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Revising the European Citizens' Initiative

04-03-2019

The ECI enables European citizens to invite the Commission to table a proposal for a legal act. The detailed rules for such initiatives are laid down in a 2011 regulation, whose main stated aim is encouraging citizens’ participation in the political life of the European Union (EU). However, since the regulation became applicable in April 2012, numerous actors have raised concerns regarding the instrument’s functioning and have called for reform, aiming to simplify the existing procedures and increasing ...

The ECI enables European citizens to invite the Commission to table a proposal for a legal act. The detailed rules for such initiatives are laid down in a 2011 regulation, whose main stated aim is encouraging citizens’ participation in the political life of the European Union (EU). However, since the regulation became applicable in April 2012, numerous actors have raised concerns regarding the instrument’s functioning and have called for reform, aiming to simplify the existing procedures and increasing the tool’s usability. On 13 September 2017, the Commission presented a legislative proposal which would update the tool and replace the existing regulation on the European Citizens’ Initiative. Following interinstitutional negotiations between September and December 2018, the co-legislators reached provisional agreement on the proposal for revision of the ECI. The agreed text now needs to be approved by the Parliament and Council. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Promoting the Rights and Values, Justice and Creative Europe programmes

15-11-2018

With the future (1) Rights and Values, (2) Justice and (3) Creative Europe programmes, the European Commission aims to protect better EU rights and values; to develop further a European area of justice; and to support European cultural and creative sectors and audiovisual works under the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal finds that the impact assessment is substantiated by various evaluations, studies and consultations ...

With the future (1) Rights and Values, (2) Justice and (3) Creative Europe programmes, the European Commission aims to protect better EU rights and values; to develop further a European area of justice; and to support European cultural and creative sectors and audiovisual works under the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal finds that the impact assessment is substantiated by various evaluations, studies and consultations. The Commission describes the challenges encountered of the current and previous programmes well. However, the lack of policy options and of an impact analysis seriously affect the IA's quality. In addition, the IA does not match the three proposals: the only option considered does not mention a self-standing Creative Europe programme, which the Commission ultimately proposed.

Citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) schemes in the EU

17-10-2018

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

An overview of shell companies in the European Union

17-10-2018

In April 2018, the European Parliament's Special Committee on Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance (TAX3) requested a study on shell companies in the EU. In response to this request, the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit (EVAL) and the European Added Value Unit (EAVA) of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) prepared this study. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon of shell companies in the European Union. In particular, it approaches the issue through ...

In April 2018, the European Parliament's Special Committee on Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance (TAX3) requested a study on shell companies in the EU. In response to this request, the Ex-Post Evaluation Unit (EVAL) and the European Added Value Unit (EAVA) of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) prepared this study. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the phenomenon of shell companies in the European Union. In particular, it approaches the issue through a set of ‘proxy’ indicators at a member state level. It proceeds by presenting main risks associated with the shell companies. Finally, if presents policies aiming at mitigating these identified risks.

Security of ID cards and of residence documents issued to EU citizens and their families

13-07-2018

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently ...

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently encountered, and proposes adequate solutions. The Commission used different sources to substantiate the impact assessment and also undertook several stakeholder consultation activities. However, it is not systematically indicated which stakeholder group prefers which specific option. At times the impact assessment displays a lack of quantification, about which the Commission is open. More detailed information on the safeguards regarding the fundamental rights impact would have been desirable.

Acquisition and loss of citizenship in EU Member States: Key trends and issues

09-07-2018

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although ...

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although the legal rules on the acquisition and loss of citizenship in the EU Member States remain fairly divergent, one can identify a number of key trends and issues. The need to integrate long-term immigrants has pushed EU countries to amend their citizenship laws. This often resulted in making citizenship both more liberal (lowering residence requirements and tolerating dual citizenship) and more restrictive (introducing integration clauses and citizenship tests). The surge in terrorist activities in the EU, which involve citizens, prompted several Member States to revise or reactivate citizenship provisions allowing for citizenship to be revoked. Concerns about immigrants' integration, allegiance and belonging, as well as about the cultural and economic consequences of regional integration and globalisation are at the heart of recent debates about citizenship in Europe. As the Maltese case of investor citizenship shows, the issue of access to citizenship is no longer a matter that concerns Member States alone. The bundling of national and EU citizenship means that Member States have a certain responsibility towards each other when taking decisions over who to accept (or reject) as citizens.

Research for CULT Committee - Education in Cultural Heritage

09-07-2018

After a résumé of basic definitions this work aims at recommending to the CULT committee how, in order to contribute to sustainable development, cultural heritage and education should be integrated into an inclusive, horizontal and lifelong learning approach. It is highly recommended having cultural heritage at the very core of education and not as a stopgap and seeing education more deeply rooted in cultural heritage through adequate and efficient mutual long-term partnership policies.

After a résumé of basic definitions this work aims at recommending to the CULT committee how, in order to contribute to sustainable development, cultural heritage and education should be integrated into an inclusive, horizontal and lifelong learning approach. It is highly recommended having cultural heritage at the very core of education and not as a stopgap and seeing education more deeply rooted in cultural heritage through adequate and efficient mutual long-term partnership policies.

Външен автор

Nicole Gesche-Koning

A Europe without internal borders? Free movement of persons

25-06-2018

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police ...

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police cooperation and harmonised external border controls help Europe work against cross-border crime. Closing EU internal borders again could lead to costs of between €100 and 230 billion over 10 years.

Research for CULT Committee - Erasmus+: Towards a New Programme Generation

12-06-2018

This study was commissioned by the CULT committee of the European Parliament as a general reflection on the performance of the Erasmus+ programme so far. The study provides a complement to the European Commission mid-term evaluation of Erasmus+. This current project examines 1) the outcomes of Erasmus+ so far, notably focussing on the implementation experiences in using Erasmus+ in 10 Member States, 2) the decision-making procedures used in the programme, highlighting how delegated and implementing ...

This study was commissioned by the CULT committee of the European Parliament as a general reflection on the performance of the Erasmus+ programme so far. The study provides a complement to the European Commission mid-term evaluation of Erasmus+. This current project examines 1) the outcomes of Erasmus+ so far, notably focussing on the implementation experiences in using Erasmus+ in 10 Member States, 2) the decision-making procedures used in the programme, highlighting how delegated and implementing acts have been used to date, and 3) the Commission mid-term evaluation conclusions. These aspects are all drawn together to arrive at a series of key findings and recommendations which can be considered as adjustments for the Erasmus+ programme during its next programme cycle.

Външен автор

Panteia: Paul Vroonhof, Amber van der Graaf; Ockham IPS: Bert-Jan Buiskool

Naturalization and Citizenship in Latvia and Estonia

16-05-2018

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to ...

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to their holders while staying short of citizenship. Moreover, the author suggests that debates about the status of non-citizens in Latvia and Aliens in Estonia need to be read against the background of the two states’ history as Soviet republics and political and legal decisions that were taken in the 1990s. She supports that Citizenship has become a very emotional and contested issue in Latvia and Estonia. She goes on to say that Latvia and Estonia bring a key question regarding citizenship to light i.e. the question of the agent of citizenship : who needs to act in issues regarding citizenship and whether it is the state´s task to confer citizenship or is it an individuals’ task to claim it.

Външен автор

Susanne Tonsmann

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