Anders Kofoed-Wiuff and Alexandros Filippidis (Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen, Denmark) ; Kenneth Karlsson and Sara Moro (Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark)
The European energy sector faces critical challenges in the future. In order to shed light on different pathways towards achieving these goals a number of energy scenarios for the EU27 have been developed within this project. The focus of the scenario building procedure is on the overall energy system, showing how the different elements of the European energy systems interact with each other, and how different combinations of technology choices and policies lead to different overall results. The project explores two essentially different developments of the European energy systems through a so-called Small-tech scenario and a Big-tech scenario. Both scenarios aim at achieving two concrete goals for 2030: reducing CO2 emissions by 50 per cent compared to the 1990 level, and reducing oil consumption by 50 per cent compared to the present level. Among the project recommendations are saving energy (as being less expensive than producing energy), stimulate the development of district heating and district cooling grids to facilitate the utilization of waste heat, large-scale integration of variable renewable energy sources, strengthening and coordinating the European electricity infrastructure, three levels of transformation needed in the transport sector (fuel efficiency, introduction of electric vehicles and modal-change, new resources (the sustainable European biomass for energy purposes, municipal waste). A continued effort is also required to researching and developing technologies (wave and solar power, Carbon Capture and Storage and safe nuclear power).
Rolf MEYER (ITAS)
The study investigates the contribution of selected important agricultural production systems and technologies (incl. rainwater harvesting, conservation agriculture, rice intensification system, organic farming, agroforestry systems and transgenic plants) to higher food production and food security with focus on small-scale farmers in developing countries. It then suggests options for action within European development policies and development cooperation.
Christopher COENEN (ITAS), Mirjam SCHUIJFF (Rathenau Institute), Martijntje SMITS (Rathenau Institute), Pim KLAASSEN (University of Amsterdam), Leonhard HENNEN (ITAS), Michael RADER (ITAS) and Gregor WOLBRING (University of Calgary)
The study attempts to bridge the gap between visions on human enhancement (HE) and the relevant technoscientific developments. It outlines possible strategies of how to deal with HE in a European context, identifying a reasoned pro-enhancement approach, a reasoned restrictive approach and a case-by-case approach as viable options for the EU. The authors propose setting up a European body (temporary committee or working group) for the development of a normative framework that guides the formulation of EU policies on HE.
Conrad CASPARI, Maria CHRISTODOULOU, John NGANGA and Mariana RICCI (Agra CEAS Consulting)
The study outlines the contribution of livestock production to climate change and health risks associated w i t h high meat consumption. The natural resources required to produce animalbased and plant-based protein are contrasted and diets with different levels of both types of protein compared. Using world population projections, three scenarios based on different theoretical alternative consumption patterns are created to show possible requirements and greenhouse gas emissions for animal and plant protein production: “minimal” scenario (assumes consumption of animal protein only via milk and eggs); “optimal” scenario (assuming diets with a low meat intake) and “maximum” (baseline) scenario (current level of meat consumption extended to developing countries). Comments are made on alternative protein sources. Policy options are suggested.
Marc Bracke (ASG - WUR), Kathalijne Visser-Riedstra (ASG - WUR), Femke Schepers (WU), Nanda Ursinus (WU), Harry Blokhuis (ASG - WUR, SLU), Marien Gerritzen (WU) and Ellen ter Gast (Rathenau Institute) (Part 1) Martien Bokma-Bakker (ASG - WUR), Geert Munnichs (Rathenau Institute), Aart Evers (ASG - WUR), Michel de Haan (ASG - WUR), Eveline van Mil (LEI - WUR), Kees van Reenen (ASG - WUR) and Frans Brom (Rathenau Institute) (Part 2)
The study examines the potential for introducing a European system of on-farm assessment of animal welfare using animal-based indicators. Part 1 describes the scientific and techno-logical state-of-the-art regarding animal-based welfare indicators and monitoring technology. Part 2 studies the socio-economic impact of introducing an animal-based welfare monitoring system on livestock production in EU Member States.
Knud Böhle, Michael Rader, Arnd Weber and Dirk Weber (Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis - ITAS, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany)
Danish Board of Technology (member of the ETAG Group) ; Bjoern Bedsted, Signe Skibstrup Blach (DBT) (authors of the case studies) ; Gary Williamson (University of Leeds, UK) (summary)
There is a wide variety of readily available food products on the market in the developed world today, which can provide necessary nutrition. The issue that has so far not been much focused upon and on which this study has focused is naturally-occurring substances in food, which may compromise health through, for example, toxic effects, allergenic effects or inhibition of nutrient assimilation. In particular, new knowledge has been accumulated with regard to naturally-occurring and health-compromising substances in plant-derived food. Also, substances that are not added or taken in from environmental pollution, but may be health compromising by their own nature, through, for example, toxic effects, allergenic effects or inhibition of nutrient assimilation. The study explores and debates new developments in basic research: industrial food processing, novel and functional food, and consumer knowledge and behaviour in order to determine whether there are problems which can be identified and which need to be dealt with by the European Union in the years to come.
Leonhard Hennen (ITAS), Arnold Sauter (ITAS) and Els van den Cruyce (VIWTA)
The present report provides an overview of the current discussion on direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DCGT) among experts and public authorities and on the current status of DCGT offers on the internet. Guided by an analysis of the market development and the pros and cons of DCGT, the report discusses possible options and needs for political intervention.
Ida Leisner, Anders Jacobi and Per Kaspersen (Danish Board of Technology, Copenhagen, Danemark)
Long distance transport will face some serious challenges during the next 20-40 years regarding sustainability, oil dependency and accessibility. This study is geared towards exploring the inevitable challenges facing internal European transport in order to achieve a 60% reduction in CO2 emissions and 80% reduction in oil consumption. It aims at giving an idea of the magnitude of change that is needed if targets are to be reached by assessing and illustrating potential options for policy packages and technologies in different situations, comprising the infrastructure establishment need that will facilitate a shift towards sustainable transport and promote the use of new technologies and prudent transportation. The project explores three main option settings: (i) Strong and rich High-Tech Europe; (ii) Slow and reflexive lifestyles; (iii) Contrast-image: Economic pressure and expensive energy.
Jens Schippl, Ida Leisner, Per Kaspersen and Anders Koed Madsen (Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis - ITAS ; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the Helmholtz Association and Danish Board of Technology - DBT, Copenhagen, Danemark)
This document is Deliverable 5 of the project on “The Future of European Long-Distance Transport'. It contains the report on the scenario process carried out in Phase II of the project. The scenario process is based on phase I, in which a general scoping and identification of key challenges took place.