19

resultat(er)

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Dato

Emission performance standards for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles

12-04-2017

According to the various reports and assessments presented in this briefing, the existing cars and vans regulations appear to be well implemented, with the majority of car and van manufacturers meeting their CO2 specific emission targets in 2015, and some well on their way to reaching the 2020/2021 targets. However, the ultimate aim of the regulations is to deliver a significant reduction in real-world CO2 emissions. While CO2 emissions as measured on the test cycle is one element of this, there ...

According to the various reports and assessments presented in this briefing, the existing cars and vans regulations appear to be well implemented, with the majority of car and van manufacturers meeting their CO2 specific emission targets in 2015, and some well on their way to reaching the 2020/2021 targets. However, the ultimate aim of the regulations is to deliver a significant reduction in real-world CO2 emissions. While CO2 emissions as measured on the test cycle is one element of this, there are other external trends that influence CO2 emissions from cars and vans, including the total number of cars and vans and the distance covered, and the level and composition of fuels. The effectiveness of the legislation should be considered in conjunction with other policy instruments, including laboratory test cycles, embedded emissions or the use of CO2-linked vehicle taxation. In addition, any future evaluation of the regulations and the setting of new effective emission limits should take into account the introduction of the new worldwide harmonised light vehicles test procedure (WLTP) in September 2017, and the entry into force of the new type approval regulation. To significantly reduce transport emissions, the setting out of new CO2 emission targets could include the adoption of a number of measures that would allow for better monitoring of real driving emissions. In order to achieve lasting and sustainable emission reductions in the transport sector, and rebuild the trust of consumers in the regulatory system and the car industry, a much broader and holistic approach appears necessary. This could consist of a systemic and integrated approach combining various policy instruments, accommodating the use of alternative energies in transport, increased vehicle energy efficiency and intelligent management of transport demand and infrastructure.

Air pollution from non-road mobile machinery

30-06-2016

Despite improvements in recent decades, air pollution in Europe remains a concern. In September 2014, the Commission put forward a proposal to review the type-approval and emission limits for 'non-road mobile machinery', covering a variety of machines powered by combustion engines which contribute to air pollution in the European Union. First reading negotiations with the Council have delivered a compromise which now awaits a vote in plenary.

Despite improvements in recent decades, air pollution in Europe remains a concern. In September 2014, the Commission put forward a proposal to review the type-approval and emission limits for 'non-road mobile machinery', covering a variety of machines powered by combustion engines which contribute to air pollution in the European Union. First reading negotiations with the Council have delivered a compromise which now awaits a vote in plenary.

Legal Obligations Relating to Emission Measurements in the EU Automotive Sector

15-06-2016

This study looks at the discrepancy in NOx emissions between type-approval tests and real-world driving. It examines the legal stakeholder obligations with regard to emission measurements in the European type-approval process and offers insights into the practical implementation of type-approval procedures throughout the EU. This study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS).

This study looks at the discrepancy in NOx emissions between type-approval tests and real-world driving. It examines the legal stakeholder obligations with regard to emission measurements in the European type-approval process and offers insights into the practical implementation of type-approval procedures throughout the EU. This study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee of Inquiry into Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS).

Ekstern forfatter

Holger HEINFELLNER, Clemens KONRAD, Günther LICHTBLAU, Barbara SCHODL, Gudrun STRANNER and Ralf WINTER

Lawsuits triggered by the Volkswagen emissions case

30-05-2016

In September 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency claimed that Volkswagen had installed illegal software on some of its diesel vehicles, to modify emissions of certain air pollutants. Subsequently, the company has been the subject of legal action brought by consumers, investors, non-governmental organisations and government agencies. In many cases, the plaintiffs have gathered their actions together into collective (or class action) complaints. In the United States, complaints ...

In September 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency claimed that Volkswagen had installed illegal software on some of its diesel vehicles, to modify emissions of certain air pollutants. Subsequently, the company has been the subject of legal action brought by consumers, investors, non-governmental organisations and government agencies. In many cases, the plaintiffs have gathered their actions together into collective (or class action) complaints. In the United States, complaints have been filed by law firms, government departments and even individual states (including the US Justice Department and US Federal Trade Commission, as well as the states of Texas, New Mexico and New Jersey). This briefing provides a non-exhaustive overview of the range of lawsuits under way, many of them still in their initial stages. Several countries around the globe have opened more general investigations on whether car manufacturers respect vehicle emission limits on the road, as opposed to under test conditions. Some other carmakers are suspected also to have used software that manipulates emission levels, similar to that used by Volkswagen. In April 2016, Volkswagen agreed in principle with the US authorities and US class action plaintiffs to buy back, or modify or cancel the leases of affected vehicles. US consumers might also receive substantial compensation. Final details of the settlement are expected in June 2016. No similar agreement has been reached in Europe.

Measuring on-road air pollution from cars

11-01-2016

Although emissions of air pollutants from transport have fallen considerably in recent decades, current levels still have adverse effects on health and the environment. In an implementing regulation on new tests that better reflect real on-road emissions, the Commission sets higher limits than current standards, but below current levels of emissions. A motion for a resolution blocking the Commission draft is due to be submitted to the plenary in January.

Although emissions of air pollutants from transport have fallen considerably in recent decades, current levels still have adverse effects on health and the environment. In an implementing regulation on new tests that better reflect real on-road emissions, the Commission sets higher limits than current standards, but below current levels of emissions. A motion for a resolution blocking the Commission draft is due to be submitted to the plenary in January.

Transport CO2 emissions in focus

18-11-2015

On 30 November 2015, the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is due to start in Paris. The aim is for the Parties to adopt binding rules to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and keep global warming below an increase of 2˚C. This overview shows how about 25% of CO2 emissions in the EU result from transport activities. The map below gives the share of transport emissions (from fuel combustion, not including indirect emissions from ...

On 30 November 2015, the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is due to start in Paris. The aim is for the Parties to adopt binding rules to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and keep global warming below an increase of 2˚C. This overview shows how about 25% of CO2 emissions in the EU result from transport activities. The map below gives the share of transport emissions (from fuel combustion, not including indirect emissions from electricity use) in the total CO2 emissions in each Member State, and the volume contribution of different transport modes to the EU total. While in other sectors the volumes of CO2 emissions have decreased between 1990 and 2012, those resulting from transport show increases, in some cases more than twofold.

Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping

16-11-2015

This study provides an overview of potential CO2 mitigation targets for international aviation and maritime transport and analyses which targets would be compatible with the global long-term goal of keeping the temperature increase below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. The analysis supports the view that it is important to establish targets for both sectors which clearly indicate that emissions cannot grow in an unlimited and unregulated way. This study was provided by Policy Department A ...

This study provides an overview of potential CO2 mitigation targets for international aviation and maritime transport and analyses which targets would be compatible with the global long-term goal of keeping the temperature increase below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels. The analysis supports the view that it is important to establish targets for both sectors which clearly indicate that emissions cannot grow in an unlimited and unregulated way. This study was provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI).

Ekstern forfatter

Martin Cames, Jakob Graichen, Anne Siemons and Vanessa Cook

Research for TRAN committee - Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollutant Emissions from EU Transport

05-11-2015

Transport is the only EU sector where greenhouse gas emissions have risen since 1990. Conversely, transportation has significantly reduced its emissions of atmospheric pollutants in the past two decades - but it is still a major cause of air pollution, especially in urban areas. Besides, it is unclear whether the decline in transport demand/emissions observed since the 2008 economic downturn is only cyclical or is (at least partly) attributable to structural reasons.

Transport is the only EU sector where greenhouse gas emissions have risen since 1990. Conversely, transportation has significantly reduced its emissions of atmospheric pollutants in the past two decades - but it is still a major cause of air pollution, especially in urban areas. Besides, it is unclear whether the decline in transport demand/emissions observed since the 2008 economic downturn is only cyclical or is (at least partly) attributable to structural reasons.

Emissions from engines in non-road mobile machinery: Initial Appraisal of a European Commission Impact Assessment

04-05-2015

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment (IA) accompanying the proposal for a Regulation relating to emission limits and type-approval for internal combustion engines for non-road mobile machinery. Non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a term that encompasses a wide range of equipment. Small handheld equipment, construction and forestry machinery, generators, railcars, locomotives and inland waterway vessels (IWV ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment (IA) accompanying the proposal for a Regulation relating to emission limits and type-approval for internal combustion engines for non-road mobile machinery. Non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a term that encompasses a wide range of equipment. Small handheld equipment, construction and forestry machinery, generators, railcars, locomotives and inland waterway vessels (IWV) can all be classed as NRMM. These machines are commonplace within the agriculture, construction, rail, aircraft, inland waterway transport (IWT) and domestic shipping industries. This note, prepared by the Ex-Ante Impact Assessment Unit for the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) of the European Parliament, analyses whether the principal criteria laid down in the Commission’s own Impact Assessment Guidelines, as well as additional factors identified by the Parliament in its Impact Assessment Handbook, appear to be met by the IA.

Monitoring CO2 emissions in maritime transport

20-04-2015

International maritime shipping remains the only means of transport not included in the EU's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2013, the European Commission outlined an EU approach to these issues and, as a first step, presented proposals to create a system for collecting and publishing verified annual data on CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports. This will indirectly support EU action on climate change and can contribute to the ongoing international debate on cutting ...

International maritime shipping remains the only means of transport not included in the EU's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2013, the European Commission outlined an EU approach to these issues and, as a first step, presented proposals to create a system for collecting and publishing verified annual data on CO2 emissions from large ships using EU ports. This will indirectly support EU action on climate change and can contribute to the ongoing international debate on cutting emissions from shipping at global level.

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