6

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EU Energy Independence, Security of Supply and Diversification of Sources

31-03-2017

This report summarises the presentations and discussions during the workshop ‘EU Energy Independence, Security of Supply and Diversification of Sources’ organised on 6 February 2017 by Policy Department A for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The aim of the workshop was to evaluate the current and future EU gas import dependence and to identify and assess possible policy initiatives to enhance the security of gas supply in the EU by further diversification of sources and routes ...

This report summarises the presentations and discussions during the workshop ‘EU Energy Independence, Security of Supply and Diversification of Sources’ organised on 6 February 2017 by Policy Department A for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The aim of the workshop was to evaluate the current and future EU gas import dependence and to identify and assess possible policy initiatives to enhance the security of gas supply in the EU by further diversification of sources and routes. The workshop and this report will also support the ITRE Committee in its evaluation of proposals for review of EU legislation related to this topic.

Ekstern forfatter

Luc VAN NUFFEL, Koen RADEMAEKERS, Jessica YEARWOOD

Turkey's megaprojects: Opportunities and concerns

26-01-2016

In the past five years, the Turkish leadership has announced a series of megaprojects, the purpose of which is both to support national development, and to gain a place for the country in the world's top ten economies. The main megaprojects include the 'Canalistanbul', which will create an additional shipping channel from the Marmara Sea to the Black Sea, a new airport, with the ambition to be the busiest in the world, a third bridge across the Bosphorus in Istanbul, as well as nuclear power plants ...

In the past five years, the Turkish leadership has announced a series of megaprojects, the purpose of which is both to support national development, and to gain a place for the country in the world's top ten economies. The main megaprojects include the 'Canalistanbul', which will create an additional shipping channel from the Marmara Sea to the Black Sea, a new airport, with the ambition to be the busiest in the world, a third bridge across the Bosphorus in Istanbul, as well as nuclear power plants and major pipelines across the country. These projects have led to major debates within Turkish society, as they are planned by the central government with little input from local communities. In addition there is controversy because of their potential impact on the environment, in an area of considerable seismic risk. These two dimensions were criticised in the European Commission's most recent report on Turkey's progress towards EU accession, published in November 2015. In June 2015, the European Parliament criticised Turkey's stance on freedom of speech, which is key to the possibilities for informing and consulting with civil society on large infrastructure developments such as the megaprojects.

Climate policies in the EU and USA: Different approaches, convergent outcomes?

19-11-2015

This briefing surveys the climate policies of the European Union and the United States and identifies both similarities and differences in their respective positions ahead of the UN climate change conference (COP21) in Paris. Both the EU and the USA have achieved emission reductions in recent years, although the policy frameworks are rather different. The EU has a comprehensive legislative framework aiming to implement common targets agreed among its Member States. The USA has a diverse range of ...

This briefing surveys the climate policies of the European Union and the United States and identifies both similarities and differences in their respective positions ahead of the UN climate change conference (COP21) in Paris. Both the EU and the USA have achieved emission reductions in recent years, although the policy frameworks are rather different. The EU has a comprehensive legislative framework aiming to implement common targets agreed among its Member States. The USA has a diverse range of measures at city, state and federal level. As the US Congress has not passed major climate change legislation in the last ten years, federal rules are generally based on pre-existing legislation, notably the Clean Air Act. Although both the EU (and its Member States) and the USA are Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, only the EU has accepted binding commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, which the USA signed, but refused to ratify. The USA has recently entered into a series of bilateral engagements on climate change with major developing economies including China, India, Brazil and Indonesia. In view of the upcoming climate change conference in Paris, the EU would prefer to see binding mitigation commitments for all Parties, while the USA favours non-binding nationally determined contributions. Both the EU and the USA agree on the importance of transparency, reporting and verification, and advocate a mechanism for raising levels of the Parties' ambition over time.

To Each their Own: The Southern Caucasus and Iranian Influence

05-03-2013

The Southern Caucasus region matters to the European Union for economic, energy and political reasons. Yet the states of the Southern Caucasus — Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia — are also important to their southern neighbour, Iran. Realpolitik in the region dictates that the EU balance its relations with its local partners at the same time that Iran, sanctioned by the EU and others, makes various economic, cultural, and political inroads with its pliable neighbours. Each Southern Caucasus state ...

The Southern Caucasus region matters to the European Union for economic, energy and political reasons. Yet the states of the Southern Caucasus — Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia — are also important to their southern neighbour, Iran. Realpolitik in the region dictates that the EU balance its relations with its local partners at the same time that Iran, sanctioned by the EU and others, makes various economic, cultural, and political inroads with its pliable neighbours. Each Southern Caucasus state has a distinct relation with the EU and with Iran. Each must set the realities of its current situation against its western aspirations. Since the adoption of sanctions against Iran in 2010 and their subsequent reinforcement, the EU has also been obliged to consider Iran's influence on regional politics. While the EU's interest in the region is based on more than its concerns about Iran, this facet of the Southern Caucasus's complicated balance of power cannot be ignored.

Workshop Proceedings on the "EU-Eastern European Partners Cooperation in Energy Security : Achievements, Barriers and Prospects"

26-10-2012

The workshop ‘EU-Eastern European Partners cooperation in energy security: achievements, barriers and prospects’, organised under the patronage of the EURONEST Assembly’s Committee on Energy Security and the AFET Committee, took place on 19 September 2012 in the European Parliament. The workshop aimed at facilitating exchanges of views on policies and initiatives for energy cooperation within the Eastern Partnership. Four sets of issues were discussed: the current landscape of the EU-Eastern partners ...

The workshop ‘EU-Eastern European Partners cooperation in energy security: achievements, barriers and prospects’, organised under the patronage of the EURONEST Assembly’s Committee on Energy Security and the AFET Committee, took place on 19 September 2012 in the European Parliament. The workshop aimed at facilitating exchanges of views on policies and initiatives for energy cooperation within the Eastern Partnership. Four sets of issues were discussed: the current landscape of the EU-Eastern partners’ energy cooperation and the potential for development; the integration and interconnection of energy markets; the development of infrastructures and the diversification of routes; and the prospects of energy cooperation under the Eastern Partnership. Energy is an area of strategic importance in the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Energy cooperation between the EU and its Eastern partners has inter alia developed under Platform 3 of the EaP’s multilateral track. Although energy situations, needs and policies are diverse, including amongst the six Eastern partners, there is substantial complementarity between the EU and its partners and therefore scope for enhanced cooperation. In particular, energy security is a key challenge both to the Union and partner countries. As underlined in the discussion, the response to this challenge is multifaceted. Participants stressed that the EU and Eastern partners share the objective of ensuring a sustainable, secure and affordable energy. Building up a pan-European, well-regulated and transparent energy market is critical in light of this objective. The EU has engaged in developing a well-functioning internal energy market. At the same time, energy challenges call for both increased cooperation with, and a coherent approach vis-à-vis Eastern partners. As emphasised by participants, domestic and external energy policies are therefore tightly interconnected. The Energy Community Treaty is the core reference to int

Ekstern forfatter

Laure DELCOUR (IRIS, France)

Legal Implications of the Nord Stream Project

01-04-2008

Ekstern forfatter

Robert Lee, Tamara Egede, Lori Frater and Steven Vaughan Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society (BRASS) Cardiff University Cardiff CF10 3 AX Wales United Kingdom

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