependent on natural resources, particularly in rural areas, and play a significant role ensuring food security for their communities. I remember visiting a flooded community in Malawi with CARE International 18 months ago, and it was the women who were rebuilding that community. So I would also like to underline that involving women in decision-making on climate change is absolutely necessary if we are to find efficient solutions. Putting women in charge is more than a diversity concern: it is about having better policies for everyone.

 
  
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  Ruža Tomašić (ECR). – Gospođo predsjednice, puno je zaključaka i preporuka u ovome Izvješću koje bih mogla osporavati jer smatram da je riječ o vrlo ideologiziranom pogledu na važne globalne izazove. No, istaknula bih preporuku da se posebnu pozornost posveti ženama i djevojčicama migranticama koje su bile izložene nasilju tijekom putovanja do Europe. Naravno da je to nešto što bismo trebali učiniti, ali bojim se da se radi tek o umirivanju vlastite savjesti.

Postoji, dakle, svijest da je veliki broj migrantica izvrgnut raznim oblicima nasilja i to se, kao što vidimo, uzima zdravo za gotovo, kao da nema alternative ilegalnoj migraciji i organiziranom kriminalu koji od nje profitira. Nitko ne postavlja pitanje kolika je naša krivica u tome što te žene stradavaju u rukama krijumčara, a mnoge od njih u Europi završe u lancu prostitucije.

Nevjerojatno je da dobar dio kolega još uvijek ne razumije da je naša suluda migracijska politika i politika azila glavni razlog zašto te žene uopće kreću na put na taj način i zašto svoju sudbinu stavljaju u ruke kriminalaca koji im često uništavaju živote.

 
  
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  Florent Marcellesi (Verts/ALE). – Señora presidenta, tras el huracán Katrina, en los Estados Unidos, dos tercios de las personas que perdieron su empleo fueron mujeres. Durante la terrible ola de calor de 2003, que costó miles de vidas en Francia, una gran mayoría de las muertes también fueron mujeres. El cambio climático afecta de manera distinta a hombres y mujeres en todo el planeta. Por eso, me alegra que por primera vez se apruebe un informe sobre justicia climática e igualdad de género, a iniciativa de mi Grupo político, los Verdes europeos.

Las mujeres pueden y deben jugar un papel crucial en las políticas climáticas. Para ello es fundamental poner el foco en el género al hablar de la toma de decisiones, financiación e inversión sobre cambio climático, lucha contra la deforestación, agricultura, educación, acceso a la energía y emprendimiento en la transición energética.

Igualdad y ecología son dos caras de la misma moneda.

 
  
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  Marijana Petir (PPE). – Gospođo predsjednice, žene i djevojčice osjetljive su na klimatske promjene i učinci klimatskih promjena pogoršavaju postojeće nejednakosti u društvu, a posebno su ugrožene žene iz ruralnih područja, s obzirom da ovise o prirodnim resursima jer se bave poljoprivrednim poslovima i obavljaju u kućanstvu velik broj neplaćenih poslova pa se zalažem da se upravo to promijeni i da njihov rad bude prepoznat i plaćen.

Svakako je zabrinjavajući podatak da žene i djeca umiru 14 puta više u odnosu na muškarce u slučaju prirodnih katastrofa. Žene su i dalje podzastupljene u tijelima koja odlučuju o klimatskim promjenama, stoga podržavam snažnije uključenje žena u provedbu i izvršenje politika zaštite okoliša na nacionalnoj lokalnoj razini.

Također se pridružujem pozivima Komisiji da uključi klimatske promjene u razvojne programe i da nađe rješenja za te probleme kao i za njihovo financiranje. Podržavam inicijativu da se žene usmjeri na poduzetništvo vezano uz čistu energiju i tako im se pomogne u samozapošljavanju.

 
  
 

(Fin des interventions à la demande)

 
  
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  Karmenu Vella, Member of the Commission. – Madam President, on behalf of the Commission, let me thank Parliament for preparing this important report on women, gender equality and climate justice. Let me start by emphasising that gender equality matters in its own right, and that it matters for effective climate action and sustainable development.

This is rightly recognised in the report. Women are disproportionately vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, where their rights and socioeconomic status are not equal to those of men, and where they have less voice and influence than men in shaping policies and prioritising how climate finance is used. The empowerment of women is an important ingredient in building climate resilience and, as pointed out in the resolution, women are primary agents of change and effective risk managers.

The European Union is already committed to promoting a gender perspective in climate policies, both domestically and internationally, and to supporting women’s engagement and gender equality in the international negotiations under the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The European Union’s stance in climate negotiations has been, and continues to be, that the full and equal participation of women in climate negotiations and in the design of climate action is key. The EU delegation in climate talks also comprises over 50% women, and two out of three leading EU negotiators are women.

Moreover, the Commission has been directly involved in shaping the development of a gender action plan under the UNFCCC. We have not only been participating and contributing to a round of informal consultations on the development of the gender action plan, but also are one of the few organisations providing dedicated funding to the UNFCCC secretariat’s work on gender activities. This support is critical for the continuation of the work that the UNFCCC is doing on gender. At COP 23 in Bonn, the European Union played an active and enabling role in the negotiations leading up to the adoption of this gender action plan.

By supporting the implementation of gender—related decisions and mandates under the Convention, this gender action plan seeks to advance women’s full, equal and meaningful participation and promote gender—responsive climate policy and the mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the work of parties.

It sets out five priority areas: first, capacity-building, knowledge sharing and communication. Second, gender—balanced participation and women’s leadership. Third, coherence; fourth, gender—responsive implementation and means of implementation. And fifth, monitoring and reporting, all supported by a list of proposed activities such as workshops for policymakers on gender—responsive policies and holding a dialogue with the standing committee on finance on its work to improve gender—sensitive access to climate finance.

The empowerment of women and upscaling climate action are also central in our development cooperation efforts. We implement targeted measures to tackle gender inequalities and climate change issues in our partner countries, while also mainstreaming gender equality and climate change perspectives into all aspects of our development policy.

Gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls are recognised as a cross-cutting driver for sustainable development in the new European consensus on development and the EU gender action plan 2016—2020. We can already see concrete results of this approach. The EU’s Global Climate Change Alliance Plus flagship initiative supports climate action in different areas, including by empowering women and addressing gender issues in the context of climate change and climate-induced migration.

Half of the initiative’s partner countries recognise women as a particularly vulnerable group in their nationally determined contributions. The Global Climate Change Alliance Plus is embarking on further gender mainstreaming in its programmes and taking a leadership role for other EU climate funding instruments. Other positive examples include the Evergreening Africa with Trees project, the Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade action plan and the SWITCH to Green initiative.

At the same time, we are ready to further increase our efforts on the ground to promote the equal rights of women in our partner countries to participate in, and directly influence, decision—making processes on climate and environmental issues as well as resilience building.

Closely linked to these is the key role women have in sustainable energy. They are actors of change, but are regrettably at the centre of the negative impacts of non-sustainable energy consumption. The EU’s new action, Women and Sustainable Energy, worth EUR 20 million, will foster women’s active role in sustainable energy, specifically through actions promoting women’s entrepreneurship, training and economic empowerment in the sustainable energy sector in developing countries.

Finally, as most of you have noted, the report also refers to the increased migration that may occur as a result of climate change. The EU has politically supported the establishment by COP 21 of the task force on displacement. At this stage, the task force will map existing relevant policies and institutional frameworks that deal with migration. After mid—2018, it will move to the phase of developing recommendations for approaches to avert, minimise and address displacement related to climate change impacts.

The Commission is aware of the importance of also mainstreaming gender in its internal climate policies. This summer, the Commission will publish an evaluation highlighting the results of its work on adaptation since 2013, setting the basis for further development of the EU adaptation strategy. Due consideration of vulnerable groups, including women, will be part of these discussions.

We welcome the suggestion made in the resolution to support the development of indicators and collect gender—disaggregated data when planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating climate change policies, programmes and projects. We will also reflect on how to address this issue further in a concerted effort with all relevant Commission services.

Last but not least, let me once again welcome this report by the European Parliament and congratulate the rapporteur, Ms Engström, on her work on this important topic of climate change and gender equality.

 
  
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  La Présidente. – Le débat est clos.

Le vote aura lieu mardi 16 janvier 2018.

Déclarations écrites (article 162)

 
  
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  Maria Grapini (S&D), in writing. – Gender equality is still an unsolved problem in the European space. I congratulate the rapporteur and I will vote on this report because even in climate change we unfortunaelty see a difference between women and men. Women are the ones who care for children in the event of climate calamities and climate change. I have often analysed the gender difference, in payroll, in office, in administration, and in politics. We have to watch, and I ask the Commission to do so, to ensure that the new regulations that apply here are taken up in national legislation.

 
  
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  Νότης Μαριάς (ECR), γραπτώς. – Οι κλιματικές αλλαγές και η υπερθέρμανση του πλανήτη δημιουργούν κλιματικούς πρόσφυγες. Εξ αυτών, οι γυναίκες είναι ο πιο ευάλωτος πληθυσμός λόγω ακριβώς της έλλειψης μέτρων για την εμπέδωση της ισότητας των δύο φύλων. Για τον λόγο αυτό, η κλιματική δικαιοσύνη επιβάλλει τη λήψη μέτρων προκειμένου να επιτευχθεί η κοινωνική, εργασιακή και μισθολογική ισότητα ανδρών και γυναικών.

Είναι γνωστό ότι η ισότητα των φύλων παραμένει η μεγαλύτερη πρόκληση των καιρών μας. Οι διαφορές μεταξύ των δύο φύλων μειώθηκαν σημαντικά τα τελευταία χρόνια, αλλά η πρόοδος ποικίλλει μεταξύ των κρατών-μελών, ενώ εξακολουθούν να υφίστανται ανισότητες σε διάφορους τομείς. Ένας εξαιρετικά μεγάλος αριθμός γυναικών εξακολουθούν να πέφτουν θύματα διακρίσεων, να μην έχουν ίσες ευκαιρίες στην εκπαίδευση και στην αγορά εργασίας. Ιδίως στις χώρες του αναπτυσσόμενου κόσμου, που πλήττονται ιδιαίτερα από τις κλιματικές αλλαγές οι γυναίκες, παρότι σε συντριπτική πλειοψηφία εργάζονται στις αγροτικές εργασίες, εντούτοις πολύ μικρό ποσοστό εξ αυτών έχουν ιδιοκτησία επί της αγροτικής γης.

Επιπλέον, η πρόσβαση σε νερό στις ίδιες χώρες είναι ιδιαίτερα δύσκολη και αυτές που πλήττονται περισσότερο εν προκειμένω είναι επίσης οι γυναίκες οι οποίες, πέραν των άλλων, είναι επιφορτισμένες και με τις οικιακές εργασίες και την προετοιμασία του φαγητού.

 
Letzte Aktualisierung: 3. April 2018Rechtlicher Hinweis