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Ημερομηνία

Η Κοινή Γεωργική Πολιτική (ΚΓΠ) και η Συνθήκη

01-04-2018

Μετά την έναρξη ισχύος της Συνθήκης της Ρώμης, οι γεωργικές πολιτικές των κρατών μελών αντικαταστάθηκαν από μηχανισμούς παρέμβασης σε κοινοτικό επίπεδο. Τα θεμέλια της κοινής γεωργικής πολιτικής έχουν παραμείνει απαράλλαχτα από τον καιρό της Συνθήκης της Ρώμης, μόνο οι κανόνες που διέπουν τη διαδικασία λήψης αποφάσεων έχουν αλλάξει. Η Συνθήκη της Λισαβόνας έχει αναγνωρίσει τη συναπόφαση ως «συνήθη νομοθετική διαδικασία» της κοινής γεωργικής πολιτικής (ΚΓΠ) σε αντικατάσταση της διαδικασίας διαβούλευσης ...

Μετά την έναρξη ισχύος της Συνθήκης της Ρώμης, οι γεωργικές πολιτικές των κρατών μελών αντικαταστάθηκαν από μηχανισμούς παρέμβασης σε κοινοτικό επίπεδο. Τα θεμέλια της κοινής γεωργικής πολιτικής έχουν παραμείνει απαράλλαχτα από τον καιρό της Συνθήκης της Ρώμης, μόνο οι κανόνες που διέπουν τη διαδικασία λήψης αποφάσεων έχουν αλλάξει. Η Συνθήκη της Λισαβόνας έχει αναγνωρίσει τη συναπόφαση ως «συνήθη νομοθετική διαδικασία» της κοινής γεωργικής πολιτικής (ΚΓΠ) σε αντικατάσταση της διαδικασίας διαβούλευσης.

Οι αρμοδιότητες του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης

01-03-2018

Το παρόν δελτίο έχει ως αντικείμενο τις αρμοδιότητες του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης (ΔΕΕ), το οποίο απαρτίζεται από δύο δικαιοδοτικά σώματα, το Δικαστήριο καθεαυτό και το Γενικό Δικαστήριο, και το οποίο παρέχει τη δυνατότητα άσκησης διαφόρων προσφυγών, όπως ορίζονται στο άρθρο 19 της ΣΕΕ, στα άρθρα 251-281 της ΣΛΕΕ, στο άρθρο 136 της Συνθήκης Ευρατόμ και στο Πρωτόκολλο αριθ. 3 περί του Οργανισμού του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης το οποίο προσαρτάται στις Συνθήκες.

Το παρόν δελτίο έχει ως αντικείμενο τις αρμοδιότητες του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης (ΔΕΕ), το οποίο απαρτίζεται από δύο δικαιοδοτικά σώματα, το Δικαστήριο καθεαυτό και το Γενικό Δικαστήριο, και το οποίο παρέχει τη δυνατότητα άσκησης διαφόρων προσφυγών, όπως ορίζονται στο άρθρο 19 της ΣΕΕ, στα άρθρα 251-281 της ΣΛΕΕ, στο άρθρο 136 της Συνθήκης Ευρατόμ και στο Πρωτόκολλο αριθ. 3 περί του Οργανισμού του Δικαστηρίου της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης το οποίο προσαρτάται στις Συνθήκες.

Hong Kong's Legislative Council and the rule of law

10-11-2017

Hong Kong 'localists' won six seats in the 2016 Legislative Council elections. Calling for greater autonomy or self-determination for Hong Kong, or even its independence from mainland China, they have challenged the fragile balance of power under the city's 1997 'one country, two systems' regime. The attempts of the now ousted members-elect to cross Beijing's bottom line has prompted mainland China to tighten its grip on the city's executive, legislature and judiciary, adding to concerns over creeping ...

Hong Kong 'localists' won six seats in the 2016 Legislative Council elections. Calling for greater autonomy or self-determination for Hong Kong, or even its independence from mainland China, they have challenged the fragile balance of power under the city's 1997 'one country, two systems' regime. The attempts of the now ousted members-elect to cross Beijing's bottom line has prompted mainland China to tighten its grip on the city's executive, legislature and judiciary, adding to concerns over creeping erosion of the rights and freedoms guaranteed by Hong Kong's Basic Law.

Precautionary recapitalisations: time for a review

29-08-2017

This note provides a summary of 4 expert papers assessing the role of precautionary recapitalisation in the Banking Union.

This note provides a summary of 4 expert papers assessing the role of precautionary recapitalisation in the Banking Union.

Preliminary reference procedure

06-07-2017

The preliminary reference procedure, provided for in Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), is an institutionalised mechanism of dialogue between the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and national courts. This dialogue serves three principal purposes. First of all, to provide national courts with assistance on questions regarding the interpretation of EU law. Secondly, to contribute to a uniform application of EU law across the Union. Thirdly, to create ...

The preliminary reference procedure, provided for in Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), is an institutionalised mechanism of dialogue between the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and national courts. This dialogue serves three principal purposes. First of all, to provide national courts with assistance on questions regarding the interpretation of EU law. Secondly, to contribute to a uniform application of EU law across the Union. Thirdly, to create an additional mechanism – on top of the action for annulment of an EU act (set out in Article 263 TFEU) – for an ex post verification of the conformity of acts of the EU institutions with primary EU law (the Treaties and general principles of EU law). The scope of the preliminary reference procedure covers the entire body of EU law with the exclusion of acts under common foreign and security policy and certain limitations in the area of judicial and police cooperation in criminal matters. EU law does not have a doctrine of binding precedent such as that entertained in common law countries. Therefore, a judgment of the CJEU in a preliminary reference procedure is, strictly speaking, binding only on the national court that submitted the question, as well as on other courts in the same domestic procedure. Nonetheless, CJEU judgments interpreting EU law enjoy an authority similar to those of national supreme courts in civil law countries – national courts interpreting EU law should take them into account. Furthermore, if the CJEU decides that an act of the EU institutions is illegal, no national court may find to the contrary and consider that act legal. The decision whether to submit a preliminary reference to the CJEU rests with the national court concerned. However, if it is a court of last instance and a question of interpretation of EU law or the validity of an act of the EU institutions is necessary to decide a question before it, that court must submit a question. If it refrains from doing so, the Member State concerned may be held liable for a breach of EU law. This briefing is one in a series aimed at explaining the activities of the CJEU.

CJEU Opinion on the EU-Singapore Agreement

29-05-2017

In 2015, the European Commission requested the opinion of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) on the competence for conclusion of the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA). The CJEU issued its opinion on 16 May 2017, holding that the EUSFTA covers shared competences with respect to: (i) non-direct foreign investment, (ii) investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS), and (iii) state-to-state dispute settlement relating to provisions regarding portfolio investment and ISDS. In its current form, ...

In 2015, the European Commission requested the opinion of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) on the competence for conclusion of the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA). The CJEU issued its opinion on 16 May 2017, holding that the EUSFTA covers shared competences with respect to: (i) non-direct foreign investment, (ii) investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS), and (iii) state-to-state dispute settlement relating to provisions regarding portfolio investment and ISDS. In its current form, therefore, the agreement would need to be concluded as a ‘mixed agreement’.

Enhancement of social legislation in road transport I (Driving time)

15-05-2017

Regulation 561/2006 lays down rules applicable to driving times, breaks and rest periods for drivers engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers by road. Various resources show that presently there are several challenges linked with the implementation of the regulation. These include diverging enforcement practice applied across the different EU Member States, clarity of the text of the regulation, broad discretion of the Member States and various exemptions allowed by the regulation. These challenges ...

Regulation 561/2006 lays down rules applicable to driving times, breaks and rest periods for drivers engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers by road. Various resources show that presently there are several challenges linked with the implementation of the regulation. These include diverging enforcement practice applied across the different EU Member States, clarity of the text of the regulation, broad discretion of the Member States and various exemptions allowed by the regulation. These challenges influence harmonisation of road transport, as well as legal certainty, and they limit the fulfilment of the regulation's goal. The European Parliament has called on the European Commission to update Regulation 561/2006 to respond to these challenges. Similarly, the European Economic and Social Committee has recommended that the existing legislation is updated. Furthermore, representatives of various stakeholder groups have voiced requests to update this piece of EU legislation. Finally, the European Commission itself has expressed willingness to revise the regulation as part of the enhancement of the social legislation in road transport. It is expected that the European Commission will submit this proposal in the second quarter of 2017.

The EU as a community of law: Overview of the role of law in the Union

24-03-2017

The term 'community of law' was popularised by Walter Hallstein in the 1960s. It emphasises that the Community, and now the European Union, is founded on the 'rule of law' principle, and underscores the role of law in the European project, which has been described by political scientists precisely as 'integration through law'. Modern definitions of the 'rule of law' include such elements as the limitation of the powers of public officials by the law, the fact that laws are public, general and apply ...

The term 'community of law' was popularised by Walter Hallstein in the 1960s. It emphasises that the Community, and now the European Union, is founded on the 'rule of law' principle, and underscores the role of law in the European project, which has been described by political scientists precisely as 'integration through law'. Modern definitions of the 'rule of law' include such elements as the limitation of the powers of public officials by the law, the fact that laws are public, general and apply equally, and finally the presence of an independent, impartial and neutral judiciary. The building blocks of the EU as a community of law have been laid, from the 1950s onwards, in the case law of the Court of Justice. The ECJ's case law proclaiming numerous general principles of Community law was inspired by the common legal traditions of the Member States. Over time, many such principles became enshrined in the written sources of EU law, notably the Charter of Fundamental Rights and the Treaties. The 'life cycle' of EU law – including its creation, application, interpretation and enforcement – involves various institutional actors. Key roles in the creation of EU law are played by the Commission, Parliament and Council, while the application of EU law on a day-to-day basis is predominantly the task of national courts. Supreme authority to interpret EU law, and to review the compatibility of legislation with the treaties is vested in the ECJ. Individuals – natural and legal persons – enjoy the status of subjects of EU law, and can seek judicial enforcement of their rights based on EU law before national courts. In certain situations they can also seek legal protection directly from the EU courts – the General Court and the Court of Justice.

The role of constitutional courts in multi-level governance - European Union: The Court of Justice of the European Union

30-11-2016

This study will analyse the role and competences assigned to the Court of Justice of the European Union by the founding Treaties, the Statute and the Rules of Procedure. Particular attention will be paid to the functions carried out by the Court in resolving disputes between institutions, between the Member States and between the Members States and the institutions in a multi-level governance system. The objective is to facilitate comparison with the competences granted to the Constitutional Courts ...

This study will analyse the role and competences assigned to the Court of Justice of the European Union by the founding Treaties, the Statute and the Rules of Procedure. Particular attention will be paid to the functions carried out by the Court in resolving disputes between institutions, between the Member States and between the Members States and the institutions in a multi-level governance system. The objective is to facilitate comparison with the competences granted to the Constitutional Courts of the Member States. This study was written by Prof Dr Vincenzo Salvatore of the University of Insubria, Varese (Italy), at the request of the Comparative Law Library Unit of the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (DG EPRS) of the General Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Is CETA a mixed agreement?

01-07-2016

The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada is currently being translated into the EU’s official languages. Once the translations are available, the European Commission can propose that the Council sign and conclude the agreement on behalf of the European Union. It is not yet decided whether the agreement in its entirety would fall under the exclusive competence of the European Union or would also touch upon Member States' competences. In the latter case, ratification by the ...

The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada is currently being translated into the EU’s official languages. Once the translations are available, the European Commission can propose that the Council sign and conclude the agreement on behalf of the European Union. It is not yet decided whether the agreement in its entirety would fall under the exclusive competence of the European Union or would also touch upon Member States' competences. In the latter case, ratification by the Member States would also be necessary for the agreement to come into force. The Commission’s proposal is expected on 5 July 2016. If the Commission presents a proposal for an ‘EU-only’ agreement, the Council would need unanimity to change this.

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