Procedure : 2013/2125(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A7-0358/2013

Texts tabled :

A7-0358/2013

Debates :

PV 20/11/2013 - 14
CRE 20/11/2013 - 14

Votes :

PV 21/11/2013 - 8.15

Texts adopted :

P7_TA(2013)0514

REPORT     
PDF 282kWORD 143k
30 October 2013
PE 516.829v02-00 A7-0358/2013

on the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base

(2013/2125(INI))

Committee on Foreign Affairs

Rapporteur: Michael Gahler

Rapporteur for the opinion (*):

Jean-Pierre Audy, Committee on Industry, Research and Energy

(*) Associated committee - Rule 50 of the Rules of Procedure

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
 MINORITY OPINION
 OPINION of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (*)
 OPINION of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection
 RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION

on the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base

(2013/2125(INI))

The European Parliament,

–   having regard to Title V of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), in particular Articles 21, 42, 45 and 46 thereof, and Articles 173, 179-190 and 352 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and its Protocol No 10,

–   having regard to the European Council conclusions of 13-14 December 2012 and to the process leading to the European Council meeting on defence scheduled for 19-20 December 2013,

–   having regard to the Commission Communication of 24 July 2013 entitled ‘Towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector’ (COM(2013)0542),

–   having regard to the Commission Communication of 5 December 2007 entitled ‘A strategy for a stronger and more competitive European defence industry’ (COM(2007)0764),

–   having regard to the European Security Strategy, adopted by the European Council on 12 December 2003, and to the report on its implementation, endorsed by the European Council on 11-12 December 2008,

–   having regard to the declaration on the enhancement of the European Security and Defence Policy, adopted by the European Council on 12 December 2008, and to the declaration on strengthening capabilities, adopted by the Council on 11 December 2008,

–   having regard to the Strategy for the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base, adopted by the European Defence Agency (EDA) Steering Board on 14 May 2007,

–   having regard to Council Decision 2011/411/CFSP of 12 July 2011 defining the statute, seat and operational rules of the European Defence Agency and repealing Joint Action 2004/551/CFSP(1),

–   having regard to Directive 2009/81/EC on the coordination of procedures for the award of certain works contracts, supply contracts and service contracts by contracting authorities or entities in the fields of defence and security(2),

–   having regard to its resolutions of 22 November 2012 on the implementation of the Common Security and Defence Policy(3), and of 14 December 2011 on the impact of the financial crisis on the defence sector in the EU Member States(4),

–   having regard to Rule 48 of its Rules of Procedure,

–   having regard to the report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and to the opinions of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy and the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (A7-0358/2013),

An operational Common Security and Defence Policy needs a strong European defence technological and industrial base

1.  Recalls that an operational Common Security and Defence Policy needs a strong European defence technological and industrial base (EDTIB), constituting a key element for Europe's capacity to ensure the security of its citizens, protect its values and promote its interests; points out that the European defence sector is a major source of growth and innovation, key features for stability and security; believes that the establishment and development of a competitive EDTIB should be part of the strategic priorities of the EU;

2.  Recalls the level of operational ambitions outlined in the Council Declaration on strengthening capabilities of 11 December 2008 and the civilian and military tasks outlined in Article 43(1) TEU; recalls the Member States’ commitment to improve their military capabilities; calls on the European Council to launch the development of a European capabilities and armaments policy (ECAP) to that end, as provided for in Article 42(3) TEU;

3.  Notes that while some third countries such as China, India, Brazil and Russia are increasing their defence spending, EU defence budgets are being cut back; draws attention to the changing strategic global landscape, reduced defence budgets, caused especially by the economic and financial crisis, the quickening pace of technological development and the fact that European defence companies are adjusting to this situation by putting the emphasis on exports to third countries, at the cost of transferring sensitive technologies and intellectual property rights, and moving production outside the EU;

4.  Is concerned about the reductions in defence investment, and calls on the Member States, the EDA and the Commission to take countermeasures in response to the increasing exposure of the EDTIB in the future to the risk of being controlled and constrained in its activities by third powers with different strategic interests; urges the Member States to reinforce European industrial cooperation with a view to ensuring, as far as possible, strategic autonomy by developing and producing efficient military and security capabilities using the most advanced technologies;

5.  Stresses that with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty the EU’s industrial, space and research policies extend to the defence remit; points out that Union programmes in other areas such as internal and border security, disaster management and development offer a significant prospect of jointly developing capabilities relevant to those policies and to the conduct of CSDP missions;

6.  Recalls the need to make progress in consolidating the EDTIB and notes that – in the face of the increasing sophistication and costs of technologies, growing international competition and decreasing defence budgets and production volumes, there is continued scope for multinational defence projects and that it is no longer possible in any of the Member States for the defence industry to be sustainable on a strictly national basis; regrets the fact that, while a certain level of concentration has been achieved in the European aerospace industries, the land and naval equipment sectors are still overwhelmingly fragmented along national lines;

7.  Stresses that the construction of a European defence industry should be carried out in a sustainable manner, in all Member States, on the basis of existing industrial infrastructure and of the established norms of European industrial policies as referred to in Article 173 TFEU, and not solely according to the principle of free competition;

8.  Reminds the EU Member States, the VP/HR, the European Commission and the European Defence Agency that more than two decades after the Cold War and after having had the benefit of relatively high national defence budgets, the EU Member States were not able to fulfil the Helsinki Headline Goals and other joint military capability development objectives;

9.  Recalls that if Europe wishes to maintain a solid security and defence industry its Member States need to coordinate their defence budgets in order to avoid duplication and to strengthen their joint research programmes;

10. Notes that in spite of the crisis and the budget cuts, European citizens are still calling for European defence and industrial coordination and cooperation, which they perceive as a factor promoting security, efficiency and savings;

11. Notes the Commission Communication of 24 July 2013 and the report by the HR/VP of 15 October 2013 on the Common Security and Defence Policy; considers it regrettable that the Commission and the EEAS did not issue a joint European declaration in preparation for the European Council’s defence summit in December of this year; looks forward to the specific legislative suggestions by the Commission on how to use the European Structural Investment Funds, the Enterprise Europe Network (EEN), the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund in order to assure the equitable development of the defence industry in all parts of the European Union;

12. Recalls that the Commission and EU defence ministers already underlined the need for urgent action in this field in 2007 with a dedicated Commission Communication and the EDA’s EDTIB strategy; regrets the lost opportunities regularly to submit implementation reports and update strategies following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty; considers it regrettable that the new communication does not take stock of previous strategies; calls for the Commission and the EDA to develop a joint EDTIB strategy in the future, based on past experiences;

13. Considers, in its own broad assessment, that both strategies have been insufficiently implemented because of the lack of a common understanding of EDTIB resulting from differing national and industrial interests, and the persistence of established national habits in the armaments sectors; takes note of the fact that there are Member States with no national defence industry and/or niche industries of their own that are striving to obtain the best value for money globally, with less competitive defence industries favouring national supply chains and with more powerful national defence industries accepting strong global competition;

14. Welcomes the European Council's decision to put the strengthening of Europe's defence on the agenda for its December summit; calls on the European Council to provide the necessary fresh and ambitious impetus and to lay down guidelines, overarching political priorities and timelines for supporting a truly European defence technological and industrial base, which will be backed by appropriate integrity- and trust-building measures and which will be capability-driven and will promote synergies, provide for the efficient use of the limited resources, avoid duplication and be integrated and competitive on the global market;

Harmonisation of requirements and consolidation of demand

15. Considers it regrettable that past efforts to consolidate demand have not improved the fragmentation of demand in the EU, with 28 national defence customers and an even higher number of customers of products for civilian and military use; regrets the limited results of the EDA’s Capability Development Plan; calls, therefore, on the European Council to launch a European defence review process and make the coordination of national defence planning processes at EU level a reality; based on this assessment, calls on the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy to initiate a wide-ranging process to develop a White Paper on European Security and Defence in order to streamline the EU’s strategic ambitions and capability development processes;

16. Calls on the Member States to further explore the possibility of synchronising and jointly planning the life-cycle management of their defence capabilities in cooperation with the EDA; considers that a higher degree of synergies leading to a common European capabilities and armaments policy, as referred to in Article 42 TEU, would be a prerequisite for turning the harmonisation of military requirements into harmonised equipment acquisition among Member States, thus creating the conditions for a successful demand-driven transnational restructuring of the defence industry in the EU;

17. Notes the work of the NATO defence planning process, through which members of the alliance, including 26 European allies, coordinate – where appropriate – in order to ensure that the right defence capabilities are developed and maintained to address future challenges; notes that NATO has long recognised the need for close cooperation with industry, not least in order to assist the development of military capability requirements, especially regarding standardisation and interoperability, while fostering transatlantic defence technological and industrial cooperation;

Industrial policy

18. Considers that a European industrial defence policy should have the aim of optimising Member States’ capabilities by coordinating the development, deployment and maintenance of a range of capabilities, installations, equipment and services with a view to performing the full range of tasks, including the most demanding missions, by strengthening Europe’s defence industry, by promoting research and technology cooperation and by developing equipment cooperation programmes;

19. Recognises the importance of the European defence industries for innovation and growth, giving rise, directly and indirectly, to approximately 400 000 jobs in the Union; highlights the fact that while the European defence economy is facing several challenges, there is a need for a new approach avoiding duplication and leading to larger economies of scale and increased industrial competition;

20. Believes that it is time to promote a voluntary approach in acting on the fragmentation of the European industrial defence market, furthering its consolidation (and initiating harmonisation) as regards supply and demand, rules and standards, and that it is also time to invest in an integrated sustainable industrial policy based on research, innovation, increasing efficiency of resources, a strategy for raw materials, the strengthening of SMEs and the development of regional networks; fully supports Commission efforts to underpin the internal defence and security market through suitable assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises playing a major role in innovation, in developing specialised capabilities and in state-of-the-art technologies and job creation under the ‘Europe 2020’ strategy;

21. Considers it important for Member States to step up cooperation in order to meet industrial challenges and notes that budgetary constraints and increasing global competition mean that the EU needs internal partnerships and other groupings as well as task-sharing; supports the EDA in its endeavour to promote regional clusters;

22. Takes the view that the very specific nature of defence markets should be recognised in view of the export control and anti-proliferation obligations and the strict confidentiality requirements which apply, and the fact that the number of companies supplying the market is limited and demand comes almost exclusively from governments;

23. Believes that the defence industry is very specific in nature, given lengthy product development and the need to keep systems operational for several decades, the substantial and growing cost of programmes and finally the fact that product commercialisation is highly dependent on Member State governments;

24. Supports the potential and encourages the dual use of the products of the security and defence industries, particularly in the space, maritime, aviation and telecommunications fields; stresses that the defence industry is an important driver for advanced technologies to be used at a later stage for commercial purposes;

25. Urges the European Council to give all possible support to the EDTIB, and to that end first and foremost to define its scope more clearly, particularly as regards those involved, by conferring a specific status on them, that of Economic Defence Operators in Europe (EDOEs);

26. Calls for EDOEs to be granted that status on the grounds of the real added value, both technological and socio-economic, they bring to Europe; considers, therefore, that only these economic defence operators in Europe should benefit from European programmes;

27. Believes that the concept of ‘Economic Defence Operator in Europe’ should be acknowledged and that reasonable criteria relating to jobs, scientific and technological expertise, decision-making and production within the EU should be met with a view to their protection;

28. Calls on the Member States to develop their defence industrial and technological bases and centres of excellence around key technologies, and provide them with effective corporate governance mechanisms within the European Union, thus enhancing the interdependence between these facilities;

29. Urges the Member States to encourage cooperation between major defence companies and universities; emphasises that the knowledge base of universities can be widened through such cooperation;

30. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to minimise unnecessary regulatory obstacles, to improve dialogue between defence undertakings and to promote the rationalisation of these undertakings so that they can acquire the equipment best suited to their needs in terms of performance and cost; calls for an urgent restructuring of European companies to overcome national barriers and adopt a global outlook;

31. Takes the view that small and medium-sized enterprises, which design and manufacture many innovative products, play a vital part in maintaining and consolidating the EDTIB; notes that the fragmentation of the European defence market is an obstacle to the ability of SMEs to market their products; calls on the Member States, the EDA and the Commission to work together to develop ways and means of consolidating small and medium-sized enterprises in a sustainable manner and of facilitating their access to defence procurement; emphasises that a common system of standardisation and certification would be of benefit to European companies, including SMEs, as it would improve their access to European and international markets, create employment and expand their access to EU funding;

Need for a common approach to standardisation and certification

32. Reiterates the fundamental importance of standardisation of defence equipment for the establishment of a competitive single European defence market, as well as for ensuring interoperability and facilitating cooperation on armaments programmes, for pooling and sharing projects, and for sustained interoperability among Member States’ forces, thereby reducing maintenance and operational cost levels and ensuring that optimum use can be made of Member States' defence capabilities in joint operations;

33. Recalls that there is a proliferation of competing industrial standards for civilian and military products; regrets the limited success of the implementation of NATO's standardization agreements (STANAG) and recommendations (STANREC); calls on the Commission and EDA to promote a coherent set of common standards in defence and to develop 'hybrid standards' in dual-use areas; calls on the Member States to ensure that their future steps to set defence standards are based on the civilian suggestions made by the Commission and European standardisation organisations;

34. Encourages the Member States to explore the possibilities offered by the European Defence Agency (EDA) in terms of drafting European standards for military products and applications, for example for the construction of hospital ships or in the field of remote-controlled aerial systems;

35. Welcomes the Commission’s proposals on standardisation, and calls on the European Council to note them and put forward concrete proposals in this area;

36. Calls on the Member States to streamline European certification procedures, with the mutual recognition of certificates and the development of common civilian and military European certification procedures;

Ensuring security of supply

37. Highlights, in the context of the industry's restructuring, the importance of ensuring that security of supply is not put at risk; calls on the Member States, the EDA and the Commission rapidly to develop a comprehensive and ambitious EU-wide security-of-supply regime, in particular for strategic materials and critical technologies, based on a system of mutual guarantees and an analysis of risks and needs, and possibly using the legal basis of permanent structured cooperation;

38. Urges the Member States, as first steps towards this objective, to fully exploit the potential of the general and global licences under Directive 2009/43/EC on transfers of defence-related products within the EU and to speed up work to operationalise the 2006 Framework Arrangement for Security of Supply in Circumstances of Operational Urgency;

39. Calls on the EDA and the Commission to submit a joint non-dependency strategy on critical technologies, in particular as regards unlimited access to and availability of civilian and military (dual-use) emerging and key enabling technologies, such as cutting-edge micro-/nano-electronics, artificial intelligence and photonics, which must be regarded as critical to CSDP missions; calls on the Member States to use the EDTIB to strengthen the EU's self-sufficiency in these key areas;

Giving a new impetus to armaments cooperation

40. Encourages the Member States to address the industrial overcapacities that result from declining demand by launching new joint projects, relying more heavily on the under-used and under-funded EDA and learning the lessons from recent joint operations which have revealed shortcomings, e.g. in strategic and tactical airlift and air and space observation; recommends in particular developing key enablers with civil-military applications, which are sorely lacking in the majority of the Member States, such as some remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), fostering the development of high technologies and helping sustain key competencies within Europe; encourages EU participation in joint projects through leasing and/or acquisition of dual-use capabilities and the possible procurement of prototypes;

41. Considers, in the light of past experience, that the sharing of development and production activities in the context of joint arms programmes should be organised strictly in accordance with the principle of industrial efficiency and economic performance, so as to prevent duplication and spiralling costs;

42. Calls on the Member States to give preference, when exploring large-scale defence technology acquisitions, to intra-EU projects or joint schemes, or European-based new technologies, which can foster at the same time European trade, increased cooperation and competition in terms of quality and price on the global defence market;

43. Urges the European Council, against the background of the existing administrative arrangement between the EDA and the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR), to ensure the successful implementation of common projects and envisage stronger links between the two organisations;

44. Calls on the European Council to enable the EDA fully to assume its institutional role, as outlined in Articles 42(3) and 45 TEU, by giving it the necessary resources; reiterates the urgent need for Member States to provide the EDA with adequate funding for the full range of its missions and tasks; takes the view that this would be best done by financing the Agency's staffing and running costs from the Union budget, starting with the forthcoming multiannual financial framework;

Supporting CSDP missions through European research and development

45. Notes that the economic and financial crisis and the cuts in the defence budgets of most Member States risk causing considerable reductions, setbacks or delays in the research and technological innovation programmes of almost all Member States, which will probably continue to affect the European defence industry and the Union’s scientific progress in this area; stresses that this situation risks entailing job losses in the medium and long term and loss of industrial capacity and know-how;

46. Emphasises the importance of research and innovation in the security and defence sector and of the Horizon 2020 research programme; in particular, the seventh societal challenge dedicated to ‘Secure societies: protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens’; emphasises the importance of fostering multinational cooperation among Member States and their respective agencies in this field; believes, given the high degree of confidentiality inherent to innovative research for the defence industry, that it is vital to finance such research in a manner related to needs; feels, in this context, that establishing a European Defence and Security Institute under the JRC should be considered;

47. Welcomes the Commission’s intention to launch a preparatory action for EU-funded research in support of CSDP missions, and invites the Commission to make a specific proposal as a precursor to such programmes early in the forthcoming multiannual financial framework;

48. Considers that EDTIB-related defence research and innovation continues to constitute a valid ethical basis; notes that a whole chapter of the Treaty of Lisbon is devoted to the common security and defence policy, which includes defence technology research and the framing of a common Union defence; calls on the Member States and the EDA to significantly increase the quantity and quality of joint research and development projects;

49. Recalls that Article 179 TFEU requires the Union to promote all the research activities deemed necessary by virtue of the Treaties;

50. Recalls that in November 2007 European Ministers of Defence agreed collective benchmarks to increase defence R&T spending to 2 % of all defence expenditure and to bring European collaborative defence R&T spending to a level of 20 %;

51. Supports the Defence Task Force, which includes the European Commission, European External Action Service (EEAS) and European Defence Agency (EDA), in its efforts to ensure that the results of Horizon 2020 research can feed into innovation-related research in the defence field and to optimise synergies between civil and military applications; calls, further, for consideration to be given to ways of using public-private funding through the creation of joint undertakings, in accordance with Article 187 TFEU;

52. Encourages the EDA to build on its track record of successful joint investment programmes and to work in liaison with the Commission in order to launch research and development programmes, based on Article 185 TFEU;

53. Highlights the importance of synergies between civilian and military research in areas with high added value; stresses that, while taking into account that certain projects have mainly civilian uses and others are sovereign matters, the possibility of more effective dual use might be explored with a view to pooling costs, since these are sectors which create growth and jobs; further stresses that such synergies could also take the form of consolidating supply from private European sources to market outlets;

54. Calls on the Member States to establish an appropriate platform for bringing defence research to the civilian sphere, with a focus on cutting-edge technological applications; calls on the Member States also to focus research in the area of defence technology on managing natural disasters (over the last 40 years, the number of natural disasters in Europe has quadrupled);

55. Believes that the EU defence industry should maintain a high level of innovation in both military and civilian terms, in order to respond to all the threats and challenges the Member States and the EU will have to face in the years to come by making use of the most promising technological advances, whether developed specifically for defence or for civilian purposes;

56. Stresses the need to make sure that research results are properly safeguarded in a common intellectual property policy and believes that the role of the EDA in this area should be further strengthened in order to facilitate, at an early stage, future technological and industrial cooperation between EU partners;

Space

57. Is convinced that the space sector contributes to the strategic autonomy of the EU and that the possibility for Member States to have independent access plays a vital role in the area of defence and security; stresses the importance of maintaining the excellence of this technologically innovative and efficient industry in order to ensure the technological independence of the European Union;

58. Welcomes the creation and development of a European satellite system (Galileo, Copernicus and EGNOS); stresses that the development of a system of that kind will be a major boost not only to the space industry but also to Europe’s autonomy and that it provides an opportunity to develop a critical component of the industrial and technological base of European defence;

59. Stresses the need to protect Europe’s space infrastructures by developing its space surveillance and tracking (SST) capacity;

ICT and data security

60. Points out that the digital era brings about increasing challenges for the safety and security of infrastructure and technology, therefore highlights the need for greater cooperation and exchange of know-how among Member States, on the one hand, and between the European Union and its key partners, on the other;

61. Stresses the importance of developing European ICT and cyber-security standards and integrating them with international standards;

62. Calls on the Commission and Member States to cooperate with one another to ensure that cyber-security is a key element, which should therefore be particularly promoted through research and innovation in the security and defence sector and should be part of the short-, medium- and long-term strategy;

63. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take cyber-security issues into account as a matter of course in existing or future European civilian and military programmes (Galileo, Copernicus, Single Sky/Sesar, etc.);

Strengthening the internal market in defence equipment

64. Recalls that Member States urgently need to improve the transparency and increase the openness of their defence markets, while stressing the specific nature of defence procurement and pointing out that it affects vital national security interests and cannot therefore be placed on the same footing as other sectors; calls on the Member States and the Commission to make sure that the 2009 directives on defence procurement and transfers are correctly and coherently applied, in particular with regard to any exemptions from EU rules under Article 346 TFEU, in order to strengthen the single market by reducing the complexity of procurement rules in the defence sector where appropriate;

65. Urges the Commission to step up efforts to build a level playing field in the defence market, limiting the use of market-distorting practices to the strict minimum of duly justified derogations; points out, in particular, the need to strengthen state aid control, and urges the Member States to practise greater transparency with regard to state aid and procurement practices in the defence sector, towards both European authorities and agencies and the general public;

66. Is concerned by the fact that a number of Member States are preparing to buy used F-16 fighter jets without giving European companies a fair chance to compete; considers that such a practice runs counter to the objective of the European Council to strengthen the European Defence Industrial Base; reminds these Member States of the need also to implement the principles of non-discrimination and transparency, as laid down in the Treaty of Lisbon, in relation to government-to-government sales;

67. Calls on the Member States, the EDA and the Commission to work together towards the gradual phasing-out of offset requirements, while fostering the integration of smaller Member States' industries into the European defence technological and industrial base by means other than offsets; encourages Member States in particular to make full use of the Directives’ provisions on subcontracting and General Licences to achieve this objective;

68. Stresses that greater use of innovative procurement techniques – especially e-procurement and pre-commercial procurement, as well as incentives setting for R&D – should be encouraged in defence procurement, as they may be particularly suited to this field and can play a major role in reducing the administrative burden and costs related to procurement procedures; believes that at the same time the protection of intellectual property rights and know-how needs to be ensured; urges the Member States to make strategic use of defence procurement and to implement innovative awarding principles based on the concept of the Most Economically Advantageous Tender;

69. Considers that contracting authorities and entities in the fields of defence and security should have access to a specific procurement procedure in respect of contracts where there is a need for the development of an innovative product or service or innovative works and the subsequent purchase of the resulting supplies, services or works, which cannot be met by solutions already available on the market;

70. Considers furthermore that such a procedure would improve the functioning of the internal market and the development of a European defence equipment market and a European defence technological and industrial base and would drive growth for innovative SMEs; stresses that such a procedure has already been agreed in the revised Classic and Utilities Procurement Directives, allowing contracting authorities to establish a long-term innovation partnership for the development and subsequent purchase of new, innovative products, services or works, providing the necessary ‘market pull’ and incentivising the development of an innovative solution without foreclosing the market;

71. Calls, therefore, on the Commission to take these developments into account in its implementation report to the European Parliament and the Council on the Defence Procurement Directive (Directive 2009/81/EC), which is due by 21 August 2016, and to accompany this report with a legislative proposal amending Directive 2009/81/EC, introducing the innovation partnerships procedure for the contracts concerned;

72. Urges the Member States also to take steps to eliminate duplication and excess capacity in the sector by boosting cooperation in the internal market; highlights the potential benefits of joint procurement in terms of economies of scale and interoperability; points out that shared projects will reduce costs and enable long-term investment;

73. Recalls that the contracts awarded in the field of defence and security are often technically complex; stresses that in order to facilitate cross-border tendering there is a need to review – where appropriate – unnecessary, incompatible or disproportionate technical requirements so as to minimise and, where possible, eliminate barriers to the internal market;

The EDTIB in a global context

74. Notes that the development of a viable EDTIB can only be conceived as part of the global market and encourages the Commission and the European Council to approach the issue with a global outlook; considers that taking protectionist measures would be contrary to the goal of enhancing the competitiveness of the European defence industry;

75. Deplores the existing inequality in terms of mutual market access between the US and Europe and the resulting imbalance in defence trade; calls for efforts to achieve genuine reciprocity in access to public defence procurement on both sides of the Atlantic;

76. Urges the Member States to comply strictly with the obligations set out in Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP defining common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment, and to make sure they rigorously assess all licence applications against all the eight criteria as required; calls on the Member States and the EU to act in international forums in favour of greater transparency in international defence procurement markets, in order to increase the controllability of global trade flows in armaments, in particular by promoting the Arms Trade Treaty; calls on the Member States to ratify the Treaty expeditiously so that it can enter into force, following the consent of Parliament;

77. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the President of the European Council, the Vice-President of the Commission / High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the Council, the Commission, the parliaments of the Member States, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly and the Secretary-General of NATO.

(1)

OJ L 183, 13.7.2011, p. 16.

(2)

OJ L 216, 20.8.2009, p. 76

(3)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2012)0455.

(4)

Texts adopted, P7_TA(2011)0574.


MINORITY OPINION

On draft report the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB)

2013/2125(INI) AFET/7/12982

Committee on Foreign Affairs, Rapporteur: Michael Gahler

Minority Report tabled by GUE/NGL MEPs Sabine Lösing, Willy Meyer, Nikolaos Chountis

The report states that sharp reductions in defence investments would threat the European defence technological and industrial base. To counter this, it implicitly suggests to increase defence budgets, encourage arms exports and to foster the development of a European Military-Industrial-Complex (MIC) by establishing a European defence market, to extensively use European budgets to finance military aspects and to increase armament cooperation especially via pooling and sharing.

We object the report since it:

–   blackmails that reductions in defence budgets would pose a strategic risk;

–   regrets the fragmentation of the European armament sector, therefore calls for restrictive use of Article 346 TFEU which will lead to a consolidation of the sector and strongly contribute to the emergence of a MIC;

–   calls for the merge of civilian and military research (and funding) in order to use civilian capabilities and budgets for military purposes;

–   militarizes civilian policies as it stresses the EU’s industrial, space and research policies - extend to the defence remit;

–   calls for financing EDA’s staffing and running costs from the Union budget.

We demand:

–   radical (CBRN) disarmament on EU and global level

–   no military assistance obligation/guarantees neither in- nor outside the EU,

–   all activities strictly within UN Charter, International Law,

–   strict separation of civil and military capabilities

–   civilian EU, strict civil peaceful conflict approaches, separation of civil and military actions, military expenditure redirected to civilian purposes


OPINION of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (*) (9.10.2013)

for the Committee on Foreign Affairs

on the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base

(2013/2125(INI))

Rapporteur (*): Jean-Pierre Audy

(*)          Associated committee – Rule 50 of the Rules of Procedure

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on Industry, Research and Energy calls on the Committee on Foreign Affairs, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions in its motion for a resolution:

The European Parliament,

–   having regard to Title V of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), in particular Articles 21, 42, 45 and 46 thereof, and Articles 173, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190 and 352 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and its Protocol No 10 (new),

–   having regard to Directive 2009/81/EC on the coordination of procedures for the award of certain works contracts, supply contracts and service contracts by contracting authorities or entities in the fields of defence and security,

–   having regard to its resolutions of 10 April 2002 on European defence industries and 14 December 2011 on the impact of the financial crisis on the defence sector,

–   having regard to the Communication from the Commission of 24 July 2013 entitled ‘Towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector’ (COM(2013)0542), the relevant Council positions, in particular its declaration on strengthening security and defence capabilities, various European Council conclusions, in particular those of 13 and 14 December 2012 on the Common Security and Defence Policy,

–   having regard to the Lancaster House Treaties, and in particular the Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty between the French Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, signed on 2 November 2010;

–   having regard to the proposal by President Herman Van Rompuy to hold a specific European Council meeting on security and defence issues on 19 and 20 December 2013,

–   having regard to Rules 48 and 50 of its Rules of Procedure,

Introduction

1.  Believes that, in the context of a changing world and an unprecedented economic and financial crisis, Europeans, united by shared values and a shared destiny, need to be able to defend the EU area and should recognise their strategic responsibility; considers that Member States should therefore, in particular, reinforce European industrial cooperation with a view to ensuring strategic autonomy as far as possible, by developing and producing efficient military and security capabilities using the most advanced technologies;

2.  Notes that the economic and financial crisis and the cuts in the defence budgets of most Member States risk causing considerable reductions, setbacks or delays in the research and technological innovation programmes of almost all Member States, which will probably continue to affect the European defence industry and the Union’s scientific progress in this area; stresses that this situation risks entailing job losses in the medium and long term and loss of industrial capacity and know-how;

3.  Calls for increased cooperation and identification of defence technology needs so that new and changing threats to EU security can be addressed; considers it important for Member States to step up cooperation to meet industrial challenges and notes that budgetary constraints and increasing global competition mean that the EU needs internal partnerships and other groupings as well as task-sharing;

4.  Takes the view that in order to have a permanent, competitive European defence industrial and technological base, the following prerequisites are needed: autonomy in making assessments and decisions; freedom of action; security of supply; and access to technology and expertise in its use;

5.  Notes that in spite of the crisis and the budget cuts, European citizens are still calling for European defence and industrial coordination and cooperation, which they perceive as a factor promoting security, efficiency and savings;

6.  Welcomes the proposal by the President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, to invite Heads of State or Government to lay down guidelines, overarching political priorities and timelines for the EU in the field of security and defence and in particular as regards the technological and industrial bases;

7.  Recognises the importance of the European defence industries for innovation and growth, giving rise, directly and indirectly, to approximately 400 000 jobs in the Union; highlights that while the European defence economy is facing several challenges, there is a need for a new approach avoiding duplication and leading to larger economies of scale and increased industrial competition;

Industrial policy

8.  Believes that it is time to promote a voluntary approach in acting on the fragmentation of the European industrial defence market, furthering its consolidation (and initiating harmonisation) as regards supply and demand, rules and standards, and that it is also time to invest in an integrated sustainable industrial policy based on research, innovation, increasing efficiency of resources, a strategy for raw materials, the strengthening of SMEs and the development of regional networks; fully supports Commission efforts to underpin the internal defence and security market through suitable assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises playing a major role in innovation, in developing specialised capabilities and in state-of-the-art technologies and job creation under the ‘Europe 2020’ strategy;

9.  Takes the view that the use of European civil-military standards in the defence sector would significantly enhance cooperation and interoperability between European armies and improve the competitiveness of Europe’s industry in emerging technologies;

10. Takes the view that the very specific nature of defence markets should be recognised in view of the export control and anti-proliferation obligations and the strict confidentiality requirements which apply, and the fact that the number of companies supplying the market is limited and demand comes almost exclusively from governments;

11. Believes that the establishment and development of a competitive European defence industrial base should be one of the EU’s strategic priorities as it would not only boost economic growth and create highly skilled jobs, but also be a key element for Europe’s capacity to ensure the security of its citizens and to protect its values and interests;

12. Believes that the defence industry is very specific in nature, given lengthy product development and the need to keep systems operational for several decades, the substantial and growing cost of programmes and finally the fact that product commercialisation is highly dependent on Member State governments;

13. Supports the potential and encourages the dual use of the products of the security and defence industries, particularly in the space, maritime, aviation and telecommunications fields; stresses that the defence industry is an important driver for advanced technologies to be used at a later stage for commercial purposes;

14. Calls on the European Council to recognise that the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB) is essential to maintain strategic autonomy in Europe through the production of reliable, effective, high-quality equipment;

15. Urges the European Council to give all possible support to the EDTIB, and to that end first and foremost to define its scope more clearly, particularly as regards those involved, by conferring a specific status on them, that of Economic Defence Operators in Europe (EDOEs);

16. Calls for EDOEs to be granted that status on the grounds of the real added value, both technological and socio-economic, they bring to Europe; considers, therefore, that only these economic defence operators in Europe should benefit from European programmes;

17. Believes that the concept of ‘Economic Defence Operator in Europe’ should be acknowledged and that reasonable criteria relating to jobs, scientific and technological expertise, decision-making and production within the EU should be met with a view to their protection;

18. Takes the view that Europeans should restart major key programmes, relying more heavily on the under-used and under-funded European Defence Agency; considers it essential to learn the lessons from recent joint operations which have demonstrated strengths but also revealed shortcomings, e.g. in strategic and tactical airlift, air observation (particularly drones) and space observation;

19. Calls on the Member States to develop their defence industrial and technological bases and centres of excellence around key technologies, and provide them with effective corporate governance mechanisms within the European Union, thus enhancing the interdependence between these facilities;

20. Considers, in the light of past experience, that the sharing of development and production activities in the context of joint arms programmes should be organised strictly in accordance with the principle of industrial efficiency and economic performance, so as to prevent duplication and spiralling costs;

21. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to minimise unnecessary regulatory obstacles, to improve dialogue between defence undertakings and to promote the rationalisation of these undertakings so that they can acquire the equipment best suited to their needs in terms of performance and cost;

22. Takes the view that the issues surrounding the European defence industry cannot be confined to the formation of a European defence equipment market, and that there should therefore be the option of public policy mechanisms to secure the development of key defence technologies;

Security of industrial supply

23. Stresses that in this area security of supply is crucial in the event of a crisis; emphasises the need to step up consultation between Member States in order to implement a long-term European security of supply policy, particularly for strategic materials, through an analysis of risks and needs and a technological and industrial capacity;

Research and innovation

24. Emphasises the importance of research and innovation in the security and defence sector and of the Horizon 2020 research programme; in particular, the seventh societal challenge dedicated to ‘Secure societies: protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens’; emphasises the importance of fostering multinational cooperation among Member States and their respective agencies in this field; believes, given the high degree of confidentiality inherent to innovative research for the defence industry, that it is vital to finance such research in a manner related to needs; feels, in this context, that establishing a European Defence and Security Institute under the JRC should be considered;

25. Recalls that in November 2007 European Ministers of Defence agreed collective benchmarks to increase defence R&T spending to 2 % of all defence expenditure and to bring European collaborative defence R&T spending to a level of 20 %;

26. Supports the Defence Task Force, which includes the European Commission, European External Action Service (EEAS) and European Defence Agency (EDA), in its efforts to ensure that the results of Horizon 2020 research can feed into innovation-related research in the defence field and to optimise synergies between civil and military applications; calls, further, for consideration to be given to ways of using public-private funding through the creation of joint undertakings, in accordance with Article 187 TFEU;

27. Recalls that Article 179 TFEU requires the Union to promote all the research activities deemed necessary by virtue of the Treaties;

28. Stresses the need to explore cooperation and pooling opportunities in the research and innovation fields at the highest technological level (especially in light of increasing investments by emerging economies in this area) and to protect effectively in a common intellectual property policy research results in the defence field, which must be properly safeguarded; believes that consideration should be given to a possible role for the EDA in this area; considers that the EDA should be able to facilitate, at an early stage, future technological and industrial cooperation between EU partners;

29. Highlights the importance of synergies between civilian and military research in areas with high added value; stresses that, while taking into account that certain projects have mainly civilian uses and others are sovereign matters, the possibility of more effective dual use might be explored with a view to pooling costs, since these are sectors which create growth and jobs; further stresses that such synergies could also take the form of consolidating supply from private European sources to market outlets;

30. Considers that a European industrial defence policy should have the aim of optimising Member States’ capabilities by coordinating the development, deployment and maintenance of a range of capabilities, installations, equipment and services with a view to performing the full range of tasks, including the most demanding missions; strengthening Europe’s defence industry; promoting research and technology cooperation, and developing equipment cooperation programmes;

31. Calls on the Member States to establish an appropriate platform for bringing defence research to the civilian sphere, with a focus on cutting-edge technological applications;

32. Calls on the Member States also to focus research in the area of defence technology on managing natural disasters (over the last 40 years, the number of natural disasters in Europe has quadrupled);

Space

33. Is convinced that the space sector contributes to the strategic autonomy of the EU and the possibility for Member States to have independent access plays a vital role in the area of defence and security; stresses the importance of maintaining the excellence of this technologically innovative and efficient industry in order to ensure the technological independence of the European Union;

34. Welcomes the creation and development of a European satellite system (Galileo, Copernicus and EGNOS); stresses that the development of a system of that kind will be a major boost not only to the space industry but also to Europe’s autonomy and provides an opportunity to develop a critical component of the industrial and technological base of European defence;

35. Stresses the need to protect Europe’s space infrastructures by developing its space surveillance and tracking (SST) capacity;

ICT and data security

36. Calls on Member States and the Commission to ensure that IT components and computer programmes are designed and made in the EU in accordance with specifications which meet EU requirements for resistance to cyber attacks;

37. Points out that the digital era brings about increasing challenges for the safety and security of infrastructure and technology, therefore highlighting the need for greater cooperation and exchange of know-how among Member States, on the one hand, and between the European Union and its key partners, on the other;

38. Stresses the importance of developing European ICT and cyber-security standards and integrating them with international standards;

39. Calls on the Commission and Member States to cooperate with one another to ensure that cyber-security is a key element which should therefore be particularly promoted through research and innovation in the security and defence sector and should be part of the short-, medium- and long-term strategy;

40. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take cyber-security issues into account as a matter of course in existing or future European civilian and military programmes (Galileo, Copernicus, Single Sky/Sesar, etc.);

Cooperation to promote interoperability

41. Believes that it is vital to ensure that optimum use can be made of Member States’ defence capabilities in joint operations;

42. Notes the importance of interoperability and emphasises that standardisation will have a positive impact on the competitiveness of the European defence industry, on the effectiveness of equipment and on maintenance and operational cost levels;

43. Welcomes the Commission’s proposals on standardisation, and calls on the European Council to note them and put forward concrete proposals in this area;

Technology

44. Believes that the EU defence industry should maintain a high level of innovation in both military and civilian terms, in order to respond to all the threats and challenges the Member States and the EU will have to face in the years to come by making use of the most promising technological advances, whether developed specifically for defence or for civilian purposes;

45. Calls on the Member States to use Europe’s technological and industrial defence base to strengthen the EU’s self-sufficiency in these key infrastructure areas;

Conclusion

46. Calls on the European Council, without taking on a legislative role, to give the EU the impetus it needs and to lay down guidelines and overarching political priorities for strengthening the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB), which is an essential instrument for giving the people and citizens of Europe, who are united by a shared destiny, a guarantee of peace, safety and security, so that they can stand up for Europe’s values and its position in the world.

RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

Date adopted

7.10.2013

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

38

9

0

Members present for the final vote

Amelia Andersdotter, Josefa Andrés Barea, Jean-Pierre Audy, Ivo Belet, Fabrizio Bertot, Jan Březina, Maria Da Graça Carvalho, Giles Chichester, Pilar del Castillo Vera, Vicky Ford, Adam Gierek, Norbert Glante, Fiona Hall, Kent Johansson, Romana Jordan, Krišjānis Kariņš, Lena Kolarska-Bobińska, Philippe Lamberts, Bogdan Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz, Marisa Matias, Angelika Niebler, Vittorio Prodi, Miloslav Ransdorf, Herbert Reul, Teresa Riera Madurell, Michèle Rivasi, Jens Rohde, Paul Rübig, Amalia Sartori, Francisco Sosa Wagner, Evžen Tošenovský, Catherine Trautmann, Ioannis A. Tsoukalas, Claude Turmes, Adina-Ioana Vălean

Substitute(s) present for the final vote

Maria Badia i Cutchet, Antonio Cancian, António Fernando Correia de Campos, Françoise Grossetête, Satu Hassi, Roger Helmer, Jolanta Emilia Hibner, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Alajos Mészáros, Mario Pirillo, Laurence J.A.J. Stassen

Substitute(s) under Rule 187(2) present for the final vote

Ramon Tremosa i Balcells


OPINION of the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (1.10.2013)

for the Committee on Foreign Affairs

on the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base

(2013/2125(INI))

Rapporteur: Ildikó Gáll-Pelcz

SUGGESTIONS

The Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection calls on the Committee on Foreign Affairs, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions in its motion for a resolution:

1.  Points out that the recent economic downturn has led to a number of reductions in the defence budgets of many Member States; considers that the current crisis can be used as an opportunity for the development of an integrated Union defence policy, as it can provide the impetus for implementing ambitious and major reforms and for better benefiting from synergies; urges the Member States, therefore, to practise greater transparency with regard to state aid and procurement practices in the defence sector, towards both European authorities and agencies and the general public;

2.  Recalls the tradition of the Union as a civilian power in global affairs; reiterates, therefore, that the European defence industry should first and foremost focus on demand from the internal market; deplores, in this context, the increase in trade in arms and defence equipment emanating from the Union with autocratic regimes in unstable world regions; considers that these trade practices might not be conducive either to the security of citizens in regions receiving arms and defence equipment from the Union or to European and global security interests; urges the Member States to act in international forums in favour of greater transparency in international defence procurement markets, in order to increase the controllability of global trade flows in armaments;

3.  Recalls that Member States urgently need to improve the transparency and increase the openness of their defence markets; stresses that the common security and defence policy has to be further enhanced; calls, therefore, on the Member States to correctly implement Directive 2009/81/EC dealing with defence and sensitive security procurement, in order to strengthen the single market by reducing the complexity of procurement rules in the defence sector where appropriate, while taking into consideration the increasing complexity of defence procurement in relation to international missions, resulting in optimised specifications;

4.  Stresses that greater use of innovative procurement techniques – especially e-procurement and pre-commercial procurement, as well as incentives setting for R&D – should be encouraged in defence procurement, as they may be particularly suited to this field and can play a major role in reducing the administrative burden and costs related to procurement procedures; believes that at the same time the protection of intellectual property rights and know-how needs to be ensured; urges the Member States to make strategic use of defence procurement and to implement innovative awarding principles based on the concept of the Most Economically Advantageous Tender;

5.  Considers that contracting authorities and entities in the fields of defence and security should have access to a specific procurement procedure in respect of contracts where there is a need for the development of an innovative product or service or innovative works and the subsequent purchase of the resulting supplies, services or works which cannot be met by solutions already available on the market; considers furthermore that such a procedure would improve the functioning of the internal market and the development of a European defence equipment market and a European defence technological and industrial base and would drive growth for innovative SMEs; stresses that such a procedure has already been agreed in the revised Classic and Utilities Procurement Directives, allowing contracting authorities to establish a long-term innovation partnership for the development and subsequent purchase of new, innovative products, services or works, providing the necessary ‘market pull’ and incentivising the development of an innovative solution without foreclosing the market; calls, therefore, on the Commission to take these developments into account in its implementation report to the European Parliament and the Council on the Defence Procurement Directive (Directive 2009/81/EC), which is due by 21 August 2016, and to accompany this report with a legislative proposal amending Directive 2009/81/EC, introducing the innovation partnerships procedure for the contracts concerned;

6.  Urges the Member States also to take steps to eliminate duplication and excess capacity in the sector by boosting cooperation in the internal market; highlights the potential benefits of joint procurement in terms of economies of scale and interoperability; points out that shared projects will reduce costs and enable long-term investment;

7.  Recalls that the contracts awarded in the field of defence and security are often technically complex; stresses that in order to facilitate cross-border tendering there is a need to review - where appropriate - unnecessary, incompatible or disproportionate technical requirements so as to minimise and, where possible, eliminate barriers to the internal market;

8.  Stresses that promoting the European defence technological and industrial base is a further element in the completion of the single market and can create sustainable jobs for citizens employed in the defence industries;

9.  Calls on the European Defence Agency and the Commission to work together in order to foster the integration of smaller Member States’ industries into the European defence industrial and technological base by other means than offsets;

10. Notes that the fragmentation of the European defence market is an obstacle to the ability of SMEs to market their products; emphasises the importance of opportunities for SMEs to contribute to the creation of defence equipment sector products, i.e. both of military equipment and of intangibles such as software and technology; notes that the use of common defence standards focusing on areas where national standards do not yet exist would enhance cooperation and interoperability;

11. Urges the Member States to encourage cooperation between major defence companies and universities; emphasises that the knowledge base of universities can be widened through such cooperation;

12. Calls on the Member States and the Commission to facilitate efforts of exploiting technologies and innovation emanating from the defence industry for non-military purposes and the production of civilian products and applications, in order to strengthen high-technology industries within the internal market;

13. Stresses the need for greater funding for R&D in Member States in order to compete successfully with third-country manufacturers in the defence sector; notes that innovation and technological developments can lead to improvements in other areas of life;

14. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to cooperate to ensure cybersecurity, as one of the major pillars of the defence and security strategy; recalls at the same time that, given the global dimension of the internet, the digital internal market faces growing security risks, and that a strong and coordinated approach could contribute to combating threats such as those to the security of transactions, which can seriously undermine consumers’ confidence in the digital internal market.

RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

Date adopted

30.9.2013

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

19

11

2

Members present for the final vote

Preslav Borissov, Jorgo Chatzimarkakis, Sergio Gaetano Cofferati, Birgit Collin-Langen, Anna Maria Corazza Bildt, Christian Engström, Vicente Miguel Garcés Ramón, Evelyne Gebhardt, Małgorzata Handzlik, Sandra Kalniete, Edvard Kožušník, Hans-Peter Mayer, Sirpa Pietikäinen, Mitro Repo, Heide Rühle, Christel Schaldemose, Andreas Schwab, Catherine Stihler, Róża Gräfin von Thun und Hohenstein, Bernadette Vergnaud, Barbara Weiler

Substitute(s) present for the final vote

Susy De Martini, Tamás Deutsch, Kinga Gál, Ildikó Gáll-Pelcz, María Irigoyen Pérez, Ádám Kósa, Morten Løkkegaard, Roberta Metsola, Marc Tarabella, Wim van de Camp, Patricia van der Kammen


RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE

Date adopted

24.10.2013

 

 

 

Result of final vote

+:

–:

0:

40

12

7

Members present for the final vote

Bastiaan Belder, Elmar Brok, Tarja Cronberg, Arnaud Danjean, Susy De Martini, Mark Demesmaeker, Michael Gahler, Marietta Giannakou, Ana Gomes, Andrzej Grzyb, Richard Howitt, Anna Ibrisagic, Liisa Jaakonsaari, Jelko Kacin, Tunne Kelam, Maria Eleni Koppa, Paweł Robert Kowal, Eduard Kukan, Vytautas Landsbergis, Ryszard Antoni Legutko, Krzysztof Lisek, Sabine Lösing, Ulrike Lunacek, Marusya Lyubcheva, Willy Meyer, Alexander Mirsky, Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck, Norica Nicolai, Raimon Obiols, Justas Vincas Paleckis, Pier Antonio Panzeri, Ioan Mircea Paşcu, Alojz Peterle, Tonino Picula, Mirosław Piotrowski, Bernd Posselt, Hans-Gert Pöttering, Cristian Dan Preda, Tokia Saïfi, José Ignacio Salafranca Sánchez-Neyra, György Schöpflin, Werner Schulz, Adrian Severin, Sophocles Sophocleous, Charles Tannock, Geoffrey Van Orden, Nikola Vuljanić, Boris Zala

Substitute(s) present for the final vote

Charalampos Angourakis, Reinhard Bütikofer, Marije Cornelissen, Véronique De Keyser, Kinga Gál, Barbara Lochbihler, Emilio Menéndez del Valle, Doris Pack, Marietje Schaake, Ivo Vajgl, Janusz Władysław Zemke

Last updated: 7 November 2013Legal notice