11

resultat(er)

Ord
Type af publikation
Politikområde
Forfatter
Nøgleord
Dato

EU policies – Delivering for citizens: Protection of EU external borders

28-06-2019

The unprecedented arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU, which peaked in 2015, exposed a series of deficiencies and gaps in EU policies on external borders. It affected the functioning of the Schengen rules, leading to the re-introduction of border checks by several Member States. In response to these challenges, as well as the surge in terrorist and serious cross-border crime activities, the EU has embarked on a broader process of reform aimed at strengthening its external borders ...

The unprecedented arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU, which peaked in 2015, exposed a series of deficiencies and gaps in EU policies on external borders. It affected the functioning of the Schengen rules, leading to the re-introduction of border checks by several Member States. In response to these challenges, as well as the surge in terrorist and serious cross-border crime activities, the EU has embarked on a broader process of reform aimed at strengthening its external borders by reinforcing the links between border controls and security. On the one hand, measures for protecting the EU's external borders have focused on reinforcing EU border management rules, such as the Schengen Borders Code, and strengthening and upgrading the mandates of relevant EU agencies, such as Frontex, eu-LISA, Europol and EASO. On the other hand, in connection with a number of key shortcomings in the EU's information systems, efforts were made to improve use of the opportunities offered by information systems and technologies for security, criminal records, and border and migration management. This included strengthening existing IT systems (SIS II, VIS, Eurodac, ECRIS-TCN), establishing new ones (ETIAS, Entry/Exit System) and improving their interoperability. The broader mandate and the increase of activities in the area of EU border management is also reflected in the growing amounts, flexibility, and diversity of EU funds, inside and outside the current and future EU budget. This is an update of an earlier briefing issued in advance of the 2019 European elections.

Digital technology in elections: Efficiency versus credibility?

10-09-2018

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting ...

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting machines count votes quickly and accurately. First used in the United States, they have spread to several Latin American and Asian countries. However, the intangible nature of digital processes makes detecting tampering more difficult; as a result, most European countries are sticking to tried-and-trusted conventional paper ballots. Even more controversial is the idea of internet voting. On the one hand, allowing citizens the convenience of casting their vote online without the need to visit polling stations could help to reverse a worrying decline in voter turnout across the world. On the other hand, current technology does not allow internet voting systems to be fully secured against hackers, a major concern given the growing sophistication of cyber-attacks (for example, from Russia). To date, only Estonia gives all voters the option of online voting in national elections.

Security of ID cards and of residence documents issued to EU citizens and their families

13-07-2018

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently ...

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently encountered, and proposes adequate solutions. The Commission used different sources to substantiate the impact assessment and also undertook several stakeholder consultation activities. However, it is not systematically indicated which stakeholder group prefers which specific option. At times the impact assessment displays a lack of quantification, about which the Commission is open. More detailed information on the safeguards regarding the fundamental rights impact would have been desirable.

Interoperability of Justice and Home Affairs Information Systems

12-04-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, at the request of the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE Committee), primarily assesses the Commission’s December 2017 proposals for a Regulation on establishing a framework for interoperability between EU Justice and Home Affairs information systems. The study first analyses the relationships between the information systems in the ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs, at the request of the European Parliament Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE Committee), primarily assesses the Commission’s December 2017 proposals for a Regulation on establishing a framework for interoperability between EU Justice and Home Affairs information systems. The study first analyses the relationships between the information systems in the current and proposed implementation before assessing the key elements of the Commission’s proposals, including the concept of interoperability used, the problem definition and objectives and the proposed solutions, as well as the implementation, fundamental rights and data security implications.

Ekstern forfatter

Mirja GUTHEIL Quentin LIGER James EAGER Yemi OVIOSU Daniel BOGDANOVIC

European information systems in the area of justice and home affairs: An overview

11-05-2017

The interconnections between border management, migration and internal security have become more apparent recently in the context of high inflows of refugees and irregular migrants and of increasing terrorist activities in the EU. To address these challenges, the EU has taken steps to revise and develop the European information systems in order to improve the collection, processing and sharing of data among Member States and relevant EU agencies. This publication provides an overview of the existing ...

The interconnections between border management, migration and internal security have become more apparent recently in the context of high inflows of refugees and irregular migrants and of increasing terrorist activities in the EU. To address these challenges, the EU has taken steps to revise and develop the European information systems in order to improve the collection, processing and sharing of data among Member States and relevant EU agencies. This publication provides an overview of the existing and proposed European information systems in the area of justice and home affairs. It discusses the legal basis, the purposes, the scope of data and access, the utilisation and the proposed changes for each information system, including issues of interoperability.

Reinforcement of checks at external borders

07-02-2017

Controls at external borders are key to ensuring proper freedom of movement and security in the Schengen area. As the EU has been facing risks to its internal security (notably through an increase in terrorist attacks and threats posed by 'foreign fighters', many of whom are EU citizens enjoying the right of free movement), it is determined to reinforce the control of its external borders. Parliament is expected to vote during its February plenary part-session on a trilogue agreement on a proposal ...

Controls at external borders are key to ensuring proper freedom of movement and security in the Schengen area. As the EU has been facing risks to its internal security (notably through an increase in terrorist attacks and threats posed by 'foreign fighters', many of whom are EU citizens enjoying the right of free movement), it is determined to reinforce the control of its external borders. Parliament is expected to vote during its February plenary part-session on a trilogue agreement on a proposal to ensure systematic controls, against relevant databases, of EU nationals crossing external EU borders.

The Legal and Political Context for Setting Up a European Identity Document

02-06-2016

This study was commissioned and supervised by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee. It assesses the added value of setting up a European identity card. It also analyses the legal and political feasibility of and challenges for setting up an operable European identity card given the current legislative and political context. Moreover, it puts forward recommendations as regards the legal and technical components ...

This study was commissioned and supervised by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee. It assesses the added value of setting up a European identity card. It also analyses the legal and political feasibility of and challenges for setting up an operable European identity card given the current legislative and political context. Moreover, it puts forward recommendations as regards the legal and technical components required for the setting up of an operable European ID card.

Ekstern forfatter

Katalin ADAMIS-CSÁSZÁR, Anna DI PIETRO, Emma PSAILA and Marilena VERBARI (Milieu Limited)

Promoting Free Movement in the EU by Simplifying the Acceptance of Public Documents: Cost of Non-Europe Report

16-12-2013

Cost of Non Europe Reports are intended to evaluate the possibilities for gains and the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. In particular, this study analyses the cost for citizens and businesses of the formalities which are currently necessary in order to make certain public documents acceptable in different Member States. The study concludes that the abolition of legalisation and Apostille, the simplified certification of copies ...

Cost of Non Europe Reports are intended to evaluate the possibilities for gains and the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. In particular, this study analyses the cost for citizens and businesses of the formalities which are currently necessary in order to make certain public documents acceptable in different Member States. The study concludes that the abolition of legalisation and Apostille, the simplified certification of copies and translations, the establishment of multilingual forms in all official languages concerning birth, death, marriage, registered partnership, and legal status and representation of a company would greatly reduce the current costs associated with authenticating national public documents. Citizens and businesses would be able to more freely exercise their right of free movement and freedom of establishment in another Member State without facing disproportionate obstacles.

Ekstern forfatter

ICF GHK

Security of eGovernment Systems

15-07-2013

The project ‘Security of eGovernment systems’ aimed at assisting policymakers in discerning policy options for meeting future challenges in securing eGovernment systems. The project focused on upcoming challenges of eGovernment security in delivering public services across borders. Through identifying key security barriers and enablers, the project points to promising avenues of policy development in an environment of rapidly changing ICTs and changing socio-economic concerns in the EU. The most ...

The project ‘Security of eGovernment systems’ aimed at assisting policymakers in discerning policy options for meeting future challenges in securing eGovernment systems. The project focused on upcoming challenges of eGovernment security in delivering public services across borders. Through identifying key security barriers and enablers, the project points to promising avenues of policy development in an environment of rapidly changing ICTs and changing socio-economic concerns in the EU. The most important contribution of the project is the development and assessment of 11 policy options. Policy Option 1: Develop a policy strategy for improving the security of IT-systems used in Europe ; Policy Option 2: Stimulate development and use of security checklists (short-term) ; Policy Option 3: Policy Option 3: Encourage the development and use of highly secure components (mid-term) ; Policy Option 4: Encourage the development and use of highly secure systems (long-term) ; Policy option 5: Create stronger institutional supervision and oversight of security ; Policy option 6: Build a ‘Privacy by Design’ knowledge base ; Policy option 7: Substantiate the data minimization principle by using anonymization techniques in all European eGovernment systems ; Policy option 8: Stimulate technical and legal solutions that avoid or limit privacy risks caused by re-identification of previously anonymized data ; Policy option 9: Make Privacy Impact Assessments of eGovernment systems mandatory and public ; Policy option 10: Use gateways to achieve interoperability of different national eGovernment security tools, but aim at Europe-wide availability and usability of tools ; Policy option 11: Ensure open and transparent evaluations of the trade-offs between privacy, security, usability, interoperability and costs of an eGovernment system.

Ekstern forfatter

Anders Jacobi (Project leader, DBT), Mikkel Lund Jensen (DBT), Linda Kool (Rathenau Institute), Geert Munnichs (Rathenau Institute) and Arnd Weber (ITAS)

Proposed New EU Border Control Systems

25-06-2008

This briefing paper will focus in particular upon: - the concept and architecture of the Entry/Exit system and how it could be embedded in the current EU framework; what would be if any the synergies with the other databases, especially VIS; and the similarities and differences with the US-VISIT system, - an analysis of the two other measures proposed by the Commission (bona fide traveller and Electronic System of Travel Authorisation (ESTA) and comparative approaches, - the potential added value ...

This briefing paper will focus in particular upon: - the concept and architecture of the Entry/Exit system and how it could be embedded in the current EU framework; what would be if any the synergies with the other databases, especially VIS; and the similarities and differences with the US-VISIT system, - an analysis of the two other measures proposed by the Commission (bona fide traveller and Electronic System of Travel Authorisation (ESTA) and comparative approaches, - the potential added value of these envisaged measures.

Ekstern forfatter

Professor Steve Peers, Human Rights Centre, University of Essex

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