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Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation

24-07-2019

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can ...

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can be modified or erased where necessary to comply with legal requirements, blockchains, however, render the unilateral modification of data purposefully onerous in order to ensure data integrity and to increase trust in the network.

Externe Autor

This study was written by Dr Michèle Finck

Politische Maßnahmen der EU im Interesse der Bürger: Der digitale Wandel

28-06-2019

Durch die digitale Revolution verändert sich die uns vertraute Welt in beispielloser Geschwindigkeit. Durch digitale Technologien hat sich zudem die Art verändert, wie Unternehmen Geschäfte machen und wie wir Kontakte knüpfen, Informationen austauschen oder mit öffentlichen Stellen und Privatunternehmen interagieren. Die Unternehmen und Bürger in Europa brauchen daher einerseits einen geeigneten politischen Rahmen und andererseits die nötigen Kompetenzen und die nötige Infrastruktur, um das enorme ...

Durch die digitale Revolution verändert sich die uns vertraute Welt in beispielloser Geschwindigkeit. Durch digitale Technologien hat sich zudem die Art verändert, wie Unternehmen Geschäfte machen und wie wir Kontakte knüpfen, Informationen austauschen oder mit öffentlichen Stellen und Privatunternehmen interagieren. Die Unternehmen und Bürger in Europa brauchen daher einerseits einen geeigneten politischen Rahmen und andererseits die nötigen Kompetenzen und die nötige Infrastruktur, um das enorme Potenzial der digitalen Wirtschaft ausschöpfen zu können und den digitalen Wandel zu einer Erfolgsgeschichte zu machen. Die Europäische Union spielt bei der Gestaltung der digitalen Wirtschaft mit politikübergreifenden Initiativen eine aktive Rolle. Diese Initiativen reichen von der Förderung von Investitionen über die Reform von EU-Rechtsvorschriften bis hin zu nicht legislativen Maßnahmen für eine bessere Koordinierung zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten und dem Austausch bewährter Verfahren. In der Wahlperiode 2014–2019 gab es eine Reihe von Initiativen in den Bereichen Digitalisierung der Industrie und der öffentlichen Verwaltung, Investitionen in digitale Infrastrukturen und Dienste, Forschungsprogramme, Cybersicherheit, elektronischer Handel, Urheberrecht und Datenschutzvorschriften. Die EU-Bürger sind sich mehr und mehr bewusst, dass digitale Technologien eine wichtige Rolle in ihrem täglichen Leben spielen. In einer Umfrage aus dem Jahr 2017 erklärten zwei Drittel der EU-Bürger, dass diese Technologien positive Auswirkungen auf die Gesellschaft, die Wirtschaft und ihr eigenes Leben haben. Dadurch stellen sich jedoch auch neue Herausforderungen. Die Mehrheit der Befragten war der Ansicht, dass die EU, die Behörden der Mitgliedstaaten und die Unternehmen Maßnahmen ergreifen müssen, um den Auswirkungen dieser Technologien Rechnung zu tragen. Die Europäische Union will den digitalen Wandel in den kommenden Jahren stärker unterstützen, wie der jüngste Vorschlag für das Programm „Digitales Europa“ (für den Zeitraum 2021–2027) zeigt. Dabei handelt es sich um das erste Förderprogramm, das allein der Unterstützung des digitalen Wandels in der EU gewidmet ist. Zweifellos werden vonseiten der EU weitere Maßnahmen benötigt, insbesondere zur Erhöhung der Investitionen in Infrastruktur, zur Förderung der Innovation, zur Unterstützung der „Digital Champions“ und zur Förderung der Digitalisierung in Unternehmen. Ebenso sollen die vorhandene digitale Kluft verringert und noch bestehende Hindernisse auf dem digitalen Binnenmarkt abgebaut werden, und es soll für einen angemessenen Rechtsrahmen in den Bereichen Hochleistungsrechentechnik und Daten, künstliche Intelligenz und Cybersicherheit gesorgt werden. Das Europäische Parlament ist als Legislativorgan stark an der Gestaltung des politischen Rahmens beteiligt, mit dem dazu beigetragen wird, dass Bürger und Unternehmen das Potenzial der digitalen Technologien voll ausschöpfen können. Dies ist die aktualisierte Fassung eines Briefings, das vor der Europawahl 2019 veröffentlicht wurde.

EU fertilising products

26-06-2019

Fertilising products are used to improve plant growth, mainly in agriculture, enabling higher crop yields. However, they are associated with some challenges as regards security of supply, the environment and health. Although the 2003 Fertilisers Regulation, which aimed at ensuring an internal market in fertilisers, has been effective, it mainly addresses mineral fertilisers and deters the introduction of new types of fertilisers. In March 2016, the Commission put forward a legislative proposal on ...

Fertilising products are used to improve plant growth, mainly in agriculture, enabling higher crop yields. However, they are associated with some challenges as regards security of supply, the environment and health. Although the 2003 Fertilisers Regulation, which aimed at ensuring an internal market in fertilisers, has been effective, it mainly addresses mineral fertilisers and deters the introduction of new types of fertilisers. In March 2016, the Commission put forward a legislative proposal on fertilising products, as announced in the circular economy action plan. The proposal modernises the conformity assessment and market surveillance in line with the ‘new legislative framework’ for product legislation, covers a wider range of fertilising products (including those manufactured from secondary raw materials), and sets limits for the presence of heavy metals and contaminants in fertilising products. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed on 5 June 2019. The regulation will apply in full from 16 July 2022. Fifth edition of a briefing originally drafted by Didier Bourguignon. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Key issues in the European Council

20-06-2019

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues ...

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues. It analyses nine policy areas, explaining the legal and political background and the main priorities and orientations defined by the European Council. It also assesses the results of European Council involvement to date and identifies future challenges in the various policy fields.

Copyright in the digital single market

14-06-2019

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim ...

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim remuneration for the online use of their publications (Article 15), and 2) the imposition of content monitoring measures on online platforms such as YouTube, which seeks to resolve the 'value gap' and help rights-holders to better monetise and control the distribution of their content online (Article 17). Furthermore, in addition to the mandatory exception for text and data mining for research purposes proposed by the Commission in its proposal, the co legislators agreed to enshrine in EU law another mandatory exception for general text and data mining (Article 4) in order to contribute to the development of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The European Parliament (in plenary) and the Council approved the compromise text in March 2019 and in April 2019 respectively. The directive was published on 15 May 2019 in the Official Journal of the European Union, and all Member States must transpose the new rules into their national law by June 2021. Fifth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Dienstleistungen der Fachabteilungen (Der IMCO-Ausschuss im Fokus)

14-06-2019

Policy Department A provides high-quality expertise, up-to-date analysis and independent research to the committees it supports: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO. This brochure focuses on the Policy Department services for the IMCO Committee.

Policy Department A provides high-quality expertise, up-to-date analysis and independent research to the committees it supports: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO. This brochure focuses on the Policy Department services for the IMCO Committee.

European Council conclusions - A rolling check-list of commitments to date

14-06-2019

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of ...

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of its meetings. This overview of European Council conclusions is a new, updated and more comprehensive edition of the Rolling Check-List, which has been published regularly by the European Council Oversight Unit since 2014. It distinguishes between four types of European Council conclusions (commitments, reviews, endorsements and statements) and indicates the follow-up given to calls for action made by EU leaders. It also offers an introductory analysis of each policy area, highlighting the background to the main orientations given by the European Council, as well as the follow-up to them and the future challenges.

Cost of non-Europe in robotics and artificial intelligence

12-06-2019

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research ...

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research and development activity by producers and increase the speed of uptake of these two new emerging technologies by consumers, resulting in a possible positive impact in terms of GDP. Research suggests that, by 2030, EU GDP could be 0.04 % higher than it would otherwise be under the current regulatory framework.

Externe Autor

This study has been written by Bob Martens and Jorren Garrez of DLA Piper UK LLP and Cambridge Econometrics at the request of the European Added Value Unit within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the European Parliament.

Identifying Optimal Policy Making and Legislation

15-05-2019

This Briefing forms part of a programme of research commissioned by the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee of the European Parliament (‘the IMCO Committee’). The research programme has the aim of updating the study undertaken for the IMCO Committee in 2014 on the “Contribution of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection to Growth”. The overall aim is to provide background information and advice for IMCO Committee members on the benefits of legislation established in the field ...

This Briefing forms part of a programme of research commissioned by the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee of the European Parliament (‘the IMCO Committee’). The research programme has the aim of updating the study undertaken for the IMCO Committee in 2014 on the “Contribution of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection to Growth”. The overall aim is to provide background information and advice for IMCO Committee members on the benefits of legislation established in the field of internal market and consumer protection and to reflect on priority measures and actions to be undertaken in this field. A workshop was held in Brussels on 10th July 2018, at which progress on this programme of research was presented and discussed. This Briefing focusses on tools for use in the identification of optimal policy making and their application in the area of the internal market and consumer protection. It uses the smart Single Market regulation concept – developed in earlier research for the IMCO Committee - to present the tools for optimal policy making and to assess the development of policy for the internal market and consumer protection. First, some context is provided with a discussion of the Europe 2020 targets, the “Contribution to growth” report and the Juncker Plan. Second, the smart Single Market regulation concept is introduced and finally policy developments and legislation for the internal market and consumer protection are discussed with recommendations for improvements to the policy-making process.

Externe Autor

Prof. Dr. Sion Jones

Workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”

15-05-2019

This report summarises the discussion that took place at the workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”. The Union Customs Code is a key element of the ongoing actions to modernise EU customs. With the aim of discussing the main challenges related to this topic and the recent proposal of the European Commission to postpone the deadline of 2020, the workshop was hosted by Ms Virginie Rozière, MEP. This document was prepared ...

This report summarises the discussion that took place at the workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”. The Union Customs Code is a key element of the ongoing actions to modernise EU customs. With the aim of discussing the main challenges related to this topic and the recent proposal of the European Commission to postpone the deadline of 2020, the workshop was hosted by Ms Virginie Rozière, MEP. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

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