Conrad CASPARI, Maria CHRISTODOULOU, John NGANGA and Mariana RICCI (Agra CEAS Consulting)
The study outlines the contribution of livestock production to climate change and health risks associated w i t h high meat consumption. The natural resources required to produce animalbased and plant-based protein are contrasted and diets with different levels of both types of protein compared. Using world population projections, three scenarios based on different theoretical alternative consumption patterns are created to show possible requirements and greenhouse gas emissions for animal and plant protein production: “minimal” scenario (assumes consumption of animal protein only via milk and eggs); “optimal” scenario (assuming diets with a low meat intake) and “maximum” (baseline) scenario (current level of meat consumption extended to developing countries). Comments are made on alternative protein sources. Policy options are suggested.
Danish Board of Technology (member of the ETAG Group) ; Bjoern Bedsted, Signe Skibstrup Blach (DBT) (authors of the case studies) ; Gary Williamson (University of Leeds, UK) (summary)
There is a wide variety of readily available food products on the market in the developed world today, which can provide necessary nutrition. The issue that has so far not been much focused upon and on which this study has focused is naturally-occurring substances in food, which may compromise health through, for example, toxic effects, allergenic effects or inhibition of nutrient assimilation. In particular, new knowledge has been accumulated with regard to naturally-occurring and health-compromising substances in plant-derived food. Also, substances that are not added or taken in from environmental pollution, but may be health compromising by their own nature, through, for example, toxic effects, allergenic effects or inhibition of nutrient assimilation. The study explores and debates new developments in basic research: industrial food processing, novel and functional food, and consumer knowledge and behaviour in order to determine whether there are problems which can be identified and which need to be dealt with by the European Union in the years to come.
Lorenz M. Hilty, Andreas Köhler, Claudia Som, Arend Brunink, Siegfried Behrendt, Lorenz Erdmann, Felix Württemberger, Mathias Binswanger, Niels Kuster, Jürg Fröhlich
This study was drawn up on the instructions of TA Swiss.
Jesse B.T. Marsh (Atelier Studio Associato, Palermo, Italy)
The forces of globalisation and technology development are paradoxical by nature, offering both threats and opportunities for cultural diversity. Yet the information society is currently perceived only as an economic imperative in a new environment shaped by rapid information technology developments, based on visions shaped primarily by technologist and business concerns and priorities. The prevailing options embedded in these visions, such as globalisa-tion based on cultural homogenisation, are questionable not only from a political and social standpoint, but also in economic terms. In the final analysis, information society develop-ments will hinge on political and social acceptance, for better or worse
Antonia Trichpoulou (University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece)
This Report is written for the European Parliament - Science and Technology Options Assessment (STOA) as a response to the Commission’s 2000 Food Safety White Paper. The White Paper made a series of major proposals, including a plan to set up a new European Food Authority (EFA). This STOA report analyses the background and technical arguments in the White Paper. A review is conducted of key issues in food-related public health, which the EFA will have to address. These include diet-related nutritional diseases, food poisoning, food quality and adulteration issues, chemical contamination, and problems raised by some new foods and processes. Developments in the role of science and technological information in policy-making on food and health matters are reviewed. In particular, the relationship between risk assessment, management and communication is explored. The proposed division of responsibilities between EFA and DG SANCO over those functions are judged to be inconsistent and may be unrealistic. A number of managerial issues need more attention, particularly enforcement, monitoring, data collection, lines of responsibility, and performance indicators. The EFA needs to have clear guidance as to how to manage uncertainty and conflicts of interest, and how and when (and by whom) a precautionary approach should be exercised. The report highlights a problem in levels of food governance. Relations between the EFA and DG SANCO, Member States and local authorities, and global bodies all need better liaison and terms of reference. A clear management structure is needed. A proposal is made for setting performance indicators and to ensure stakeholder consultation. The relationship between the EFA and the Food and Veterinary Office is discussed, as is the core challenge of how to link nutrition and food safety to give a consumer-friendly public health policy for Europe.