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Postup : 2018/2003(INI)
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Stadia projednávání dokumentu : A8-0249/2018

Předložené texty :

A8-0249/2018

Rozpravy :

PV 10/09/2018 - 28
CRE 10/09/2018 - 28

Hlasování :

PV 11/09/2018 - 6.16
CRE 11/09/2018 - 6.16

Přijaté texty :

P8_TA(2018)0333

Rozpravy
Pondělí 10. září 2018 - Štrasburk Předběžné znění

28. Transparentní a zodpovědné využívání přírodních zdrojů v rozvojových zemích: případ lesů (krátké přednesení)
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  Przewodniczący. – Kolejnym punktem porządku dziennego jest sprawozdanie sporządzone przez Heidi Hautalę w imieniu Komisji Rozwoju w sprawie przejrzystego i odpowiedzialnego zarządzania zasobami naturalnymi w krajach rozwijających się: kwestia lasów (2018/2003(INI)) (A8-0249/2018).

 
  
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  Heidi Hautala, Rapporteur. – Mr President, nobody should deny the urgency of addressing and tackling climate change, which has become a question for the very existence of humanity and our planet. We have increasing scientific evidence that forest cover is the one feasible option we have for combating climate change. Connected with that, we have to care for the soil, with its rich microbial life, which is the basis for life systems.

However, we know that deforestation is currently the number two cause of greenhouse gas emissions. I believe that the EU has done a lot to try to protect forests worldwide, but it can do better. Namely, the EU already has excellent tools, which can be used to assist our partner countries on the way to better development. We have, for instance, the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade instrument, which we call the Flegt Action Plan, and we have linked this with the Voluntary Partnership Agreements, which have proven to be indispensable tools in improving forest governance in partner countries. These Voluntary Partnership Agreements have brought stakeholders – I am talking about civil society, local and indigenous peoples, law-enforcement agents and governments – broadly together to the same negotiating table, to try to solve the difficult issue of deforestation so we can invest more in this important instrument in order to tackle corruption, which is often the cause of deforestation. We can also address the issue of so-called conflict timber just as we have addressed conflict minerals. I want to stress that there is a need for sufficient resources for these mechanisms and that Parliament should do more to secure those resources.

What is urgently needed, however, is a coherent, all-encompassing EU action plan to stop deforestation and forest degradation. This is already several years overdue and I hope very much that the Commission will now take inspiration from this own-initiative report and will urgently open a genuine stakeholder consultation, which in turn will pave the way for the action plan against deforestation and forest degradation. I hope that Commissioner Mimica will continue to support these measures, which are outlined in the report.

There are some striking examples of the fact that voluntary approaches to tackling deforestation in EU policy are not enough. For instance, in the cocoa sector, the EU is responsible for over 60% of global imports of cocoa, and the major part of the global cocoa supply is produced in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. However – you may not believe this, but it is true – in Côte d’Ivoire, for instance, 40% of production takes place on illegally converted forest land. I am sure that we, as European consumers, do not want to see this continue. I’m very glad, too, to hear private-sector voices being raised to call for mandatory due diligence in the cocoa supply chains, and, with this report, I hope we can address these requirements at EU level.

 
  
 

Zgłoszenia z sali

 
  
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  Julie Ward (S&D). – Mr President, we need to hold our governments and our businesses accountable for the way they engage with other countries, especially when it comes to preserving natural resources. Indigenous people’s rights, and in particular land rights, are almost systematically overlooked. Last December in Kenya, the Sengwer community faced a wave of forced evictions from their ancestral land, despite the fact that their forest is included in the water conservation programme financed by the EU, and some Sengwer were killed in the eviction process.

The EU temporarily suspended its funding and now we need to continue engaging with the Kenyan authorities on the ground to ensure full accountability for the human rights violations that occurred. It is also important that the EU delegation in Nairobi doesn’t let the current negotiations drag on, as many people’s livelihoods depend on the viability of this project. We need to keep this experience in mind in order to ensure that human rights due diligence, in particular when it comes to indigenous rights, remain at the heart of any future EU engagement with other countries.

 
  
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  Kateřina Konečná (GUE/NGL). – Pane předsedající, bylo mi velkou ctí vypracovat k této zprávě stanovisko výboru ENVI. A v této souvislosti bych chtěla ocenit práci všech stínových zpravodajů a skvělou spolupráci s paní Hautalaovou. Jsem opravdu velmi ráda, že se Evropský parlament nebojí o tématu odlesňování hovořit, ale již je opravdu nejvyšší čas, aby Komise začala jednat. Komise totiž dlouhou dobu čekala na nezávislé studie, které nakonec nepřekvapivě deklarovaly, že EU je jednoznačně součástí problému globálního odlesňování. Vážená Komise, teď, když už konečně víte, co jste měli vědět dávno, vězte prosím i toto: do konce tohoto mandátu Komise očekáváme předložení ambiciózního akčního plánu EU týkajícího se odlesňování a znehodnocování lesů, který by obsahoval konkrétní regulační opatření. Vím, že to bude těžké, ale byli jste to vy, kdo ztrácel čas, zatímco deštné pralesy mizely nebo byly páleny kvůli poptávce na biopaliva do Evropské unie.

 
  
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  Jean-Luc Schaffhauser (ENF). – Monsieur le Président, le rapport Hautala fait un bon constat mais se trompe sur les remèdes. La mondialisation est le problème, pas la solution. Essayer de la réparer avec des rustines réglementaires vertes n’empêche pas sa logique destructrice. La seule et réelle solution est de renoncer à cet absurde libre—échange du marché unique mondial qui repose sur la concurrence par les prix.

L’importation massive de bois et sa transformation en dehors de nos normes environnementales et sociales en Chine et au Vietnam est la véritable source de la déforestation, et le rapport ne s’y attaque pas. 75 % des exportations de bois vont vers la Chine, des bois français également.

L’agriculture écologique est aussi le meilleur moyen de lutter contre la déforestation des forêts primaires, mais elle demande également un protectionnisme dans les pays en voie de développement et chez nous, et ces normes sont absentes de ce rapport.

Nous voterons donc contre ce rapport, malgré ses bonnes intentions.

 
  
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  Maria Arena (S&D). – Monsieur le Président, la déforestation, la dégradation et l’exploitation illégale des forêts peuvent être motivées aussi par des facteurs liés au commerce. C’est pourquoi la politique commerciale de l’Union européenne a un rôle essentiel à jouer.

L’Union européenne est l’un des principaux exportateurs et importateurs de biens. Elle a donc la possibilité d’agir au niveau des normes internationales, contrairement à ce qu’a dit notre collègue de la droite radicale.

Mais plus qu’une volonté, il s’agit d’une obligation. En effet, la Cour européenne de justice a dit, dans le cadre de l’avis qu’elle a émis sur Singapour, que l’Union européenne doit intégrer les objectifs de préservation et d’amélioration de la qualité de l’environnement et de gestion durable des ressources dans le cadre de sa politique commerciale.

Alors, que faire?

Premièrement, se doter d’un cadre réglementaire pour appliquer des obligations de transparence tout au long de l’approvisionnement des produits forestiers à risque; deuxièmement, renforcer le chapitre développement durable avec des mécanismes de sanction.

Alors, lutter contre le changement climatique avec des mesures volontaires est tout simplement irresponsable. C’est pourquoi j’en appelle au sens de la responsabilité de chacun d’entre nous au sein de ce Parlement, pour ne pas soutenir les votes séparés de certains membres de ce Parlement, qui iraient totalement au suicide par rapport au respect climatique.

 
  
 

(Koniec zgłoszeń z sali)

 
  
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  Corina Crețu, Member of the Commission. – Mr President, the Commission welcomes this opportunity today to discuss the challenges forests face in a global context of increased pressure on natural resources. The Commission welcomes the report and warmly thanks the rapporteur, Vice-President Heidi Hautala, for the excellent work undertaken.

Forests are nature’s most generous renewable resources. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the new European Consensus on Development have reaffirmed the urgency to tackle illegal and unsustainable exploitation of forests by supporting better governance. In this endeavour, transparency and accountability – two elements highlighted by this report –show a way forward.

As far as the Commission is concerned, we are strongly committed to tackling illegal logging and trade, and promoting good governance in the forestry sector. Through the EU flagship initiative the Forest Law-enforcement, Governance and Trade Action Plan, we have put forward a comprehensive toolkit to tackle both the illegal production of timber and its consumption. This year marks the first 15 years, so let me briefly recall the significant achievements of the forest action plan.

A key element is the new Timber Regulation. I am pleased to confirm that after more than five years of implementation, there is steady progress in its enforcement. In 2009, the EU concluded its first voluntary partnership agreement with Ghana. As of today, we count 15 agreements, and we recently initiated an agreement with Honduras, and we hope to close this year with Guyana and Vietnam.

Voluntary partnership agreements have been the cornerstone of the forest action plan. An important proof of this is Indonesia which in November 2016 became the first country to export timber to the EU that was licensed through the action plan. Since then, Indonesia has issued close to 40 000 licenses with a total value of more than USD 1 billion. That is about 25% of tropical timber imports into the European Union. Forest law-enforcement, governance and trade and licensing are a significant milestone yet it is only the end of a long journey that involves overall governance improvement, as we see in Ghana. And, most importantly the benefits go beyond forests, contributing to larger EU initiatives such as the protection of indigenous people’s rights and environmental defenders.

The Forest Law-Enforcement, Governance and Trade initiative owes part of its success to the engagement of the private sector as you have already said. New alliances are necessary, including with big consumer countries, especially China, and with financial institutions.

The Commission is currently concluding the Forest Law-Enforcement, Governance and Trade work plan for the period 2018-2022, and the European Union has also included environmental crime linked to forests in the priorities of its overall fight against organised crime for 2018-2021.

In the end, I would like to say that the Commission hears your call for more measures to halt deforestations. The EU is already doing a lot through the forest flagship initiative I just mentioned, through the mechanism of the reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. We will draw the lessons but more needs to be done.

Deforestation is a complex matter requiring a specific approach that involves all the relevant stakeholders, not least in partner countries. We therefore intend to pursue a high level of ambition in the next Multiannual Financial Framework, including through our broad neighbourhood development and international cooperation instruments. It will seek to mainstream environmental protection in a geographical pillar and complement this by targeted thematic actions on sustainable forest management, illegal logging and conflict timber. We look forward to your support.

 
  
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  Przewodniczący. – Zamykam debatę.

Głosowanie odbędzie się we wtorek 11 września 2018 r.

Oświadczenia pisemne (art. 162)

 
  
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  Ivan Jakovčić (ALDE), napisan. – Svi znamo da su šume pluća svijeta, no zašto se onda prema njima ponašamo tako loše da ih krčimo, palimo, nezakonito sječemo? One znatno doprinose ublažavanju klimatskih promjena i prilagodbi na njih te očuvanju biološke raznolikosti. One sprečavaju degradaciju i dezertifikaciju zemljišta i time smanjuju rizik od poplava, odrona tla i suše. One su nužne za održivu poljoprivredu te poboljšavaju sigurnost opskrbe hranom i ishranu. Upravo iz ovih i mnogih drugih razloga glasao sam ZA Izvješće o transparentnom i odgovornom upravljanju prirodnim resursima u zemljama u razvoju! Ovo Izvješće traži od EU-a da pruži potporu integraciji ciljeva upravljanja šumama i zemljištem u nacionalno utvrđene doprinose zemalja u razvoju bogatih šumama, te podsjeća na to da se u Pariškom sporazumu od svih strana zahtijeva da poduzmu mjere za očuvanje i poboljšanje ponora, uključujući šume. Krčenje i uništavanje šuma nije nikakav način kvalitetnog odnosa prema tom prirodnom resursu, a ujedno je nezakonita sječa drva i trgovina drvom jedan od pet najvažnijih sektora kriminala protiv okoliša. Snažno zagovaram poticanje participativnog i zajedničkog upravljanja šumama većim uključivanjem civilnog društva u planiranje i provedbu politika i projekata upravljanja šumama, podizanjem svijesti i osiguravanjem da lokalne zajednice također uživaju koristi od šumskih resursa.

 
  
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  Indrek Tarand (Verts/ALE), kirjalikult. – Käesolev arutelu metsatustumise üle väljaspool EL-i paneb lootusetult ohkama selle üle, mis toimub meie koduriikide metsades. Asjaolu, et sada aastat tagasi oli Eestis kaks korda rohkem metsa, näitab, et meie metsamajanduse korraldus ning eetika ei ole olnud jätkusuutlik. Seda just viimasel aastakümnel. Aastasadu töötas eestlane selle nimel, et soost saaks põllud ja võsastikust metsamaa - täna muutub meie mets riigiasutuste dirigeerimisel üheks üüratuks raiesmikuks. Peaksime lõpu tegema silmakirjalikule praktikale, kus taastuvenergiat toodetakse läbi puidu katlas põletamise ning veel enam, selle kui keskkonnasõbralikul viisil valminud energiaallika turustamisele teistele riikidele, kellel jäi taastuvenergia osakaal oodatust madalamaks. Rääkimata selle keskkondlikust mõjust, on kõrge kvaliteediga puidu tuhaks põletamisel ka oma majanduslik kahjutegur - seda puitu saaks mõnes teises sektoris jätkusuutlikumalt, aga ka suurema kasumiga ära rakendada. Andestamatu on ka metsaraie lohakas läbi viimine rahvusparkides ning väärtuslikel rohealadel, kus see peaks vastama range järelvalve ning läbipaistvuse nõuetele. Ajakirja Eesti Mets 1927. aasta 12. numbris kirjutab, et „eks rahvajutt olegi tõsi, et riigikogus jagavat kristlased taevariiki ohtralt tahtjatele ja koondlased jälle metsi. Teadmata alles, missugune erakond hakkab jagama merd?“ Rohkemgi kui erakonnad, vastutavad tänases Eestis tasakaalutu metsaraie eest riigiasutused, kes tegutsevad vastupidiselt oma kohustele.

 
Poslední aktualizace: 21. září 2018Právní upozornění