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result(s)

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Policy area
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Date

The European Union and Holocaust remembrance

21-01-2019

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation of property, state discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, the policy was extended to all the European territories and countries controlled by the Nazis during the Second World War. It was a policy that ...

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation of property, state discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, the policy was extended to all the European territories and countries controlled by the Nazis during the Second World War. It was a policy that would culminate in mass summary executions ('Holocaust by Bullets') and extermination camps. The perpetrators were prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials in 1945-1946, but the charge of crimes against humanity was preferred over genocide. It was not until 2005, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz, that a United Nations resolution on Holocaust remembrance designated 27 January as the day of commemoration. In the European Union, numerous programmes seek to preserve the memory of these tragic events in the history of the continent. Since 1995, the European Parliament has adopted resolutions drawing attention to the obligation to remember not only through commemorations but also through education. In November 2018, the EU became a permanent international partner of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (AISH). This is an updated version of a briefing from January 2018.

Algérie et Union européenne : Défis avant les élections

05-12-2018

L’Algérie est à la veille d’une élection cruciale pour son avenir en avril 2019. Le pays a certes mené des réformes constitutionnelles de façon à répondre au contexte des printemps arabes dans la région, mais la possibilité d’un cinquième mandat pour le Président Bouteflika reste l’incertitude cardinale qui plane sur le pays. Le président, affaibli par l’âge et une santé fragile, reste le ciment du système politique algérien après la terrible guerre civile des années 1990. Dans ce contexte, l’équation ...

L’Algérie est à la veille d’une élection cruciale pour son avenir en avril 2019. Le pays a certes mené des réformes constitutionnelles de façon à répondre au contexte des printemps arabes dans la région, mais la possibilité d’un cinquième mandat pour le Président Bouteflika reste l’incertitude cardinale qui plane sur le pays. Le président, affaibli par l’âge et une santé fragile, reste le ciment du système politique algérien après la terrible guerre civile des années 1990. Dans ce contexte, l’équation algérienne reste complexe et trois inconnues (jeunesse, climat et migrations) peuvent façonner les perspectives de court et moyen termes. La jeunesse algérienne est nombreuse et son inclusion sur le marché du travail nécessite une croissance continue. Aujourd’hui, elle reste relativement désinvestie du système politique algérien et ses préférences restent méconnues. Le réchauffement climatique est une seconde inconnue: il aura des conséquences majeures sur le territoire et devrait pousser la population algérienne, mais aussi, plus largement, sahélienne, à rejoindre les villes côtières, nécessitant d’investir dans un urbanisme durable et des services publics adaptés. Enfin, les dynamiques démographiques, algériennes et en Algérie par le jeu des migrations, forment un défi important pour l’avenir. Ces questionnements replacent l’Algérie dans son environnement régional où elle joue un rôle central à la fois dans le conflit au Sahara occidental, relativement à la Libye et au Sahel. L’Algérie est aussi un partenaire crucial dans la lutte contre le terrorisme international. La situation économique du pays reste à surveiller: en effet, les variations des prix de l’énergie mettent l’économie algérienne sous tension. Les autorités algériennes affirment la nécessité de réformes mais ces dernières sont complexes à mener quand l’Etat fait face à des baisses de revenus. L’Union européenne est le principal partenaire commercial de l’Algérie et l’Accord d’association offre un cadre pour l’approfondissement de ces relations. Récemment, les deux partenaires ont ouvert un débat sur les barrières tariffaires algériennes qui paraissent ne pas aller dans la bonne direction.

Montenegro: 2018 country report

27-11-2018

The European Commission report on Montenegro, published in April 2018, makes a positive evaluation of the country's progress, with Montenegro leading the EU accession process in the Western Balkans. However, although Montenegro has been a stable country, on good terms with its neighbours for many years, the internal political situation has deteriorated over the past two years following a coup attempt in 2016. Parliament is due to vote a resolution on the report in plenary in November.

The European Commission report on Montenegro, published in April 2018, makes a positive evaluation of the country's progress, with Montenegro leading the EU accession process in the Western Balkans. However, although Montenegro has been a stable country, on good terms with its neighbours for many years, the internal political situation has deteriorated over the past two years following a coup attempt in 2016. Parliament is due to vote a resolution on the report in plenary in November.

Implementing the EU-Georgia Association Agreement

07-11-2018

Four years after the EU-Georgia Association Agreement (AA) was signed in 2014 and two years after its entry into force, the European Parliament is evaluating the level of implementation of the AA and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA). Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) has given a positive assessment, but has also encouraged Georgia to address a number of shortcomings, in areas such as labour standards, environmental protection and discrimination against vulnerable ...

Four years after the EU-Georgia Association Agreement (AA) was signed in 2014 and two years after its entry into force, the European Parliament is evaluating the level of implementation of the AA and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (DCFTA). Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) has given a positive assessment, but has also encouraged Georgia to address a number of shortcomings, in areas such as labour standards, environmental protection and discrimination against vulnerable groups and women. Parliament will debate the issue at its November I plenary.

Konrad Adenauer: Europe's elder statesman

30-10-2018

Konrad Adenauer was born at the end of the 19th century in imperial Germany. Growing up in relatively humble surroundings, he adopted Prussian values and a Christian faith that guided him throughout his life. Adenauer first took up political office in 1906, as city councillor of his home town of Cologne. In 1909, he became president of the city council. He was then elected Lord Mayor of Cologne in 1917 – at the age of just 41. With the end of the First World War, Adenauer made efforts to promote ...

Konrad Adenauer was born at the end of the 19th century in imperial Germany. Growing up in relatively humble surroundings, he adopted Prussian values and a Christian faith that guided him throughout his life. Adenauer first took up political office in 1906, as city councillor of his home town of Cologne. In 1909, he became president of the city council. He was then elected Lord Mayor of Cologne in 1917 – at the age of just 41. With the end of the First World War, Adenauer made efforts to promote transnational cooperation with Germany's neighbours to the West on several occasions – a progressive move at that point in time. When, in February 1933, the newly elected German Chancellor Adolf Hitler visited Cologne, Konrad Adenauer refused to receive him – a decision that saw him removed from his position as Lord Mayor. Forced into political exile – even incarcerated at one point – he spent the following 12 years with his family at his home in Rhöndorf. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, Adenauer was determined to establish a political platform that would unite people around core Christian and democratic values and it was on this basis that he was elected as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany in September 1949. Throughout his 14 years as Chancellor of Germany, Konrad Adenauer remained determined to integrate Germany into a value-based European political system. Therefore, reconciliation, rapprochement and cooperation with France became the central goals of Adenauer's foreign policy, ultimately shaping German policy up to the present day.

Future EU-Turkey relations

23-10-2018

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With ...

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With the constitutional referendum and the subsequent parliamentary and presidential elections, President Erdogan further reinforced his position at the helm of the institutional system and raised concerns among the EU and NATO about his commitment to Western institutions. Turkey deepened its relations with Russia, buying military equipment and coordinating with it on Syrian policies on the ground. At the same time, US-Turkish relations worsened due to the Syrian conflict and the imprisonment of a US pastor by Turkey, although he was subsequently released. Negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU have nevertheless continued, despite an increasingly lively debate in some Member States about whether or not they should be halted. Some have proposed striking an economic agreement with Turkey as an alternative to membership. Others believe the outcome of the negotiations on the UK's future relationship with the EU might also provide a possible model for Turkey. Despite the numerous hurdles before it, accession not only remains the ultimate objective of EU-Turkey relations, endorsed by both the European Council and by Turkey, but it also provides potential for reform and dialogue regarding common standards, not least in the area of civil liberties.

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

21-09-2018

In today's context of renewed tensions on the European continent, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) has an opportunity to play a stronger role as a forum for all Europe's security actors, helping to prevent a logic of confrontation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the EU versus Russia from prevailing. The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) came into being during the detente of 1962-1979. It transformed the zero-sum game of ...

In today's context of renewed tensions on the European continent, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) has an opportunity to play a stronger role as a forum for all Europe's security actors, helping to prevent a logic of confrontation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the EU versus Russia from prevailing. The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) came into being during the detente of 1962-1979. It transformed the zero-sum game of the Cold War into a positive-sum game between European states, becoming a forum for discussion between the two superpowers and European countries. However, the main achievement of the Helsinki process that formed the CSCE was that it brought all the participating countries to the negotiating table. The main outcome of the Helsinki process was less the Final Act itself than the original process of negotiations between all the participating states. After the fall of the USSR and the subsequent EU and NATO enlargements, the OSCE (as the CSCE was renamed in 1994) was redesigned as a forum for resolving Cold War tensions and it became gradually less relevant. The main elements of the European security framework established by the CSCE (Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe, Vienna Document, Open Skies Treaty) lost their ability to secure effective arms control and build confidence. There was a shift towards soft security cooperation (election monitoring, peace processes, the protection of minorities, and action to ensure a safe environment for journalists). Initiatives to reform the OSCE over the past decade have largely failed because of disagreements between member states on the objectives and the organisation's legal and financial means. Nevertheless, it remains a necessary forum when it comes to resolving a growing number of crises.

Council of Europe

05-09-2018

The Council of Europe (CoE) is the oldest of the intergovernmental organisations set up in post-World War II Europe, and the one that has the most member states. Since its creation in 1949, the CoE has shared strong links with other European organisations, such as the European Coal and Steel Community and the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation; it now has close links with the European Union. Over time, the CoE has specialised in human-rights promotion and in monitoring the effective implementation ...

The Council of Europe (CoE) is the oldest of the intergovernmental organisations set up in post-World War II Europe, and the one that has the most member states. Since its creation in 1949, the CoE has shared strong links with other European organisations, such as the European Coal and Steel Community and the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation; it now has close links with the European Union. Over time, the CoE has specialised in human-rights promotion and in monitoring the effective implementation of the European Convention of Human Rights. However, the CoE has recently come under pressure due to allegations of internal corruption and a rise of illiberal tendencies in Europe; in response, it has embarked on a reform process.

Euronest 2018: Way forward after the Eastern Partnership summit

17-07-2018

The European Parliament regularly hosts the Euronest parliamentary assembly of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Launched in 2011, the EaP is composed of the EU and its Member States, together with six of their eastern European neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. During their Riga summit in 2015, the partners in the EaP decided to focus on four areas: economic development and market opportunities; institutional capacity and good governance; connectivity, energy efficiency ...

The European Parliament regularly hosts the Euronest parliamentary assembly of the Eastern Partnership (EaP). Launched in 2011, the EaP is composed of the EU and its Member States, together with six of their eastern European neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. During their Riga summit in 2015, the partners in the EaP decided to focus on four areas: economic development and market opportunities; institutional capacity and good governance; connectivity, energy efficiency, environment and climate change; mobility and people-to-people contacts. Before the EaP's 2017 Brussels summit, the European Commission and the European External Action Service published '20 deliverables for 2020', a series of specific objectives that are being piloted by various partners and have to be achieved by the EaP countries by 2020. To facilitate this task, the two institutions also proposed to streamline the structure of the EaP, which the Brussels summit endorsed. In June 2018, the Euronest meeting in Brussels adopted a number of resolutions on the EU’s mediation in frozen conflicts, on foreign direct investment and on undeclared labour. It also called for the release of Ukrainian political prisoners in Russia.

Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement with Armenia

27-06-2018

In 2013, the European Union and Armenia were due to sign an association agreement, including a deep and comprehensive free trade agreement (DCFTA). Under Russian pressure, Armenia decided not to sign the agreement, preferring to join the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union. Nevertheless, the EU and Armenia continued their negotiations with the aim of reaching a new comprehensive and enhanced partnership agreement (CEPA). The CEPA was signed on 14 November 2017. During its July plenary session, the ...

In 2013, the European Union and Armenia were due to sign an association agreement, including a deep and comprehensive free trade agreement (DCFTA). Under Russian pressure, Armenia decided not to sign the agreement, preferring to join the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union. Nevertheless, the EU and Armenia continued their negotiations with the aim of reaching a new comprehensive and enhanced partnership agreement (CEPA). The CEPA was signed on 14 November 2017. During its July plenary session, the European Parliament is expected to vote on giving its consent to the draft Council decision to conclude the agreement.

Upcoming events

24-01-2019
Workshop - Implementation and Impact of EMFF Measures on the Common Fisheries Policy
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PECH
24-01-2019
Alleged financial crimes, tax evasion and tax avoidance in Slovakia
Hearing -
TAX3
24-01-2019
The evaluation of the Tax Gap
Hearing -
TAX3

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