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Maternity, paternity and parental leave in the EU

06-03-2017

The EU has been working on reforming family leave policies in Member States since the 1980s. Its efforts resulted in two currently valid directives: the 1992 Maternity Leave Directive and the 2010 Parental Leave Directive. Even though EU Member States’ transposition of the current directives has been mostly satisfactory technically, in 2015 the Commission announced a package on work-life balance which would replace the current legislation. The rationale for the new package is increasing female labour ...

The EU has been working on reforming family leave policies in Member States since the 1980s. Its efforts resulted in two currently valid directives: the 1992 Maternity Leave Directive and the 2010 Parental Leave Directive. Even though EU Member States’ transposition of the current directives has been mostly satisfactory technically, in 2015 the Commission announced a package on work-life balance which would replace the current legislation. The rationale for the new package is increasing female labour participation, bringing gender balance to care activities now predominantly performed by women, and improving negative demographic trends. The current legislative framework has been evaluated as inadequate to deal with these challenges. While the content of the Commission proposal is not yet fully known, an analysis of the current situation may shed light on the direction of change, as well as the obstacles that the new proposal may face. Even though Member States have transposed the current directives, they have also been given much freedom in deciding on elements which may be crucial in achieving the aims of the new Commission proposal. Why Member States decided to implement certain elements over others depends on their cultural, social and economic situations, which, according to experts, play a significant role in deciding policies of that type and may also influence the new proposal.

Gender Equality Policies in Spain - Update

15-12-2016

While gender equality policies have been institutionalized and consolidated in Spain until 2008, the 2009-2016 period shows backlash provoked by austerity policies adopted in response to the economic crisis. Institutional dismantlement, budget cuts, legislative standstill, policy reforms with negative gender impacts, and problems of implementation indicate an uncertain future for gender equality policies in Spain. This study maps developments in Spanish gender equality institutions, laws, and policies ...

While gender equality policies have been institutionalized and consolidated in Spain until 2008, the 2009-2016 period shows backlash provoked by austerity policies adopted in response to the economic crisis. Institutional dismantlement, budget cuts, legislative standstill, policy reforms with negative gender impacts, and problems of implementation indicate an uncertain future for gender equality policies in Spain. This study maps developments in Spanish gender equality institutions, laws, and policies, including employment, care, political and economic decision-making, gender-based violence, and sexual and reproductive rights.

Externe Autor

Emanuela LOMBARDO (Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)

European Structural and Investment Funds and People with Disabilities in the European Union

03-11-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI committee, concerns the situation of people with disabilities in the European Union (EU) and how EU funds (‘European Structural and Investment Funds’) can support the reforms needed to replace the outdated systems of institutional care with community-based and inclusive services. It also highlights areas that must be addressed to avoid the mistakes of ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI committee, concerns the situation of people with disabilities in the European Union (EU) and how EU funds (‘European Structural and Investment Funds’) can support the reforms needed to replace the outdated systems of institutional care with community-based and inclusive services. It also highlights areas that must be addressed to avoid the mistakes of the past, in particular the use of EU funds to maintain institutional care, and ensure that instead they are used to promote community living.

Externe Autor

Camilla PARKER and Ines BULIC COJOCARIU (European Network on Independent Living)

Differences in Men's and Women's Work, Care and Leisure Time

15-03-2016

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality ...

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality.

Externe Autor

Konstantina DAVAKI (Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, the UK)

The Policy on Gender Equality in Netherlands

21-09-2015

At the request of the FEMM Committee, this note provides an overview of the existing gender-equality legislation and policies in the Netherlands, focussing on their recent developments and achievements. It covers a range of topics including participation in decision making and labour market, reconciliation of work and family life, eradication of gender-based violence, and women’s well-being. The Netherlands has a long tradition in emancipation policies and equality legislation. Important policy issues ...

At the request of the FEMM Committee, this note provides an overview of the existing gender-equality legislation and policies in the Netherlands, focussing on their recent developments and achievements. It covers a range of topics including participation in decision making and labour market, reconciliation of work and family life, eradication of gender-based violence, and women’s well-being. The Netherlands has a long tradition in emancipation policies and equality legislation. Important policy issues are the high part-time rate which translates in a relatively low participation rate in full time equivalents and the low share of women in top positions.

Externe Autor

Janneke PLANTENGA and Chantal REMERY

The Policy on Gender Equality in Ireland - Update 2015

14-09-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this paper explores changes in gender equality legislation, policies and practices in Ireland with particular emphasis on the period from 2012-2015. Gender equality infrastructure, gender gaps in employment, unemployment, poverty and pay rates are analysed and women’s level of participation in political, economic and administrative decision-making in Ireland is detailed. Provision of childcare services, as well as the extent to which gender dimensions are taken ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this paper explores changes in gender equality legislation, policies and practices in Ireland with particular emphasis on the period from 2012-2015. Gender equality infrastructure, gender gaps in employment, unemployment, poverty and pay rates are analysed and women’s level of participation in political, economic and administrative decision-making in Ireland is detailed. Provision of childcare services, as well as the extent to which gender dimensions are taken into account in health and welfare policies, are also examined.

The Policy on Gender Equality in Denmark

07-07-2015

Upon request of the FEMM committee, this in-depth analysis updates a previous note published in October 2011 and describes Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of women's rights and gender equality, covering the period from October 2011, when the Social Democrat-led government took office, to April 2015. During this period, the focus has been put on gender-based violence, leave policies, pay statistics, gender segregation in the labour market and in education, as well as sexual ...

Upon request of the FEMM committee, this in-depth analysis updates a previous note published in October 2011 and describes Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of women's rights and gender equality, covering the period from October 2011, when the Social Democrat-led government took office, to April 2015. During this period, the focus has been put on gender-based violence, leave policies, pay statistics, gender segregation in the labour market and in education, as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights. Earmarked leave for fathers and gender quota on company boards have been on the agenda but not adopted.

The Policy on Gender Equality in Belgium - Update 2015

10-06-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this in-depth analysis provides an overview of the existing gender equality legislation, policies and practices in Belgium. The note discusses gender equality in decision making, employment, reconciliation of work and family life, eradication of violence against women, and breaking down gender stereotypes.

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this in-depth analysis provides an overview of the existing gender equality legislation, policies and practices in Belgium. The note discusses gender equality in decision making, employment, reconciliation of work and family life, eradication of violence against women, and breaking down gender stereotypes.

Externe Autor

Erika Schulze, Willemijn de Jong, Yana Hadjihristova, Isabel Scott, Julia Linares and D. Ghailani

The Policy on Gender Equality in the Czech Republic

04-05-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this report provides an overview of the existing gender-equality legislation and policies in the Czech Republic, focussing on the recent developments and achievements. It discusses gender equality in employment, reconciliation of work and family life, presence of women in decision-making positions, recent measures to fight violence against women, and sexual and reproductive health and rights. The Czech Republic is still far from reaching real equality between men ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, this report provides an overview of the existing gender-equality legislation and policies in the Czech Republic, focussing on the recent developments and achievements. It discusses gender equality in employment, reconciliation of work and family life, presence of women in decision-making positions, recent measures to fight violence against women, and sexual and reproductive health and rights. The Czech Republic is still far from reaching real equality between men and women, in spite of a quite satisfactory level of implementation of EU legislation. In practice and daily life, the country has still a long way to go.

Externe Autor

Kristina Koldinska

Gleichstellungspolitik in Deutschland

15-04-2015

Die vorliegende Studie wurde auf Ersuchen des Ausschusses „Rechte der Frau und Gleichstellung der Geschlechter“ („FEMM-Ausschuss“) erstellt und liefert einen Überblick zur Gleichstellungsgesetzgebung und zur Gleichstellungspolitik in Deutschland, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung jüngster Entwicklungen und Errungenschaften. In der Studie wird auf die Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern bei der Entscheidungsfindung, der Beschäftigung, hinsichtlich der Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Privatleben, im ...

Die vorliegende Studie wurde auf Ersuchen des Ausschusses „Rechte der Frau und Gleichstellung der Geschlechter“ („FEMM-Ausschuss“) erstellt und liefert einen Überblick zur Gleichstellungsgesetzgebung und zur Gleichstellungspolitik in Deutschland, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung jüngster Entwicklungen und Errungenschaften. In der Studie wird auf die Gleichstellung von Frauen und Männern bei der Entscheidungsfindung, der Beschäftigung, hinsichtlich der Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Privatleben, im Hinblick auf Strategien zur Bekämpfung von Gewalt gegen Frauen sowie hinsichtlich der sexuellen und reproduktiven Gesundheit und der damit einhergehenden Rechte eingegangen. Deutschland hat gewisse Fortschritte bei der Gleichstellung der Geschlechter erzielt, insbesondere im Bereich der Beschäftigung. Das Unionsrecht hat als wesentliche Triebfeder für rechtliche Verbesserungen in den Bereichen Gleichbehandlung und Antidiskriminierung gewirkt.

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