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Posted on 09-08-2017

Mapping the Representation of Women and Men in Legal Professions Across the EU

02-08-2017

Upon request by the Committee on Legal Affairs, this study analysis is mapping across all 28 EU Member States the representation of women and men in legal professions. The aim of this study is to identify areas where women or men are currently underrepresented and to analyse the underlying reasons and constraints.

Upon request by the Committee on Legal Affairs, this study analysis is mapping across all 28 EU Member States the representation of women and men in legal professions. The aim of this study is to identify areas where women or men are currently underrepresented and to analyse the underlying reasons and constraints.

External author

Yvonne Galligan, Renate Haupfleisch, Lisa Irvine, Katja Korolkova, Monika Natter, Ulrike Schultz, Sally Wheeler

Discrimination and access to employment for female workers with disabilities

22-06-2017

The aim of this study is to exploit existing data and information on the access of women with disabilities to the labour market, in order to assess how multiple discrimination – gender and disability – affects the employment opportunities of these women. In addition, the study analyses whether and how the EU legislative and national policy frameworks address the multiple discrimination faced by women with disabilities. This combines a gender mainstreaming approach, such as the internalisation of ...

The aim of this study is to exploit existing data and information on the access of women with disabilities to the labour market, in order to assess how multiple discrimination – gender and disability – affects the employment opportunities of these women. In addition, the study analyses whether and how the EU legislative and national policy frameworks address the multiple discrimination faced by women with disabilities. This combines a gender mainstreaming approach, such as the internalisation of a gender perspective in all disability policies and legislation, with specific measures targeted to women with disabilities. The study also includes clear indications on implementation and monitoring mechanisms. The analysis is based on available European comparative data and in-depth analysis of seven European Member States.

External author

Istituto per la ricerca sociale: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Nicola Orlando, Daniela Loi, Serena Marianna Drufuca, Flavia Pesce ; Country experts: Denmark: Bent Greve ; France: Anne Eydoux ; Germany: Flavia Pesce ; Italy: Flavia Pesce ; Poland: Malgorzata Grabarek and Izabela Przybysz ; Spain: Elvira González Gago and Nuria Guilló Rodríguez

Legal Implications of Brexit: Customs Union, Internal Market Acquis for Goods and Services, Consumer Protection Law, Public Procurement

09-08-2017

This in-depth analysis addresses the implications of several scenarios of the UK withdrawing from the EU in relation to the EU Customs Union, the Internal Market law for Goods and Services, and on Consumer Protection law, identifying the main cross-cutting challenges that have to be addressed irrespective of the policy choices that will be made in due course. The analysis takes the fully-fledged EU membership as a point of departure and compares this baseline scenario to a membership of the UK in ...

This in-depth analysis addresses the implications of several scenarios of the UK withdrawing from the EU in relation to the EU Customs Union, the Internal Market law for Goods and Services, and on Consumer Protection law, identifying the main cross-cutting challenges that have to be addressed irrespective of the policy choices that will be made in due course. The analysis takes the fully-fledged EU membership as a point of departure and compares this baseline scenario to a membership of the UK in the European Economic Area (EEA), the application of tailor-made arrangements, as well as the fall-back scenario, in which the mutual relationship is governed by WTO law. Following an analysis of the EU legal framework defining the withdrawal of a Member State from the EU the study develops an analytical framework that allows for the identification of the legal impact of different Brexit scenarios on policy fields falling within the ambit of the IMCO Committee. In this context, the general impact of the EEA model, the tailor-made model and the WTO model on key pieces of the currently existing acquis communautaire in these policy areas are highlighted.

External author

Fabian AMTENBRINK, Menelaos MARKAKIS and René REPASI Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam / European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance (EURO-CEFG) Erasmus University Rotterdam

Posted on 31-07-2017

Member States' capacity to fight tax crimes

31-07-2017

National provisions against tax avoidance and tax evasion, and money laundering laws and their enforcement vary widely from one Member State to the next. This study examines the administrative capabilities of EU Member States when it comes to tackling these challenges and reviews the specific measures they have taken in response to the publication of the Panama Papers. The main objectives are to evaluate whether the legal framework and the institutional configurations in place are adequate, to pinpoint ...

National provisions against tax avoidance and tax evasion, and money laundering laws and their enforcement vary widely from one Member State to the next. This study examines the administrative capabilities of EU Member States when it comes to tackling these challenges and reviews the specific measures they have taken in response to the publication of the Panama Papers. The main objectives are to evaluate whether the legal framework and the institutional configurations in place are adequate, to pinpoint the deficiencies and to suggest ways in which they could be addressed.

Posted on 27-07-2017

Competition Policy and an Internal Energy Market

18-07-2017

This study identifies selected important competition-related issues in the internal energy market. It discusses the role of competition law with respect to the following issues: State aid, congestion management, capacity remuneration mechanisms, balancing markets, effective competition between suppliers, integration of new players in the market, and energy poverty. To tackle these present and possible upcoming issues, the study provides indications regarding the current and future need for applying ...

This study identifies selected important competition-related issues in the internal energy market. It discusses the role of competition law with respect to the following issues: State aid, congestion management, capacity remuneration mechanisms, balancing markets, effective competition between suppliers, integration of new players in the market, and energy poverty. To tackle these present and possible upcoming issues, the study provides indications regarding the current and future need for applying instruments of competition law as well as other types of instruments. The study was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee.

External author

Robert Haffner, Olga Batura, Karolina Ryszka, Kimberley van den Bergen, Ecorys Netherlands

Posted on 20-07-2017

In Pursuit of an International Investment Court. Recently Negotiated Investment Chapters in EU Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements in Comparative Perspective

04-07-2017

The study compares the revised and signed text of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVFTA) and the EU Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) in respect of important procedural aspects relating to investor State dispute settlement. The findings are juxtaposed to the procedural rules governing the preliminary reference procedure and direct action (action for annulment) before the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as the individual ...

The study compares the revised and signed text of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVFTA) and the EU Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) in respect of important procedural aspects relating to investor State dispute settlement. The findings are juxtaposed to the procedural rules governing the preliminary reference procedure and direct action (action for annulment) before the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as the individual application before the European Court of Human Rights. In doing so, it provides a tool and manual to evaluate the EU’s todays and future progress in reforming the international investment law regime. By outlining key features of the procedural frameworks governing two international courts, some ‘tried and tested’ concepts as source of inspiration for the possible design of a ‘multilateral investment court’ might be found.

External author

Prof. Dr. Steffen HINDELANG, LL.M., Department of Law, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and Ass. iur. Teoman M. HAGEMEYER, Dipl. iur. oec., Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Law, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

Liability in Subcontracting Chains: National Rules and the Need for a European Framework

10-07-2017

This study was commissioned upon request by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, upon request of the Committee on Legal Affairs. It provides a comprehensive update on recent developments on a European and national level concerning liability in subcontracting chains and the protection of workers involved in subcontracting chains. A strong focus lies on the existing European legal framework and recent developments in that regard. By assessing ...

This study was commissioned upon request by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, upon request of the Committee on Legal Affairs. It provides a comprehensive update on recent developments on a European and national level concerning liability in subcontracting chains and the protection of workers involved in subcontracting chains. A strong focus lies on the existing European legal framework and recent developments in that regard. By assessing the country reports and the findings on a European level, the study closes with “Policy Recommendations” and answers the question from its authors view, if the European Legislator should adopt (further) legislation.

External author

Alexander Heinen; Dr. Axel Müller; Bernd Kessler

Posted on 17-07-2017

La Coopération Structurée Permanente: Perspectives nationales et état d’avancement

17-07-2017

Un an après le Brexit, les Etats membres de l’Union européenne semblent sur le point de réveiller la ≪ belle au bois dormant ≫ de la défense européenne: la coopération structurée permanente, plus connue sous son acronyme anglais de PESCO. Ont-ils bien la même compréhension de l’objectif qu’il s’agit d’atteindre et les voies et moyens pour y parvenir, ou sont-ils seulement animés par la volonté de ne pas rester à la péripherie d’une sorte d’eurogroupe de défense en train de se constituer ? Quels sont ...

Un an après le Brexit, les Etats membres de l’Union européenne semblent sur le point de réveiller la ≪ belle au bois dormant ≫ de la défense européenne: la coopération structurée permanente, plus connue sous son acronyme anglais de PESCO. Ont-ils bien la même compréhension de l’objectif qu’il s’agit d’atteindre et les voies et moyens pour y parvenir, ou sont-ils seulement animés par la volonté de ne pas rester à la péripherie d’une sorte d’eurogroupe de défense en train de se constituer ? Quels sont, de façon péecise, les principaux points d’accord et de désaccord entre les différents groupes qui se dessinent au sein du Conseil européen ? Des débats ont-ils été passés sous silence, volontairement ou involontairement, et si oui lesquels ? Enfin, quels sont les scénarios souhaitables pour les mois et les années à venir ? Est-il encore temps de changer les choses ou bien les dés ont-ils déjà été lancés? La présente étude ambitionne de répondre à ces questions.

External author

Me. Frederic MAURO, M. Federico SANTOPINTO

Posted on 14-07-2017

Online and other distance sales of goods

14-07-2017

This study was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee for Internal Market and Consumer Protection as part of the Parliament’s general commitment to improving the quality of EU legislation, and in particular in undertaking to carry out impact assessments of its own substantial amendments when it considers it appropriate and necessary for the legislative process. The aim of this ex-ante impact assessment is to evaluate two substantial amendments being proposed to the Commission proposal for ...

This study was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee for Internal Market and Consumer Protection as part of the Parliament’s general commitment to improving the quality of EU legislation, and in particular in undertaking to carry out impact assessments of its own substantial amendments when it considers it appropriate and necessary for the legislative process. The aim of this ex-ante impact assessment is to evaluate two substantial amendments being proposed to the Commission proposal for a directive on certain aspects concerning contracts for the online and other distance sales of goods. The amendments would extend the scope of the proposed directive to any sale contract concluded between the consumer and the seller, and would repeal the Consumer Sales Directive. The findings of the study indicate that the harmonisation of rules across Member States and sales channels would reduce the fragmentation of the legal framework and enhance the clarity and transparency of applicable rules to the benefit of both consumers and businesses. Most importantly, one single regime for online and face-to-face transactions could contribute to increased consumers’ and traders’ awareness and confidence in purchasing/selling online and offline, domestically and across borders. There would be a general increase in consumer protection throughout the EU, with the exception of some Member States where consumers’ rights would be weakened. This could, however, translate into increased costs for businesses in relation to remedies provided to consumers. The importance of having a single regime for online and offline sales has been strongly supported by all stakeholders consulted for this study. Nonetheless, consumer and business organisations have different views with regard to the aspects of consumer protection under examination. Finding a balance between the interests of consumers and businesses remains, thus, crucial.

Research for REGI Committee - Integrated use of ESI funds to address social challenges

14-07-2017

The study aims to analyse the implementation of integrated approaches under the ESI Funds in addressing challenges related to social inclusion, including integration of migrants and refugees. Programme logic of intervention, combinations of thematic objectives, synergies with other EC policy instruments and the use of integrated tools are analysed for a set of programmes. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for the 2014-2020 and the next programming period.

The study aims to analyse the implementation of integrated approaches under the ESI Funds in addressing challenges related to social inclusion, including integration of migrants and refugees. Programme logic of intervention, combinations of thematic objectives, synergies with other EC policy instruments and the use of integrated tools are analysed for a set of programmes. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for the 2014-2020 and the next programming period.

External author

François LEVARLET, Nicola BRIGNANI, Andrea GRAMILLANO; Tamam Sarl: Armelle LEDAN PRADE; EureConsult: Thomas STUMM; Nordregio: Lisbeth GREVE HARBO

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