18

výsledky

Slovo (slova)
Druh publikace
Oblast
Autor
Klíčové slovo
Datum

Contemporary forms of slavery

20-12-2018

This briefing aims to clarify the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and analyse the legal obligations of States, as well as recent international developments at global and EU levels. It highlights the inconsistent application of the concept by global governance actors and discusses the inclusion of various exploitative practices within this conceptual framework. It also examines the prevalence of contemporary forms of slavery and assesses the policy framework for EU external action. The briefing ...

This briefing aims to clarify the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and analyse the legal obligations of States, as well as recent international developments at global and EU levels. It highlights the inconsistent application of the concept by global governance actors and discusses the inclusion of various exploitative practices within this conceptual framework. It also examines the prevalence of contemporary forms of slavery and assesses the policy framework for EU external action. The briefing then recommends possible action by the EU, including: promotion of a more consistent definition and use of the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and further clarifications on the relationship with the human trafficking and forced labour frameworks; a role for the EU as catalyst in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets in the field of all contemporary forms of slavery; support for standardising methods of data collection globally. Finally, the paper invites the EU to assess the possibility of drafting a new treaty on contemporary forms of slavery, as a way to fill some existing loopholes at the international level.

Externí autor

Silvia SCARPA

International Criminal Court: Achievements and challenges 20 years after the adoption of the Rome Statute

13-07-2018

Adopted on 17 July 1998, the Statute of Rome is the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court, which was set up to deal with the most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Its establishment has inspired much hope that the most horrendous crimes will no longer go unpunished and that its deterrent effect will significantly reduce their occurrence. The EU has been a strong supporter of the ICC system from the outset. Since it began ...

Adopted on 17 July 1998, the Statute of Rome is the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court, which was set up to deal with the most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Its establishment has inspired much hope that the most horrendous crimes will no longer go unpunished and that its deterrent effect will significantly reduce their occurrence. The EU has been a strong supporter of the ICC system from the outset. Since it began operating in 2003, the Court has conducted investigations and trials in connection with some of the world's most brutal conflicts and has not shied away from investigating individuals at the highest level of power, such as presidents in office. It has developed extensive tools to protect its most important asset – the witnesses, who in many cases have faced intimidation, violence and even death. However the Court has also encountered difficulties and inherent limitations. The atrocities committed by groups such as ISIL/Da'esh have been out of reach for the Court's jurisdiction, which is limited to states parties' territories and their nationals, unless the Security Council specifically asks it to investigate. The refusal by some major powers such as the US, China and Russia to join, the lack of cooperation by some states parties such as South Africa, as well as recent defections or the threat thereof have also put strains on its global authority. The Court's effectiveness cannot be judged solely on the convictions it passes. The ICC is a court of last resort, and its impact on national judicial systems has also been significant. The Rome Statute itself has evolved. At the end of last year, the jurisdiction of the Court was extended to cover the crime of international aggression and new war crimes taking into account the latest technological developments. This briefing updates a previous briefing on the International Criminal Court, from May 2017.

Updating the Blocking Regulation: The EU's answer to US extraterritorial sanctions

07-06-2018

On 8 May 2018, President Trump announced the unilateral US withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the landmark nuclear agreement signed by Iran and the E3/EU+3 – France, Germany, the UK and the EU plus China, Russia and the USA – in 2015. He also announced that the US would re-impose sanctions on Iran that had been lifted as part of the implementation of the JCPOA. These sanctions have extraterritorial effect, essentially making it illegal for EU companies and financial institutions ...

On 8 May 2018, President Trump announced the unilateral US withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the landmark nuclear agreement signed by Iran and the E3/EU+3 – France, Germany, the UK and the EU plus China, Russia and the USA – in 2015. He also announced that the US would re-impose sanctions on Iran that had been lifted as part of the implementation of the JCPOA. These sanctions have extraterritorial effect, essentially making it illegal for EU companies and financial institutions to engage in a wide range of economic and commercial activities with Iran. Companies that disregard the US secondary sanctions face major fines and/or criminal charges in the US, or even exclusion from the US market. US sanctions will be reinstated after a 90- or 180-day wind-down period, to allow companies to make the necessary arrangements. Following the signing of the JCPOA in 2015, European companies have entered into important commercial and investment agreements with Iranian counterparts, worth billions of euros. Many of these companies also have important commercial ties with the US. Faced with the prospect of penalties in the US, several EU companies have already announced that they are ending their dealings with Iran, unless a way can be found to exempt or shield them from US secondary sanctions. In response, the Commission adopted a delegated act on 6 June 2018 to update the annex to the 'Blocking Regulation', which was adopted in 1996 to protect EU businesses against the effects of the extraterritorial application of legislation adopted by a third country. The Blocking Regulation forbids EU persons from complying with extraterritorial sanctions, allows companies to recover damages arising from such sanctions, and nullifies the effect in the EU of any foreign court judgment based on them. The effectiveness of the regulation as a mechanism to offset US sanctions has been questioned, however its adoption sends an important political message. Parliament now has two months to object to the delegated act, but may signal earlier that it will not do so, thus allowing the measure to come into force earlier than the end of the two-month period.

The (ir-)revocability of the withdrawal notification under Article 50 TEU

11-01-2018

This in-depth analysis examines the issue of the possible revocation of a withdrawal notification under article 50 TEU. In light of the ongoing negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, the possibility for the UK to revoke its withdrawal notification has become a significant political and legal/institutional issue. The analysis examines the case of revocation of a withdrawal notification under international law and under the EU law and assesses the various positions expressed so far on the ...

This in-depth analysis examines the issue of the possible revocation of a withdrawal notification under article 50 TEU. In light of the ongoing negotiations on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, the possibility for the UK to revoke its withdrawal notification has become a significant political and legal/institutional issue. The analysis examines the case of revocation of a withdrawal notification under international law and under the EU law and assesses the various positions expressed so far on the matter.

Investment rules in trade agreements: Developments and issues in light of the TTIP debate

18-09-2015

The foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks of EU entities in the US and of US entities in the EU both amount to over €1.6 trillion. Investment access and protection is therefore critical to EU-US economic relations. On both sides of the Atlantic, criticism has been growing regarding the interpretation of certain investment protection rules found in either free trade agreements or in bilateral investment treaties, and of their potential constraints on the regulatory capacity of the states party to ...

The foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks of EU entities in the US and of US entities in the EU both amount to over €1.6 trillion. Investment access and protection is therefore critical to EU-US economic relations. On both sides of the Atlantic, criticism has been growing regarding the interpretation of certain investment protection rules found in either free trade agreements or in bilateral investment treaties, and of their potential constraints on the regulatory capacity of the states party to them. The US and the EU alike are revising these rules to ensure states maintain the freedom to regulate for legitimate public purposes. Often, the US and EU approach to reform investment chapters is similar and could be complementary. The need for a solution that works for both has become an essential component of the negotiations on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

Illicit small arms and light weapons: International and EU action

13-07-2015

Small arms and light weapons (SALW) are one of the main instruments of armed violence around the world, both in conflict and non-conflict situations, with significant impact on entire societies from a humanitarian and socio-economic point of view. The international community, in particular the United Nations, has identified the proliferation and traffic of illicit SALW as an important field of action, and in this context, it has established a binding framework to prevent, combat and ultimately ...

Small arms and light weapons (SALW) are one of the main instruments of armed violence around the world, both in conflict and non-conflict situations, with significant impact on entire societies from a humanitarian and socio-economic point of view. The international community, in particular the United Nations, has identified the proliferation and traffic of illicit SALW as an important field of action, and in this context, it has established a binding framework to prevent, combat and ultimately eradicate the illicit trade in SALW in all its aspects. The main political process – the UN Programme of Action – emerged from the disarmament and arms control agenda, while the legally binding Firearms Protocol is part of international law enforcement cooperation. Recently, the Arms Trade Treaty has made a significant addition to the efforts of regulating trade in SALW. The European Union is an active promoter of the instruments and processes aimed at fighting against illicit SALW: it has created its own policy framework on firearms and SALW, it is a staunch supporter of norms at international level and an important provider of assistance to countries around the world to deal with the illicit trade and proliferation of SALW.

Conflict and Cooperation over Water - The Role of the EU in Ensuring the Realisation of Human Rights

18-06-2015

The human right to water has been firmly established and its implications for policy-making have been discussed in many fields. Thus far, this has hardly been the case for conflicts over water. This study discusses what it means to integrate human rights in the context of governing water and addressing conflicts over water. A human rights perspective on conflicts over water will help formulating equitable water governance strategies. To support such developments, the EU should integrate human rights ...

The human right to water has been firmly established and its implications for policy-making have been discussed in many fields. Thus far, this has hardly been the case for conflicts over water. This study discusses what it means to integrate human rights in the context of governing water and addressing conflicts over water. A human rights perspective on conflicts over water will help formulating equitable water governance strategies. To support such developments, the EU should integrate human rights in policies and other measures to address water conflicts at all levels. The EU’s activities should be guided by the human rights principles of non-discrimination and equality; participation and access to information; accountability and access to justice; and a priority for water uses as far as they are necessary for the realisation of human rights. This relates to internal legislation and policies, development cooperation, engagement in transboundary basins, political dialogues with partner countries, international fora such as the UN Human Rights Council, and the negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda. The European Parliament, specifically, should support such initiatives with resolutions, engagement in UN and inter-parliamentary fora, and enhancement of public awareness.

Commitments Made at the Hearing of Christos Stylianides - Commissioner-Designate

14-11-2014

Christos Stylianides, the recently-confirmed European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management, appeared before the European Parliament's Committee on Development (DEVE) on 30 September 2014 to answer MEPs' questions. In that hearing and in his answers to the questionnaire prepared for the meeting in advance, Commissioner Stylianides made a number of statements of interest to the European Parliament. This document provides a summary of his most salient points.

Christos Stylianides, the recently-confirmed European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Management, appeared before the European Parliament's Committee on Development (DEVE) on 30 September 2014 to answer MEPs' questions. In that hearing and in his answers to the questionnaire prepared for the meeting in advance, Commissioner Stylianides made a number of statements of interest to the European Parliament. This document provides a summary of his most salient points.

The Right to Water and Sanitation in Development Cooperation : The State of Play and the European Union

13-11-2012

This briefing paper examines international development cooperation from the perspective of the right to water and sanitation. It focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) and asks where and how human rights approaches could be better integrated in its policy and practice. Section 1 examines progress on realising the right to water and sanitation. Section 2 analyses the degree of consensus on right to water and sanitation in international law and the extent to which it is reflected in development ...

This briefing paper examines international development cooperation from the perspective of the right to water and sanitation. It focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) and asks where and how human rights approaches could be better integrated in its policy and practice. Section 1 examines progress on realising the right to water and sanitation. Section 2 analyses the degree of consensus on right to water and sanitation in international law and the extent to which it is reflected in development policy and practice. Section 3 discusses different areas where human rights-based approaches could be integrated into the EU’s external policies on water and sanitation and makes seven recommendations.

Externí autor

Malcolm LANGFORD (Norwegian Centre on Human Rights, Norway)

The Extraterritorial Effects of Legislation and Policies in the EU and US

16-05-2012

There is a general principle in international law that one state cannot take measures on the territory of another state by means of enforcement of national laws without the consent of the latter. It is possible – however – to observe a recent trend of a growing number of laws that aim to produce a legislative effect in third countries. The nature of the extraterritorial measures at stake and the interests involved have determined the intensity of protests against those measures, by businesses and ...

There is a general principle in international law that one state cannot take measures on the territory of another state by means of enforcement of national laws without the consent of the latter. It is possible – however – to observe a recent trend of a growing number of laws that aim to produce a legislative effect in third countries. The nature of the extraterritorial measures at stake and the interests involved have determined the intensity of protests against those measures, by businesses and legislators. This study explores the legal principles that sit behind extraterritoriality, and how such measures have come to be justified. It also examines how those enacting extraterritorial laws have sought to use mostly economic and diplomatic levers to seek compliance from third countries and entities registered in third countries. Finally, this study explores the impact extraterritoriality has had on the businesses and governments affected by it and outlines the defensive measures that can be taken to protect against the reach of such laws.

Externí autor

DOVER Robert (Dover and Jones Ltd, UK) and FROSINI Justin (Center for Constitutional Studies and Democratic Development, Italy)

Chystané akce

05-11-2019
The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
Další akce -
EPRS
06-11-2019
Where next for the global and European economies? The 2019 IMF Economic Outlook
Další akce -
EPRS
06-11-2019
EPRS Annual Lecture: Clash of Cultures: Transnational governance in post-war Europe
Další akce -
EPRS

Partneři

Zůstaňte připojeni

email update imageSystém aktualizace e-mailem

Informace o komkoliv či čemkoliv souvisejícím s Parlamentem můžete získávat pomocí systému aktualizací e-mailem, který zašle aktualizace přímo do Vaší e-mailové schránky. Aktualizace se týkají nejčerstvějších informací o poslancích EP, výborech, zpravodajských službách či stránce expertní skupiny (Think Tank).

Do systému můžete vstoupit z kterékoliv internetové stránky Parlamentu. K registraci a získávání informací o obsahu stránky Think Tank stačí jen zadat svou e-mailovou adresu, zvolit téma, které Vás zajímá, uvést, jak často chcete být informováni (denně, týdně či měsíčně), a potvrdit registraci kliknutím na odkaz, který Vám bude zaslán e-mailem.

RSS imageKanál RSS

Sledujte zprávy a aktuální informace z naší internetové stránky za použití kanálu RSS.

Ke konfiguraci vlastního kanálu klikněte na tento odkaz.