Procedure : 2014/2565(RSP)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : B7-0192/2014

Texts tabled :


Debates :

Votes :

PV 27/02/2014 - 10.8

Texts adopted :


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See also joint motion for a resolution RC-B7-0188/2014

to wind up the debate on the statement by the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

pursuant to Rule 110(2) of the Rules of Procedure

on Iraq (2014/2565(RSP))

Tarja Cronberg, Ulrike Lunacek, Nicole Kiil-Nielsen, Raül Romeva i Rueda on behalf of the Verts/ALE Group

European Parliament resolution on Iraq (2014/2565(RSP))  

The European Parliament,

       having regard to its previous resolutions on Iraq, in particular that of 10 October 2013 on recent violence in Iraq(1),

–       having regard to the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between the European Union, its Member States and the Republic of Iraq, and to the first meeting of the EU-Iraq Cooperation Council of 20 January 2014,

–       having regard to the Local EU Statement in Iraq of 10 December 2013 on the occasion of International Human Rights Day,

–       having regard to the Foreign Affairs Council conclusions on Iraq, in particular those of 10 February 2014,

–       having regard to the statements by the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton, on Iraq, in particular those of 5 February 2014, 16 January 2014 and 18 December 2013,

–       having regard to the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Presidential Statement on Iraq of 10 January 2014,

–       having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948,

–       having regard to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966, to which Iraq is a party,

–       having regard to the Council statement of 26 February 2014 on Iraq,

–       having regard to Rule 110(2) of its Rules of Procedure,

A.     whereas, almost 11 years after the invasion of Iraq by the ‘Coalition of the Willing’, the country is facing the most severe wave of violence since 2008, with more than 1 000 people reportedly having been killed in one month alone, sectarian violence between the Shia majority and Sunnis and smaller minorities thriving, and peace, equality, democracy and prosperity in ever more distant reach;

B.     whereas many of Iraq’s current divisions can be traced to the decision of the occupying authorities after 2003 to abolish the Iraqi army and purge government bureaucracy, thereby creating a vacuum that was soon filled by sectarian parties and militias;

C.     whereas the Shia-dominated al-Maliki government has systematically marginalised the Sunni minority and its political representation, tightened its own grip on the security services, allowing them to act with impunity, subjected political opponents to intimidation and arrests, and violently subdued mass protests, and is continuing to increase the number of executions; whereas, in particular, the demolition of the year‑long Sunni protest camp in Ramadi by the government on 30 December 2013 added significantly to already heightened tensions;

D.     whereas Iraq is currently suffering under intense demographic pressure from population growth and internal displacement, the highest level of corruption in the Middle East, and an economy that has failed to translate oil wealth into economic growth, meaningful levels of employment and adequate per capita incomes, and whereas the country’s social fabric, in particular its former achievements in relation to equality for women, has been severely upset;

E.     whereas the population continues to suffer from the consequences of the significant quantities of depleted uranium that were used in ammunition during the invasion by the United States and the United Kingdom, with an extraordinary increase in cancers and malformations;

F.     whereas the ongoing civil war in Syria is spilling over to Iraq, with thousands of militants – in particular the al-Qaeda-linked Islamist militants of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – extending their activities into Iraqi territory;

G.     whereas at the beginning of 2014 the ISIL seized key areas of Ramadi and Fallujah, the main cities of Anbar province, which are mostly Sunni-populated; whereas more than 60 000 families have fled during the subsequent fighting between the ISIL and government forces, with the UN giving a rough estimate of six people per family, which represents more than 370 000 people, and whereas according to the UN report 85 % of Fallujah’s population has been displaced;

H.     whereas according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees this is the largest displacement that Iraq has witnessed since the sectarian violence of 2006 to 2008, and whereas this figure comes on top of the 1.13 million people already internally displaced in Iraq, who are mostly residing in the Baghdad, Diyala and Ninawa provinces; whereas, furthermore, many civilians are unable to leave conflict-affected areas, where food and fuel are now in short supply;

I.      whereas deadly bomb attacks across Iraq continue unabated, such as the attack of 5 February 2014 on the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, mainly striking Shia neighbourhoods, while several prison breaks are increasing the number of fighters filling up the ranks of extremist militant groups;

J.      whereas disagreement between Iraq’s federal government and the Kurdistan Regional Government continues over how to share the use of Iraq’s mineral resources, with a new pipeline expected to transport 2 million barrels of oil every month from Kurdistan to Turkey and the central government preparing legal action against the province;

K.     whereas on 16 January 2014 Prime Minister al-Maliki requested new arms and training from the US, and whereas a massive arming campaign for Iraq is ongoing, involving multi-billion dollar sales of military equipment by the US, Russia, Iran and possibly other countries;

L.     whereas the government has begun recruiting thousands of Sunni tribal volunteers to fight the extremist jihadi militants in Anbar province;

M.    whereas amendments to Iraq’s electoral law were passed in November 2013, paving the way for the general elections due to take place on 30 April;

1.      Expresses its deep concern over the deterioration of the security situation in Iraq, massive new arms deliveries into the crisis region and the increasing danger that the country could fall back into outright civil war;

2.      Reiterates its strong condemnation of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the consequences thereof, including the collapse of the rule of law, the rise of religious extremism and an extraordinary level of corruption in the country; underlines the fact that this attack violated international law;

3.      Calls on all the Member States swiftly to ratify the 2010 Kampala amendments to the International Criminal Court Statute on the ‘crime of aggression’, in order to pave the way for the prosecution of wars of aggression in the future;

4.      Underlines the critical importance of continued national dialogue and unity, an inclusive political process and the right to peaceful protest as guaranteed under the Iraqi constitution;

5.      Highlights the importance of the upcoming elections for Iraq’s continued democratic transition and calls on all actors to ensure that the elections are inclusive, transparent, credible and held on time; calls on the European External Action Service (EEAS) to assist the Iraqi Government as much as possible with the practical preparations;

6.      Welcomes the government’s new effort to increase dialogue and cooperation between Iraqi tribes, local leaders and Iraqi security forces in Anbar province with a view to combating violence and terror;

7.      Underlines, however, the fact that years of discrimination, government neglect and poor access to civil service jobs have created deep-rooted resentment and mistrust among Sunnis and a need for a resolute shift in long-term policy;

8.      Calls on the EEAS and the Commission to do their utmost to support the Iraqi Government and the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) in protecting the civilian population in Fallujah and elsewhere so as to try to ensure the safe passage of civilians trapped in conflict areas and the safe return of internally displaced persons as conditions allow;

9.      Strongly criticises the recent wave of dozens of executions and the hundreds of additional cases of capital punishment awaiting confirmation by the presidency, which are often the result of convictions following grossly unfair trials on charges of terrorism under the draconian 2005 Anti-Terrorism Law; reiterates its urgent call for the presidency to refrain from confirming the death sentences and for the government to introduce a moratorium on all further executions;

10.    Believes that a reform of the deeply flawed justice system, plagued by torture and corruption, is of primary importance in order to re-establish a sense of security among the citizens of Iraq, and should include the revision of the Anti-Terrorism Law, which provides significantly fewer protections for suspects and detainees than the Code of Criminal Procedure, and calls for an end to impunity, in particular for state security forces;

11.    Condemns the use of depleted uranium during the war, including by Member States, and calls for the EU to develop a common EU position in favour of the prohibition of the use of depleted uranium munitions and to offer support for the treatment of victims and possible efforts to de-intoxicate the areas affected;

12.    Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the President of the European Council, the President of the Commission, the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the presidents of the parliaments of the Member States, and the Government and Council of Representatives of the Republic of Iraq.


Texts adopted, P7_TA(2013)0424.

Last updated: 20 February 2014Legal notice