376

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Policy area
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Date

Balanced and fairer world trade defence: EU, US and WTO perspectives

29-05-2019

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade ...

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade Defence Instruments (TDI), known as ‘TDI methodology’ and ‘TDI modernisation’. These new rules aim at enhancing the EU’s trade defence, without deviating from its commitment to an open economic environment set in an international rules based order. The US has its own rules and practice for trade defence and continues to distinguish between countries having a market economy and those who don’t - a difference abandoned by the EU in its latest reform. Moreover, the Trump Administration has imposed many new tariffs on foreign imports, often based on the national security exception provided by the WTO - a justification contested by most of the countries targeted. Furthermore, the US expressed concerns about the system of dispute settlement in the WTO, blocking nominations to its Appellate Body. Experts gave their views on whether all these recent developments are contributing to an international trade defence regime that is ‘fair’ and ‘balanced’, taking into account the different perspectives.

External author

Erdal YALCIN, Hannes WELGE, André SAPIR, Petros C. MAVROIDIS

Women’s role in peace processes

15-05-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, aims to provide insight on the meaningful inclusion of women - where women have decision-making authority - in peace and transition processes. Inclusive peace frameworks not only better reflect the diversity of society, they increase the durability and the quality of peace. Yet, awarding decision-making authority to those waging the war and ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, aims to provide insight on the meaningful inclusion of women - where women have decision-making authority - in peace and transition processes. Inclusive peace frameworks not only better reflect the diversity of society, they increase the durability and the quality of peace. Yet, awarding decision-making authority to those waging the war and not to those waging the peace remains a reoccurring theme in most armed conflict situations. The study presents available data on fragility and armed conflict and takes stock of the global arms trade. It examines progress on the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 and subsequent resolutions. It assesses global commitments, European Union application of the Women, Peace and Security agenda, National Action Plans and global peace and security indicators. The study explores women’s participation across the peace-making landscape, including peace and transition processes. Moreover, an evaluation of the factors that enhance and constrain women’s meaningful participation in peace-making is put forward. The study highlights the impact of war on women and children and draws attention to the engagement of women across the peace-making landscape in two case studies, Rwanda and Syria. Lastly, the study provides recommendations to achieve sustainable peace and transform global power dynamics that currently favour traditional security perspectives.

External author

Dr. Christina BACHE, London School of Economics and Political Science, IDEAS

Competition issues in the Area of Financial Technology (FinTech): Study presentation

04-04-2019

The study presented in this event deals with the new competition challenges brought about by the increasing number of FinTech services, which are provided by newcomer start-ups, traditional financial institutions and big tech companies. Namely, network effects derived from the use of online-platforms, the use of customer data, algorithms, standardisation and interoperability can result in anticompetitive behaviour. The analysis takes a service-by-service approach to provide both, a descriptive breakdown ...

The study presented in this event deals with the new competition challenges brought about by the increasing number of FinTech services, which are provided by newcomer start-ups, traditional financial institutions and big tech companies. Namely, network effects derived from the use of online-platforms, the use of customer data, algorithms, standardisation and interoperability can result in anticompetitive behaviour. The analysis takes a service-by-service approach to provide both, a descriptive breakdown and normative tools to anticipate and manage anticompetitive behaviours as they occur. This presentation was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee.

External author

David RAMOS MUÑOZ Juan Pablo VILLAR GARCÍA et al.

5G Deployment: State of play in Europe, USA and Asia

03-04-2019

This in-depth analysis was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee. It compares 5G deployment in the EU with other leading economies – the USA, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. On a range of indicators, the EU compares well. However, this is not a short-term race. 5G is more complex than previous wireless technologies and should be considered as a long-term project to solve technical challenges and develop a clear business case.

This in-depth analysis was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee. It compares 5G deployment in the EU with other leading economies – the USA, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. On a range of indicators, the EU compares well. However, this is not a short-term race. 5G is more complex than previous wireless technologies and should be considered as a long-term project to solve technical challenges and develop a clear business case.

External author

Colin Blackman, Simon Forge

Parliamentary scrutiny of trade policies across the western world

25-03-2019

The Lisbon Treaty increased the European Parliament’s powers over EU trade policy. Ten years after its entry into force it is timely to take stock of how the EP has made use of this leverage in shaping the EU’s trade negotiations. Such an exercise benefits from a comparison with other well-established parliamentary democracies, particularly the key partners with whom the EU has recently negotiated or has started to negotiate a comprehensive trade agreement. This study compares parliamentary scrutiny ...

The Lisbon Treaty increased the European Parliament’s powers over EU trade policy. Ten years after its entry into force it is timely to take stock of how the EP has made use of this leverage in shaping the EU’s trade negotiations. Such an exercise benefits from a comparison with other well-established parliamentary democracies, particularly the key partners with whom the EU has recently negotiated or has started to negotiate a comprehensive trade agreement. This study compares parliamentary scrutiny of trade policy in the EU with the United States, Canada and Australia. It concludes that the European Parliament has become powerful and active in trade policy, on a comparable level to the US Congress. Its powers exceed those of other Western democracies, such as Australia and Canada. From the latter the European Parliament may conclude that it is important to codify some of its informal oversight practices, before they may get lost over time again. This may also help to encourage its trading partners to increase their parliamentary involvement during negotiations with the EU. As regards the implementation of trade agreements however, the EU has very few competences in comparison to all other three countries analysed.

External author

Bart KERREMANS, Johan ADRIAENSEN, Francesca COLLI, Evelyn COREMANS

The meaning of 'association' under EU law - A study on the law and practice of EU association agreements

18-02-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the law and practice of EU association agreements. It maps out different types of association agreements concluded on the legal basis of Article 217 TFEU and identifies the key features characterising the nature of association under EU law.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the law and practice of EU association agreements. It maps out different types of association agreements concluded on the legal basis of Article 217 TFEU and identifies the key features characterising the nature of association under EU law.

External author

Peter VAN ELSUWEGE,Merijn CHAMON

Impact of Digitalisation on International Tax Matters

15-02-2019

This paper was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance (TAX3) to discuss tax challenges posed by digitalisation, especially regarding new business models and value creation process, the impact of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) actions, unilateral measures and recent tax developments in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) while evaluating alternative approaches to reform the international tax system ...

This paper was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Financial Crimes, Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance (TAX3) to discuss tax challenges posed by digitalisation, especially regarding new business models and value creation process, the impact of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) actions, unilateral measures and recent tax developments in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) while evaluating alternative approaches to reform the international tax system and highlighting difficulties and opportunities presented by Blockchain and collaborative economy for international taxation.

External author

Eli Hadzhieva

La ratification des traités internationaux, une perspective de droit comparé: Canada

11-02-2019

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit canadien, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires ...

Cette étude fait partie d’un projet plus global qui a le but d’analyser depuis une perspective de droit comparé la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États. L'objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit canadien, en particulier le régime juridique applicable, la procédure et une estimation des temps nécessaires pour la ratification. Pour ce faire, après une introduction générale, sont examinées les dispositions législatives et réglementaires régissant la procédure d’adoption des traités, la répartition des compétences entre les différents acteurs impliqués, ainsi que les étapes principales de la procédure de conclusion des traités. Le Canada, comme beaucoup de autres pays, réserve un rôle central au pouvoir exécutif dans le processus de conclusion des traités (c’est-à-dire la négociation, la signature et la ratification des traités). Le Canada étant un pays de tradition dualiste, la mise en œuvre des traités est toutefois du ressort du Parlement et des assemblées législatives provinciales. Cette dichotomie, qui met à risque l’observation par l’exécutif des obligations internationales du Canada, explique notamment l’accroissement récent du rôle du Parlement et des gouvernements provinciaux dans le processus de ratification. Cette étude prétend être utile aux différents organes du Parlement européen, afin de dévoiler une vision complète du processus de ratification par la contrepartie de l’Union européenne (en le cas d’espèce le Canada). Cela permettra par exemple aux organes du Parlement de fixer leurs calendriers de travaux, en tenant compte d’une estimation du temps dont la contrepartie aura besoin pour compléter la ratification d’un futur traité.

External author

Ce document a été rédigé par Prof. Dr. René Provost Ad.E., professeur titulaire, de la Faculté de droit de l’Université McGill, avec l’aide de Vincent Marquis, à la demande de l’Unité Bibliothèque de droit comparée, Direction générale des services de recherche parlementaire (DG EPRS), Secrétariat général du Parlement européen.

The end of the INF Treaty? A pillar of European security architecture at risk

04-02-2019

The US administration announced on 1 February 2019 that it was suspending its obligations under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, with effect from 2 February 2019, and that it was giving Russia six months' notice of complete withdrawal. Russia reacted by announcing that it was also suspending its obligations under the Treaty. Both parties said they would begin developing new nuclear-capable missiles banned by the treaty. The 1987 INF Treaty is a landmark nuclear-arms-control treaty ...

The US administration announced on 1 February 2019 that it was suspending its obligations under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, with effect from 2 February 2019, and that it was giving Russia six months' notice of complete withdrawal. Russia reacted by announcing that it was also suspending its obligations under the Treaty. Both parties said they would begin developing new nuclear-capable missiles banned by the treaty. The 1987 INF Treaty is a landmark nuclear-arms-control treaty between the United States (US) and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) that eliminated and prohibited ground-launched intermediate ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5 500 km. The US announcement follows years of allegations that the Russian Federation has acted in breach of the agreement. Russia, for its part, has also accused the US of violating the treaty. Both deny the allegations. Moreover, both parties consider that the agreement puts their countries at a strategic disadvantage vis-à-vis other nuclear powers, especially China. The parties' announcements undermine a cornerstone of the European security order. The signing of the INF Treaty in 1987 led to the removal and destruction of nearly 3 000 US and Soviet short-, medium- and intermediate-range nuclear-capable missiles stationed in or aimed at Europe. The EU has called on the US to consider the consequences of its possible withdrawal from the INF for its own security, the security of its allies and that of the whole world. The EU has also called on both the US and Russia to remain engaged in constructive dialogue to preserve the INF Treaty, and on Russia to address the serious concerns regarding its compliance with the treaty. NATO considers Russia to be in violation of the INF Treaty, and the alliance has called on Russia to return urgently to full and verifiable compliance with the agreement. Any redeployment of intermediate-range missiles will put Europe once more in the line of fire of strategic nuclear weapons. If the INF Treaty is abrogated, Europeans will be faced with stark choices all carrying inherent security risks, including engaging in a deployment race with Russia, or refusing re-deployment of US missiles on European soil, potentially leaving European countries exposed to Russian intimidation. Efforts over the next six months will focus on preserving the INF Treaty against all odds.

Study in focus: Financial Supervision and Regulation in the US - Dodd-Frank Reform

15-01-2019

This paper, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee, gives an overview of the key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act which were presented in the study on Financial Supervision and Regulation in the US.

This paper, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the ECON Committee, gives an overview of the key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act which were presented in the study on Financial Supervision and Regulation in the US.

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