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Thursday, 6 July 2006 - Strasbourg Final edition
Development and migration

European Parliament resolution on development and migration (2005/2244(INI))

The European Parliament ,

–   having regard to the communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled "Migration and Development: some concrete orientations" (COM(2005)0390),

–   having regard to the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (COM(2005)0391),

–   having regard to the communications from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on priority actions for responding to the challenges of migration: first follow-up to Hampton Court (COM(2005)0621), on an EU strategy for action on the crisis in human resources for health in developing countries (COM(2005)0642) and on a thematic programme for the cooperation with third countries in the areas of migration and asylum (COM(2006)0026),

–   having regard to point IV of the Brussels European Council Presidency conclusions of 15 and 16 December 2005 on a global approach to migration,

–   having regard to United Nations General Assembly resolutions A/RES/58/208, A/RES/59/241 and A/RES/60/205, which provide for the holding of a high level dialogue on international migration and development during the 61st session of the General Assembly in 2006,

–   having regard to the Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part, signed in Cotonou on 23 June 2000 (the 'Cotonou Agreement')(1) , and amended in Luxembourg on 25 June 2005(2) , and in particular Article 13 thereof on migration,

–   having regard to the Brussels declaration on asylum, migration and mobility and the plan of action for the implementation of this declaration adopted on 13 April 2006 by the first meeting of ACP ministers with responsibility for asylum, migration and mobility,

–   having regard to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its protocols,

–   having regard to Decision No 4/2005 of the ACP-EC Council of Ministers of 13 April 2005 on the use of the reserve of the long-term development envelope of the ninth European Development Fund(3) ,

–   having regard to the report of the United Nations Secretary-General entitled 'World study on the role of women in development, 2004: women and international migration', A/59/287/Add.1,

–   having regard to the World Bank report entitled "Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration'(4) ,

–   having regard to the report of the Global Commission on International Migration of October 2005 entitled "Migration in an interconnected world, new directions for action"(5) ,

–   having regard to the Charter of fundamental Rights of the European Union, in particular Articles 18, 19 and 21 thereof,

–   having regard to the commitments made by the Member States in 2005, and in particular:

   that the European Union and its Member States will, by 2015, achieve the objective of 0.7% of their gross national product, set by the United Nations, which should bring the Union's contribution to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) up from EUR 33 billion in 2003 to EUR 84 billion in 2015 (Brussels European Council Presidency conclusions of 16 and 17 June 2005),
   that the European Union and the other donors will double their aid to Africa, which should provide it with official development assistance (ODA) of USD 25 billion in 2010(6) (press release issued on 8 July 2005 by the G8 summit in Gleneagles),

–   having regard to ILO Recommendation No 151 on migrant workers,

–   having regard to the joint declaration by the Council and the representatives of the governments of the Member States meeting within the Council, the European Parliament and the Commission of 20 December 2005 on European Union Development Policy entitled 'The European Consensus'(7) , which lays down the general framework for Community action in the field of development,

–   having regard to the Vienna Declaration adopted at the IVth European Union/Latin America summit of 12 May 2006,

–   having regard to its resolutions of 17 November 2005 on a development strategy for Africa(8) , 15 November 2005 on the social dimension of globalisation(9) , 26 October 2005 on an EU approach to managing economic migration(10) , 9 June 2005 on the links between legal and illegal migration and integration of migrants(11) and 12 April 2005 on the role of the European Union in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)(12) ,

–   having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 2836/98 of 22 December 1998 on integrating of gender issues in development cooperation(13) ,

–   having regard to Rule 45 of its Rules of Procedure,

–   having regard to the report of the Committee on Development and the opinions of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs, the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs and the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (A6-0210/2006),

A.   whereas, out of 175 million migrants (3% of the world's population), 40% live in developing countries,

B.   whereas, while migration is not a new phenomenon, the scale of migration in the context of globalisation and the need to raise the awareness of all international players mean that it is now a vital policy area for the international community,

C.   whereas immigration has increased significantly since the 1980s and whereas the EU Member States have not responded to it jointly and consistently,

D.   whereas the EU takes in immigrants from virtually all developing countries (which means that it receives a large number of immigrants from Asia, Africa and Latin America) and whereas the phenomenon is unlikely to diminish over the next few years,

E.   whereas the international community's mobilisation is taking a long time to materialise in the form of large-scale actions,

F.   whereas the issue of migration calls for a global response from the international community and whereas the European Union has not to date come forward with any global policy response or equipped itself with tools adapted to the problem,

G.   whereas in the absence of a common policy governing migrant flows, the Member States are able to take unilateral decisions which make it difficult for a consistent Community stance to be adopted,

H.   whereas the response to the phenomenon of immigration should be the outcome of the broadest possible consensus within the EU,

I.   whereas a high-level dialogue (HLD) on international migration and development is to be held during the General Assembly of the United Nations on 14 and 15 September 2006,

J.   whereas the African Union has made migration a key theme of its actions under the aegis of the Chairman of the Commission of the African Union, Mr Alpha Oumar Konaré,

K.   whereas the diversity of motivations, and therefore of categories, of migrants hinders the implementation of coherent, global policies aimed at making migration a lever of development,

L.   whereas, while the main centres of migration are Asia and Latin America, Africa stands out on account of the scale of the negative impact of migration,

M.   whereas analyses mainly concentrate on recipient countries in the North, despite the fact that 60% of migrants do not leave the southern hemisphere,

N.   whereas the Vienna declaration contains a commitment to take forward the comprehensive dialogue on migration and further enhance cooperation on migration issues between the European Union and Latin America,

O.   whereas merely increasing official development assistance is not a response to the issue of the link between migration and development, but specific, innovative tools should also be developed in order to improve recognition and promotion of the role of migrants in the fight against poverty and for development,

P.   whereas the response to the phenomenon should form part of the national and international anti-poverty strategies pursued with a view to achieving the MDGs,

Q.   whereas the right of southern countries to pursue an autonomous migration policy must be recognised and supported,

R.   whereas, in the view of southern countries, migration is synonymous with the loss of their best trained and most enterprising citizens and the "brain drain" is undermining the supply and quality of essential services in various sectors, with particular reference to health and education,

S.   whereas the "brain drain" is being encouraged by selective admission policies for migrants put in place by northern countries under the term "chosen migration", exacerbating the haemorrhaging of skills from many southern countries,

T.   whereas, according to the Chairman of the Commission of the African Union, Mr Alpha Oumar Konaré, these policies amount to a denial of Africa's right to development,

U.   whereas circular migration, allowing two-way movement between countries of origin and destination, offers major opportunities for the development of host countries and countries of origin,

V.   whereas co-development, meaning the fulfilment of the potential represented by migrant communities in developed countries in the service of the development of their country of origin, has the power to make migration a lever of development and of mutual benefit between peoples,

W.   whereas transfers of migrants" funds to their countries of origin constitute a major opportunity for development, the amount of money transferred in this way broadly exceeds ODA on a world scale and in the majority of cases the financial and banking cost of such remittances is extremely high and the processing thereof sometimes lacks transparency; whereas however these transfers are principally directed towards consumption by families and whereas only a small proportion of them goes towards investment and development,

X.   whereas, however, these transfers are not capable of replacing, or justifying a reduction in, ODA,

Y.   whereas, in 2005, there were almost 9.2 million refugees and 25 million person "displaced within their country" in the world, half of whom were in Africa, with no protection at international level, thereby creating an intolerable hierarchy of victims,

Z.   whereas the number of "ecological" refugees and displaced persons is increasing and could, according to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (HCR), reach 50 million within a few years,

AA.   whereas integration of migrants is a two-way process based on the mutual rights and corresponding obligations of legal migrants and the host society, the aim of which is to ensure that immigrants are able to participate in society,

AB.   whereas migrants, who are victims of human trafficking, discrimination and deteriorating social conditions, are still a group which, on the whole, is inadequately protected by the international community and certain national laws,

AC.   whereas no Member State has ratified the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families,

AD.   whereas, since 1999, the European Union has only devoted EUR 15 million to the goal of integration, i.e. EUR 0.5 per immigrant,

AE.   whereas the fight against human trafficking linked to migration and against the trafficking and sexual exploitation of women and children should be made a priority at EU level,

AF.   whereas women make up 51% of all migrants in the developed world and 46% in the developing countries(14) , and whereas insufficient information is made available concerning the risks involved in illegal migration, with the result that migrant women are more exposed to sexual exploitation, violence, discrimination and exploitation at the workplace, and whereas migration policies do not take account of the specific role played by women,

AG.   whereas migration can enable women to improve their lives, increase their autonomy, support those who are left behind and escape oppressive social relations,

AH.   whereas, however, women are often forced to migrate by problems such as forced marriage, poverty or armed conflicts,

AI.   whereas migrant women are more vulnerable to sexual exploitation, discrimination, exploitation in the workplace and 'brain waste', violence and health risks, social isolation and human trafficking,

AJ.   whereas a significant number of migrant women reside in the EU without legal documents, which heightens the risks of exploitation in the workplace and of sexual exploitation and violence to which they are exposed,

1.  Is convinced that the European Union must play a major role to make migration a lever of development;

2.  Stresses that the Union should give a comprehensive political response, regional in nature and focusing in particular on Africa and South-South migration, to the issue of the link between development and migration; calls for the migration issue to be placed at the top of the agenda and the political dialogue between the EU and the various regions with which it has relations, and supports the organisation of a Europe-Africa summit to identify a common political response;

3.  Considers that European migration and development policy should be based above all on the principles of solidarity with third countries and co-development in order to tackle the underlying causes of migration and, in particular, eradicate poverty;

4.  Reiterates its support for the idea of mobility of human beings as a human right, which therefore cannot be understood in terms of commercial logic; emphasises that any policy in this area must be committed to promoting mobility by choice rather than by necessity;

5.  Points out that the only adequate EU response to the phenomenon of immigration is a common strategy which clearly sets out the objectives and the mechanisms available to the Member States for the purpose of addressing the phenomenon jointly and on the basis of mutual support;

6.  Recalls that the fight against exploitation and trafficking in people is an obligation on all countries; recalls the existence of multilateral instruments, such as the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime and its protocols, which constitute effective mechanisms for the fight against trafficking in people and immigrants and the protection of the latter's fundamental rights, as well as for legal proceedings against those engaging in the above criminal activities; urges those Member States which have not yet ratified or acceded to that convention to do so as soon as possible;

7.  Encourages the integration of the migration issue into EU external policies, following the example of the Barcelona Process;

8.  Commends the Council proposal to hold a EuroMed ministerial meeting on migration in 2006; also welcomes the Euro-African summit on migration to be held in Rabat in July 2006 to debate the issue of immigration to Europe from the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa;

9.  Welcomes any further steps taken to improve migration policy, and emphasises the need for a comprehensive approach that contains a clear vision of the most important actions to be taken within the field of migration policy, instead of supporting fragmented measures towards the development of this policy;

10.  Recommends that the Council take appropriate measures to ensure better cooperation and coordination between those responsible for migration and those responsible for development in each Member State;

11.  Stresses that an increase in development aid is necessary but not sufficient to make migration a lever of development; calls on the European Union and the Member States to meet the political undertakings made in 2005;

12.  Recommends that migration and its impact on development be taken into account in an overarching manner in all discussions and actions to achieve the MDGs; points out that a comprehensive strategy will produce results only if an appropriate legal framework exists both within the EU and in the countries of origin;

13.  Emphasises that migration should be better integrated into policies and development plans and recommends that, at national level, migration be included in Poverty Reduction Strategy documents (PRSDs);

14.  Recognises the importance of diasporas in strengthening relations between the EU and countries of origin, particularly in the field of migration; calls for closer cooperation between institutions in developing countries and the Member States, including in the carrying out of co-development projects;

15.  Takes the view that co-development, which consists in recognising and supporting the role of diasporas in serving the development of their countries of origin, should be fully recognised at European level;

16.  Stresses that, to make migration a lever of development, the Union should adopt two priority instruments:

   a specific fund, based on sufficiently flexible and reactive management enabling, in particular, co-development measures to be financed,
   a guarantee fund to ensure the long-term existence of migrants' micro-projects and to maximise their impact on development;

17.  Considers that the AENEAS programme and the programme which will follow in 2007 should be used to serve a development strategy, in particular by financing co-development measures, and that this objective should be strictly adhered to in order to avoid, for example, expenditure on further protection of the EU's external borders;

18.  Stresses that this programme must enable reliable systems for the efficient management of migrant flows and for the provision of support to countries of origin and transit countries to be strengthened; recommends, in pursuit of this aim, that the programme contain the following elements:

   several credit lines (co-development, research, security etc.) with the possibility of funding projects covering several lines,
   criteria for choosing projects and rules on the type and amount of aid that may be allocated,
   a project selection board that is completely free to make decisions within the framework thus defined,
   a review of the rules imposed on NGOs regarding guarantee fund deposits;

19.  Proposes integrated regional development plans, focusing on the main immigration areas in Africa, to fund:

   the installation of infrastructure (drinking water, electricity, health centre, school, roads, etc.)
   the partial covering of operating costs through targeted budgetary support;
proposes that similar measures could also be carried out in the main centres of emigration in Latin America and Asia;

20.  Points out how difficult and how expensive it is for immigrants to send capital back to their countries of origin, and how little transparency there is in a system which lies outside the banking sector; maintains that a secure system which protects the data of both sender and receiver is needed in order to ensure that remittances are sent through regulated channels, since other alternative systems used by immigrants may on occasion be usuriously expensive;

21.  Calls on the Commission, the Member States and national and international financial institutions to implement policies aimed at:

   promoting and facilitating the transfer of migrants" funds, ensuring that they are less costly, swifter and safer, in order to encourage migrants to use formal transfer systems,
   improving migrants" access to financial services,
   channelling transfers of migrants" funds towards productive investment, by facilitating access to credit for micro-companies and SMEs and having studies carried out on innovative financial products for the diasporas, such as "development savings plans",
   ensuring the transparency of financial transactions through "informal channels", particularly the hawala networks;

22.  Calls upon the Commission to draw up a proposal for a regulatory framework designed to make the sending of remittances by immigrants to their countries of origin less expensive and more transparent; points out that remittances are the second most important source of external finance for developing countries and that up to 20% of their total value is consumed by handling charges;

23.  Acknowledges the importance of the role played by SMEs in creating jobs and in contributing to development; urges the Commission - in cooperation with the European Investment Bank - to develop programmes which will prompt migrants to invest greater amounts in such businesses;

24.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop programmes in order to involve skilled people in the diasporas in the process of development by covering the costs of wage differentials for highly skilled migrants prepared to return to their countries or by setting up "dual post" systems for public sector personnel in southern countries (teachers, researchers and doctors); calls on the Commission to conduct a study on experiences in the Member States with regard to "dual posts";

25.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to examine possible actions to be taken to ensure the transfer of pensions and social security entitlements of migrants returning to their countries of origin;

26.  Welcomes the Commission's proposal to consider measures concerning the transfer of pension rights, the recognition of qualifications and the operation of mechanisms to facilitate the mobility of researchers and other professionals to enable them, should they so wish, to return to their country of origin and successfully reintegrate;

27.  Calls on the European Union and the Member States to encourage circular migration or commuting:

   - by setting up, with the agreement of the countries of origin, temporary migration programmes, such as the granting of multiple entry visas to certain persons,
   - by systematising the transfer of pension benefits and all social security benefits between countries of origin and countries of destination and ensuring that workers have real access to these benefits (fewer than 25% of international migrants live in countries linked by agreements of this type);

28.  Welcomes the Commission's proposal to encourage circular migration, with migrants going back and forth between their country of origin and the destination country, thereby making the knowledge and experience they have acquired available to their home country; points out that it is necessary to accompany circular migration with integration measures for outgoing and returning migrants; points to the role of civil society, NGOs and the social partners in this process;

29.  Also welcomes the Commission's proposals to conduct a dialogue on matters relating to residence and work permits and to administer migrant worker mobility programmes which will match the available skills of migrants with the needs of the developing country;

30.  Calls on the public authorities of the North and of the South to invest in the education and training of citizens; reiterates its support for the "20/20" objective: 20% of public aid from the North and 20% of the national budgets of the South allocated to basic social services;

31.  Calls on southern countries to develop "train and retain" strategies, in particular by re-evaluating the social professions and emphasising the situation of women who are often subject to discrimination on the basis of gender;

32.  Calls on the Union to include in practice the promotion of decent work on the European development agenda, and in particular:

   - to include clauses relating to respect for basic labour standards in all bilateral agreements signed by the Union or its Member States,
   - to set up monitoring instruments ('bilateral observers'),
   - to promote decent work as a fundamental aspect of a ninth MDG;
calls, however, for this concept not to be used by the North as a "non-tariff barrier" to access to their markets;

33.  Calls on the European Union and the Member States to implement policies aimed at mitigating the adverse economic and social effects of the "brain drain" on southern countries:

   - by redirecting training to sectors suffering from labour force shortages,
   - by financing co-investment programmes between partners in the North and South for countries and sectors particularly affected by the "brain drain";

34.  Recommends the adoption of a "European code of conduct" and national codes in the Member States with a view to disciplining recruitment;

35.  Welcomes the Commission's intention to come forward with a specific programme to respond to the human resources crisis in the health sector in Africa;

36.  Welcomes the plan to develop a comprehensive and coherent approach to ethical recruitment of staff in sectors particularly vulnerable to the "brain drain";

37.  Welcomes the Brussels European Council Presidency conclusions of 15 and 16 December 2005 concerning a global approach to migration and the recent Commission proposals related to the brain drain, remittances, diasporas, temporary/circular migration, social security entitlements, multiple-entry visas, etc.;

38.  Stresses that brain "circulation" constitutes a key factor in strengthening the positive contribution of migration to development, given that developing countries participate fully in the exchange of skills in the global labour market; recommends that the Commission and the Member States make a resolute commitment in this area by proposing measures:

   - to promote temporary and virtual return on the basis of the EU's current experiences,
   - to encourage institutional partnerships between organisations in the developing countries and in the Member States (research institutes, universities and hospitals),
   - to promote the mutual recognition of qualifications;

39.  Notes the fact that certain vocational and/or academic qualifications of workers from third countries are recognised either not at all or only with difficulty, which makes it hard for such workers to enter the Member States" employment market on equal terms; considers that migrants should have access to training programmes while employed in the EU so that they may develop their professional competences;

40.  Calls on the Commission to propose initiatives to facilitate recognition of professional qualifications and lay down minimum standards as regards the establishment of a European system of equivalences for foreign diplomas;

41.  Calls for the specific role of women in migration and development to be more effectively taken into account and in particular:

   - for the gender dimension to be incorporated into all development or co-development programmes and projects relating to migration,
   - for women and women's organisations to be the priority target group for measures aimed at developing a sense of responsibility in the diaspora and at providing financial support for its projects,
   - for information campaigns to be conducted in the countries of origin concerning the terms and conditions of legal immigration, legal immigrants' rights and the risks implicit in illegal immigration, such as trafficking in human beings, violence and sexual exploitation,

42.  Calls on the Member States to promote the means by which female migrant workers may achieve socio-political, economic and psychological empowerment, particularly with regard to their families,  and acquire the knowledge required for successful integration in the host country, and by which female migrant workers' rights, position and role are secured, while strengthening the role of gender-oriented NGOs and the work of female migrant networks;

43.  Calls on the Member States to ensure that the principle of non-discrimination is applied with regard to migrant women's access to and participation in the Community job market and to guarantee that their basic social and economic rights, including the right to equal pay, are respected;

44.  Calls on the Member States to pay particular attention to the children of migrant women to ensure they benefit from a high level of protection and easier access to health care and education;

45.  Supports the proposal set out in the Brussels declaration and plan of action adopted on 13 April 2006, which calls for the creation of a virtual observatory for ACP migration with the purpose of gathering complete and independent information in order to develop ACP solutions to the challenges of migration;

46.  Welcomes the establishment of the ACP-EU facility on migration by the end of 2006; calls, however, on the Commission to clarify its objectives and guarantee that this instrument will not be diverted from its development objectives;

47.  Questions the appropriateness and effectiveness of agreements and readmission clauses aimed at linking financial and technical aid to the "performance" of third countries in terms of readmission; emphasises that this policy of demanding something in return threatens to impoverish the countries producing migrants;

48.  Calls on the Commission to propose measures to strengthen the southern countries' capacity to manage autonomous migration policies under the European Migration Fund or the ACP-EU facility;

49.  Stresses that the African Union and African regional organisations can play an important role in channelling economic migration in Africa, e.g. through cooperation agreements for co-development between the EU and the countries in which migration originates and bilateral and multilateral agreements, including clauses relating to respect for human rights and ILO standards, and considers that the European Union should support such initiatives;

50.  Considers that the ACP-EU partnership is a particularly appropriate framework for putting forward joint responses to the migration issue, on the basis of Article 13 of the Cotonou Agreement; calls on the Commission to include, in the current negotiations on economic partnership agreements (EPAs) or any negotiations on readmission agreements, the following objectives:

   - equal treatment in relation to social security for ACP nationals already provided for in the Lomé Convention but not applied,
   - improved access to short-term visas for nationals of ACP countries, and more favourable rules on the mobility of temporary workers,
   - implementation of an information programme in the ACP countries for those seeking to migrate to the Union;

51.  Calls on the Commission, together with the countries concerned, to draw up a strategy designed to support the countries of transit and destination which shoulder the heaviest burden of migrants and to consider action programmes for migrants in identified "migration poles" and transit areas by targeting the most vulnerable groups of migrants (women and lone children) with the following objectives:

   - helping those populations gain autonomy and realise their potential in ways other than mobility,
   - improving the conditions of life of migrants in transit, particularly in the Sahel (information centres and help centres for foreign migrants),
   - proposing the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and of AIDS in the poles and on migratory routes, taking into account the link between the spread of STDs and the circulation of individuals;

52.  Calls for these action programmes to focus in particular on the analysis of the psychological effects of migration and expulsion and on psychological care and support for women and children suffering from the negative effects thereof;

53.  Calls for the Union to support the initiatives of the international community aimed at clarifying the concepts of political, economic and environmental refugees and to provide each category with suitable protection and assistance; considers that displaced persons should receive the same level of protection as that provided for refugees under the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951; calls on the Member States and on the international community to ensure respect for the UN's Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and recommends that these rules on the protection of displaced persons be enshrined in an international convention;

54.  Is concerned by the financial difficulties facing the HCR; is of the opinion that the Commission should step up its financial support for projects being run by the HCR and that the EU, which is the main contributor to the HCR budget, should bring pressure to bear on the other donors in order to ensure that the HCR has sufficient resources to carry out its role in the best conditions;

55.  Calls on the Commission to develop projects in partnership with the HCR and the countries or regional organisations concerned, relating to:

   - voluntary repatriation operations for refugees and displaced persons,
   - putting in place accompanying structures to facilitate the resettlement of these populations;

56.  Encourages the countries of transit and origin to take an active part in the new approach to migration and development;

57.  Asks the Commission to initiate dialogue with the countries of origin and to call upon them to prohibit practices contrary to human rights such as female genital mutilation, forced marriage, polygamy and divorce without mutual consent;

58.  Calls on the Commission to carry out a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of development aid expenditure and programmes in third countries and to assess their results in improving the position of women in migrants' countries of origin;

59.  Calls on the Member States to consider more carefully the impact of conflict-induced displacement on the social, physical and psychological situation of migrant women, who, owing to the precariousness of their circumstances, are more likely to become victims of violence;

60.  Calls on the Member States and the European Union to ensure that migrant women who are victims of violence are fully informed of their rights, have effective access to legal assistance and are able to obtain an independent legal status, residence and work permit;

61.  Calls on the Commission and the Council systematically to provide information, through their local representations and embassies, to women who wish to migrate to the EU concerning methods of legal immigration, their prospective rights and obligations and the fundamental values and principles governing European societies;

62.  Calls therefore on the Member States to evolve development policies and specific programmes designed to ensure that medical, social and psychological care is provided to female victims of conflict-induced displacement and other female migrants who suffer from the mental, physical and social consequences of their displacement;

63.  Stresses the importance of the exchange of best practices, among the Member States and also with third countries, particularly developing countries;

64.  Regrets that the Commission has not taken properly into account the gender approach in its communication entitled 'Migration and Development: some concrete orientations'; proposes the setting up of a permanent and high-level interinstitutional task force in charge of monitoring the development of European immigration policy from a gender perspective, in particular to develop gender impact assessment tools before the adoption of any measures in the field of immigration policy;

65.  Calls on the Council and the Commission to adopt EU guidelines and concrete and targeted gender objectives and indicators in the field of immigration policy, including awareness-raising actions at national level, ensuring the integration of a gender perspective into immigration policy and a regular assessment of policies from a gender perspective;

66.  Calls on the Council, the Commission and the Member States to establish a legal framework guaranteeing migrant women the right to hold their own passport and residence permit and making it possible to hold a person criminally responsible for taking these documents away;

67.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to intensify their dialogue with women migrants' countries of origin with a view to promoting respect for women's rights and gender equality, and combating poverty and the economic dependence of women;

68.  Points out that migration and integration are closely linked and that if migration is to be successful and if all the parties concerned are to benefit, migration strategies must be accompanied by holistic multidimensional integration strategies;

69.  Deplores the lack of progress on integration since the Tampere summit in 1999 and considers that the EU must now fulfil its responsibilities in this area; welcomes, in this regard, the setting up of the European fund for the integration of third-country nationals; supports the rapid creation of a European migration observatory in order to accelerate the efforts of the EU and of the Member States in terms of integration;

70.  Stresses that migrants are an asset for host countries and insists that this role should be more fully recognised and strengthened; emphasizes the fact that both EU citizens and immigrant workers are subject to rights and obligations which must be observed at all times;

71.  Calls on the Member States to make these positive aspects an integral part of their national information campaigns;

72.  Calls on the Member States to adopt a fair and transparent procedure to facilitate migrants' access to employment with decent working and health and safety conditions, as well as conditions of recruitment by firms, offering them every guarantee of dignity;

73.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop various youth exchange schemes, to take initiatives under the seventh framework programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013) and to promote closer cultural and educational links with the third countries concerned, strengthening cooperation between educational establishments in the EU and the developing countries, as well as to support reintegration measures;

74.  Calls upon the Commission, in association with the Member States, to promote and develop exchange programmes for students and young graduates from developing countries which, as in the case of the Erasmus, Erasmus-Mundus, Comenius, Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci programmes, will help to secure the objectives of temporary migration and enable lessons and sound practices to be transferred to the countries of origin;

75.  Calls on the Commission and Member States to improve the non-financial, social-professional contribution side of development by assessing the role of young people, improving integration and citizenship as well as linking stakeholders in the field of economic migration such as non-governmental organisations and the social partners in countries of origin and destination;

76.  Calls on the European Union and the Member States not to consider the migration issue in their relations with third countries as an extension of their restrictive migration policies; is opposed to any out-sourcing of the migration policies of the EU and the Member States consisting in passing on responsibility for migration issues solely to southern countries;

77.  Points out that the management of migration flows should not be a precondition for any association agreement;

78.  Calls for the Commission and the Member States to put forward practical proposals to promote access to legal migration channels in order to combat the illegal labour market and the exploitation to which migrant workers are subjected;

79.  Calls on the Member States to introduce a genuine admission policy based on respect for human rights and international law;

80.  Urges all Member States to ratify the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and fully honour their international commitments with regard to the protection of migrants and their families;

81.  Notes the increased exploitation of migrant workers and calls on the Member States to ensure the enforcement of European and national employment legislation and to provide all migrant workers with legal and civil protection against abuse and exploitation;

82.  Calls on the Union and the Member States to take measures to bring the status of foreigners legally established in the European Union and nationals of the Member States closer together and to provide them with maximum legal security and to move towards achievement of the aim of introducing a European citizenship which is open to non-Community nationals;

83.  Recognises the great importance of ensuring at least a common minimum level of rights across the Union for third country nationals; welcomes, therefore, the plans to provide a level playing field for all immigrants gaining access to the Union's labour markets;

84.  Welcomes the plan to establish a fair and transparent admission procedure for seasonal workers and to grant them rights; believes that due consideration should be given to semi-skilled and low-skilled migrants; considers that it is important to protect these particularly vulnerable categories of workers from discrimination and exploitation;

85.  Demands that the Member States ensure that an autonomous status and a work permit are granted to the spouse and children of the principal legal status holder once the request for family reunification is accepted, in order to guarantee and protect their rights fully and facilitate their social integration;

86.  Calls on the Member States to consider appointing a key discussion partner (ombudsman) at national or local level to deal with immigrants" requests and complaints regarding their working conditions, legal certainty or discriminatory treatment, and calls on the Commission to conduct research into Member States' good practice in this area on the national and regional levels;

87.  Regrets that there is a lack of recognition of the links between trafficking and migration; notes that many women who are victims of human trafficking have no access to legal or social protection; calls on the Commission and the Member States to focus in their anti-trafficking strategies on prevention and protection of the victims; calls on the Member States to grant these women long-term residence;

88.  Calls on the Commission and the Council to ensure that the fight against trafficking in human beings linked to migration is given priority status at EU level and that adequate financial resources are devoted to this action; considers that the plan of action in preparation should reflect this priority, attach particular importance to the most vulnerable people, particularly women and children, and focus on the necessary collaboration with countries of origin and of transit;

89.  Expects the Commission, when taking measures against organised trafficking in human beings from developing countries, not to criminalise the victims, but to focus on punishing the perpetrators; notes that many women who are victims of human trafficking have no access to legal or social protection; calls on the Member States to grant these women the possibility of long-term residence;

90.  Calls on the Council to include the recommendations contained in this resolution in the common position under preparation, with a view to the high-level dialogue on international migration and development to be held by the United Nations in September 2006;

91.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and Commission, the governments of the Member States and ACP countries, the ACP-EU Council and the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly.

(1) OJ L 317, 15.12.2000, p. 3.
(2) OJ L 287, 28.10.2005, p. 4.
(3) OJ L 164, 24.6.2005, p. 46.
(6) This is equal to doubling the aid provided in 2004.
(7) OJ C 46, 24.2.2006, p. 1.
(8) Texts Adopted , P6_TA(2005)0445.
(9) Texts Adopted , P6_TA(2005)0427.
(10) Texts Adopted , P6_TA(2005)0408.
(11) OJ C 124 E, 25.5.2006, p. 535.
(12) OJ C 33 E, 9.2.2006, p. 311.
(13) OJ L 354, 30.12.1998, p. 5.
(14) ILO: Preventing discrimination, exploitation and abuse of women migrant workers: an information guide - booklet 1: why the focus on women international migrant workers. Geneva, 2003, ILO, p. 9.

Last updated: 23 January 2007Legal notice