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Posted on 19-04-2018

History of economic and monetary union

01-02-2018

Economic and monetary union (EMU) is the result of progressive economic integration in the EU. It is an expansion of the EU single market, with common product regulations and free movement of goods, capital, labour and services. A common currency, the euro, has been introduced in the eurozone, which currently comprises 19 EU Member States. All 28 EU Member States — with the exception of the UK and Denmark — must adopt the euro after a minimum of two years’ participation in ERM II and fulfilment of ...

Economic and monetary union (EMU) is the result of progressive economic integration in the EU. It is an expansion of the EU single market, with common product regulations and free movement of goods, capital, labour and services. A common currency, the euro, has been introduced in the eurozone, which currently comprises 19 EU Member States. All 28 EU Member States — with the exception of the UK and Denmark — must adopt the euro after a minimum of two years’ participation in ERM II and fulfilment of the convergence criteria. A single monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank (ECB) and is complemented by harmonised fiscal and coordinated economic policies. Within EMU there is no single institution responsible for economic policy. Instead, responsibility is divided between Member States and various EU institutions.

European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS)

01-02-2018

The European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS) is a multi-layered system of micro- and macro-prudential authorities, which includes the European Systemic Risk Board, the three European Supervisory Authorities and the national supervisors. The ESFS aims at ensuring consistent and coherent financial supervision in the EU. This supervisory system is undergoing changes further to the introduction of the Banking Union and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU.

The European System of Financial Supervision (ESFS) is a multi-layered system of micro- and macro-prudential authorities, which includes the European Systemic Risk Board, the three European Supervisory Authorities and the national supervisors. The ESFS aims at ensuring consistent and coherent financial supervision in the EU. This supervisory system is undergoing changes further to the introduction of the Banking Union and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU.

Posted on 26-03-2018

The European Parliament: organisation and operation

01-02-2018

The organisation and operation of the European Parliament are governed by its Rules of Procedure. The political bodies, committees, delegations and political groups guide Parliament’s activities.

The organisation and operation of the European Parliament are governed by its Rules of Procedure. The political bodies, committees, delegations and political groups guide Parliament’s activities.

The European Parliament: electoral procedures

01-02-2018

The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national provisions which vary from one state to another. The common rules lay down the principle of proportional representation and certain incompatibilities with a mandate as a Member of the European Parliament. Many other important matters, such as the exact electoral system used and the number of constituencies, are governed by national laws. ...

The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national provisions which vary from one state to another. The common rules lay down the principle of proportional representation and certain incompatibilities with a mandate as a Member of the European Parliament. Many other important matters, such as the exact electoral system used and the number of constituencies, are governed by national laws.

The European Investment Bank

01-02-2018

The European Investment Bank (EIB) furthers the objectives of the European Union by providing long-term project funding, guarantees and advice. It supports projects both within and outside the EU. Its shareholders are the Member States of the EU. The EIB is the majority shareholder in the European Investment Fund (EIF) and, together with the latter, makes up the EIB Group. Within the Investment Plan for Europe proposed by the Commission, the EIB Group is part of a broader strategy aimed at overcoming ...

The European Investment Bank (EIB) furthers the objectives of the European Union by providing long-term project funding, guarantees and advice. It supports projects both within and outside the EU. Its shareholders are the Member States of the EU. The EIB is the majority shareholder in the European Investment Fund (EIF) and, together with the latter, makes up the EIB Group. Within the Investment Plan for Europe proposed by the Commission, the EIB Group is part of a broader strategy aimed at overcoming the large investment gap by relieving investors of some of the risk inherent in projects.

Three Eastern Partnership neighbours in the South Caucasus

01-02-2018

The EU’s Eastern Partnership policy, inaugurated in 2009, covers six post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It was created to support political, social and economic reform efforts in these countries with the aim of increasing democratisation and good governance, energy security, environmental protection, and economic and social development. All the members (except Belarus whose membership is suspended) are part of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly.

The EU’s Eastern Partnership policy, inaugurated in 2009, covers six post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It was created to support political, social and economic reform efforts in these countries with the aim of increasing democratisation and good governance, energy security, environmental protection, and economic and social development. All the members (except Belarus whose membership is suspended) are part of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly.

Russia

01-02-2018

EU-Russia relations have been strained since 2014 because of Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea, support for rebel groups in eastern Ukraine, policies in the neighbourhood and negative internal developments. Russia has adopted assertive international positions and tensions have worsened over Russian intervention in Syria. The EU has regularly renewed sanctions against Russia since 2014. The EU and Russia remain closely interdependent and the EU applies a ‘selective engagement’ approach.

EU-Russia relations have been strained since 2014 because of Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea, support for rebel groups in eastern Ukraine, policies in the neighbourhood and negative internal developments. Russia has adopted assertive international positions and tensions have worsened over Russian intervention in Syria. The EU has regularly renewed sanctions against Russia since 2014. The EU and Russia remain closely interdependent and the EU applies a ‘selective engagement’ approach.

Free movement of capital

01-02-2018

The free movement of capital is not only the most recent of all Treaty freedoms, but — because of its unique third-country dimension — also the broadest. The liberalisation of capital flows progressed gradually. Since the Maastricht Treaty, all restrictions on capital movements and payments have been removed, both between Member States and with third countries. The principle has direct effect, i.e. it requires no further legislation at either EU or Member State level.

The free movement of capital is not only the most recent of all Treaty freedoms, but — because of its unique third-country dimension — also the broadest. The liberalisation of capital flows progressed gradually. Since the Maastricht Treaty, all restrictions on capital movements and payments have been removed, both between Member States and with third countries. The principle has direct effect, i.e. it requires no further legislation at either EU or Member State level.

Intellectual, industrial and commercial property

01-02-2018

Intellectual property includes all exclusive rights to intellectual creations. It encompasses two types of rights: industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs and models and designations of origin, and copyright, which includes artistic and literary property. Since the entry into force of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in 2009, the EU has had explicit competence for intellectual property rights (Article 118).

Intellectual property includes all exclusive rights to intellectual creations. It encompasses two types of rights: industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs and models and designations of origin, and copyright, which includes artistic and literary property. Since the entry into force of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in 2009, the EU has had explicit competence for intellectual property rights (Article 118).

Company law

01-02-2018

European company law is partially codified in Directive (EU) 2017/1132 relating to certain aspects, and Member States continue to operate separate company acts, which are amended from time to time to comply with EU directives and regulations. The ongoing efforts for establishing a modern and efficient company law and corporate governance framework for European undertakings, investors and employees aim to improve the business environment in the EU.

European company law is partially codified in Directive (EU) 2017/1132 relating to certain aspects, and Member States continue to operate separate company acts, which are amended from time to time to comply with EU directives and regulations. The ongoing efforts for establishing a modern and efficient company law and corporate governance framework for European undertakings, investors and employees aim to improve the business environment in the EU.

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