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Posted on 25-05-2016

Cross-border Placement of Children in the European Union

25-05-2016

This study, commissioned by the Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, explores the range and nature of problems linked to the cross-border placement of children and to the application of article 56 of the Brussels IIa Regulation. Based on an analysis of the practice in 12 Member States and European case law, it identifies a number of shortcomings in the current legislative framework. Looking ahead to the recast of Brussels IIa, the ...

This study, commissioned by the Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, explores the range and nature of problems linked to the cross-border placement of children and to the application of article 56 of the Brussels IIa Regulation. Based on an analysis of the practice in 12 Member States and European case law, it identifies a number of shortcomings in the current legislative framework. Looking ahead to the recast of Brussels IIa, the study sets out recommendations to remedy some of the weaknesses, such as clarifying the respective tasks of the Member States involved in cross-border placement cases and facilitating the recognition and enforcement of cross-border placement orders.

Posted on 24-05-2016

Social Economy

16-05-2016

This study assesses the important role the social economy plays in the EU. Priority policies identified to reach its full potential include: 1) digital transformation of social economy, 2) enabling EU cross-sectorial regulatory and financial frameworks, and 3) improving definitions and developing indicators - alternatives to GDP - to focus policies on EU added-value. This document has been commissioned by Policy Department A on behalf of European Parliament´s Committee on the Internal Market and ...

This study assesses the important role the social economy plays in the EU. Priority policies identified to reach its full potential include: 1) digital transformation of social economy, 2) enabling EU cross-sectorial regulatory and financial frameworks, and 3) improving definitions and developing indicators - alternatives to GDP - to focus policies on EU added-value. This document has been commissioned by Policy Department A on behalf of European Parliament´s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

External author

Quentin LIGER

The Role of the Financial Sector in Tax Planning

20-05-2016

This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the TAXE2 Special Committee of the European Parliament. The study reviews common principles behind financial sector practices that may feature in tax avoidance or evasion. Mechanisms include the exploitation of mismatches in international taxation and financial sophistication; and the exploitation of the qualification of corporate cash flows. The paper issues concrete recommendations with respect to international cooperation, and ...

This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the TAXE2 Special Committee of the European Parliament. The study reviews common principles behind financial sector practices that may feature in tax avoidance or evasion. Mechanisms include the exploitation of mismatches in international taxation and financial sophistication; and the exploitation of the qualification of corporate cash flows. The paper issues concrete recommendations with respect to international cooperation, and the completion of Banking Union.

External author

Karel Volckaert

Posted on 23-05-2016

Export Taxes and Other Restrictions on Raw Materials and their Limitation through Free Trade Agreements: Impact on Developing Countries

28-04-2016

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff ...

Export taxes and restrictions take various forms and their effects may not be limited to the countries that apply them. Developing countries use such export taxes and restrictions in pursuit of development policy objectives. The effects on third countries depend on the market power of the country applying them and the nature of the restriction or tax. Large developing and emerging economies are the main users of these types of instruments, which are often used to counter the distortions due to tariff escalation. Multilateral trade rules do not forbid the use of export taxes, but they do apply to export restrictions. The treatment of these instruments in Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) negotiated by the EU varies, even between the different Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The EU should be flexible when it comes to the treatment of these instruments in trade agreements involving LDCs and small developing countries. In some cases, the EU should consider renegotiating existing agreements to remove strict prohibitions that can hamper development.

External author

Maximiliano Mendez Parra (Overseas Development Institute), Samuel R. Schubert (Webster University) and Elina Brutschin (Webster University)

Workshop on "Bringing EU-Turkey Trade and Investment Relations Up to Date?"

19-05-2016

The case is made paper maintains that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, ...

The case is made paper maintains that the EU-Turkey CU of 1995 covering industrial goods should be modernised and modified to take into account the various and growing criticisms of the original CU. Furthermore, economic integration between the EU and Turkey should be strengthened by signing a complementary deep integration regional trade agreement (RTA) between the EU and Turkey, covering agriculture, SPS measures, services, government procurement, investment, and dispute settlement. For Turkey, the objective would be to achieve comprehensive liberalisation, while for the EU this is an ideal opportunity to harness the economic and political potential of deeper integration with Turkey, in line with its wider trade and investment policy.

External author

Kamala Dawar (University of Sussex, the UK) and Sübidey Togan (Center for International Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey)

Country Specific Recommendations for 2015 and 2016 - A Comparison and an Overview of Implementation

23-05-2016

This document prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit presents Country Specific Recommendations (CSRs) for 2015 and draft CSRs for 2016 as well as an assessment of implementation of CSRs for 2015.

This document prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit presents Country Specific Recommendations (CSRs) for 2015 and draft CSRs for 2016 as well as an assessment of implementation of CSRs for 2015.

Posted on 20-05-2016

TTIP and Jobs

15-04-2016

TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) could lead to substantial reallocation of jobs between and within industries, however the overall employment effects are uncertain .This Policy Department A study provides the Employment and Social Affairs Committee with an analytical review of literature and calculations of the potential employment impact of TTIP with a view to sectors affected. It provides a snapshot of EU and US trade and labour markets, compares methodologies and results ...

TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) could lead to substantial reallocation of jobs between and within industries, however the overall employment effects are uncertain .This Policy Department A study provides the Employment and Social Affairs Committee with an analytical review of literature and calculations of the potential employment impact of TTIP with a view to sectors affected. It provides a snapshot of EU and US trade and labour markets, compares methodologies and results of ex-ante assessments and also uses information from relevant ex-post evaluations of other trade agreements.

External author

Gabriel Felbermayr (Ludwig Maximilian's University Munich) and ifo Institute Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

Posted on 19-05-2016

Cross-Border Restitution Claims of Art Looted in Armed Conflicts and Wars and Alternatives to Court Litigations

19-05-2016

This study was commissioned and supervised by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee. Restitution of art looted during past and present armed conflicts is a major issue for our societies. Claiming restitution before courts – often in foreign States – has proven to be difficult. That is why parties turn more and more to dispute resolution means alternative to court litigation. This study examines the legal difficulties ...

This study was commissioned and supervised by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee. Restitution of art looted during past and present armed conflicts is a major issue for our societies. Claiming restitution before courts – often in foreign States – has proven to be difficult. That is why parties turn more and more to dispute resolution means alternative to court litigation. This study examines the legal difficulties related to art restitution claims and proposes policy recommendations for States and EU institutions to overcome these difficulties and seek to achieve just and fair solutions.

External author

Marc-André RENOLD

Implementation of the Ambient Air Quality Directive

15-03-2016

The Ambient Air Quality Directive sets thresholds for certain pollutants in ambient air to protect human health and the environment. Thresholds for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are exceeded in several Member States. This study analyses air pollution hotspots in Europe and infringement procedures launched by the European Commission against Member States in non-compliance. In addition, four hotspots are studied in more detail with respect to pollutant levels and approaches to air quality ...

The Ambient Air Quality Directive sets thresholds for certain pollutants in ambient air to protect human health and the environment. Thresholds for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are exceeded in several Member States. This study analyses air pollution hotspots in Europe and infringement procedures launched by the European Commission against Member States in non-compliance. In addition, four hotspots are studied in more detail with respect to pollutant levels and approaches to air quality improvement. This study is provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety Committee.

External author

Christian Nagl, Jürgen Schneider and Pia Thielen

Posted on 18-05-2016

European Research Area

18-05-2016

This Cost of Non-Europe study examines the state of implementation of the current policy framework for the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA). The study combines a backward-looking (ex-post) and a forward-looking (ex-ante) evaluation. While the ex-post evaluation looks at the implementation of the ERA policy framework, the ex-ante assessment focuses on potential costs and benefits of possible further policy action. In doing so, it identifies shortcomings in the ERA policy framework and ...

This Cost of Non-Europe study examines the state of implementation of the current policy framework for the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA). The study combines a backward-looking (ex-post) and a forward-looking (ex-ante) evaluation. While the ex-post evaluation looks at the implementation of the ERA policy framework, the ex-ante assessment focuses on potential costs and benefits of possible further policy action. In doing so, it identifies shortcomings in the ERA policy framework and outlines costs due to the lack of further action on the issue. The study makes a cautious estimate that the costs linked with implementation shortcomings of the ERA policy framework could amount to €3 billion per year.  

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