5

result(s)

Word(s)
Publication type
Policy area
Author
Date

E-Books: Evolving markets and new challenges

10-02-2016

With an estimated value of US$151 billion, book publishing gradually evolved into a truly global business early in the 21st century. As yet, however, e-books are nevertheless significant only in a relatively small number of markets. These are led by the United States (13% of the book market) and the United Kingdom (11.5%), with Germany (5%) developing more recently. The e-book market in the EU has taken off only in recent years, and in 2014 it still represented only 1.6% of the total book market ...

With an estimated value of US$151 billion, book publishing gradually evolved into a truly global business early in the 21st century. As yet, however, e-books are nevertheless significant only in a relatively small number of markets. These are led by the United States (13% of the book market) and the United Kingdom (11.5%), with Germany (5%) developing more recently. The e-book market in the EU has taken off only in recent years, and in 2014 it still represented only 1.6% of the total book market in the leading EU markets. The advent of e-books transformed the usual linear supply chain into a global network, with competing distribution channels and retail outlets, pushing publishers and booksellers to establish a digital strategy. Indeed, e-books face specific challenges with regard to protection from piracy, lending, and copyright issues. More importantly, multinational digital companies choose to set up European headquarters in specific Member States due to their favourable tax regimes and/or lower value added tax (VAT) rates. To partly offset this phenomenon, the EU introduced new rules from 1 January 2015, according to which VAT on electronic services is levied where the customer is based, rather than where the supplier is located. In contrast to print books, e-books cannot enjoy reduced VAT rates, since they are classified as 'software'. While the average VAT rate for print books across the EU is 7.6%, the corresponding rate for e-books stands at 19.9%, thus placing them at a disadvantage. The European Commission has already begun a reflection on the VAT regime, including considering the application of reduced VAT rates and is to announce its conclusions by the end of 2016.

A New Deal for energy consumers

05-01-2016

On 15 July 2015, the European Commission adopted a Communication on Delivering a New Deal for energy consumers ('New Deal'), as part of the Summer Energy Package. The New Deal is one of several consumer-related actions envisaged in the Energy Union strategy, and is designed to inform future actions in this field, including proposed legislation. The New Deal highlights the need for greater transparency around energy prices: wholesale and retail prices are diverging as taxes account for a growing ...

On 15 July 2015, the European Commission adopted a Communication on Delivering a New Deal for energy consumers ('New Deal'), as part of the Summer Energy Package. The New Deal is one of several consumer-related actions envisaged in the Energy Union strategy, and is designed to inform future actions in this field, including proposed legislation. The New Deal highlights the need for greater transparency around energy prices: wholesale and retail prices are diverging as taxes account for a growing share of energy bills, placing a disproportionate burden on household consumers. It emphasises the importance of easy switching between energy suppliers and calls for the phasing out of regulated retail prices, which discourage market competition and investment in infrastructure. The New Deal argues that greater energy efficiency is necessary, demand response among consumers should be facilitated, and community production initiatives encouraged. The Commission considers that rolling out smart meters across the EU is necessary to encourage greater demand response. Yet the precise cost savings for consumers from smart metering (and demand response in general) remain rather unclear, while smart metering has more positive effects when accompanied by incentives to change patterns of energy use (e.g. dynamic pricing). The New Deal calls for new measures to address vulnerable consumers and energy poverty in the EU, with reports by the Commission and European Parliament shedding light on these issues. The New Deal seeks to encourage the development of smart homes and networks, which will require a range of new energy technologies. The growing use of ICT in smart grids has raised concerns about data protection and the risk of cyber hacking in smart grids. In past resolutions, the European Parliament expressed strong support for key ideas outlined in the New Deal, and has called for consumers to play a more active role in the energy transition.

Towards a Harmonised EU Assessment of the Added Therapeutic Value of Medicines

08-06-2015

TThis study, produced for the ENVI Committee by Policy Department A, investigates the possibility of a harmonised EU approach concerning the assessment of the added therapeutic value (ATV) of medicinal products. It reviews the current EU legal and policy framework and looks at the state-of-play within all 28 Member States. In addition, it presents the results of an in-depth analysis on the use of ATV in six selected EU countries. The study closes with policy recommendations on how a possible European ...

TThis study, produced for the ENVI Committee by Policy Department A, investigates the possibility of a harmonised EU approach concerning the assessment of the added therapeutic value (ATV) of medicinal products. It reviews the current EU legal and policy framework and looks at the state-of-play within all 28 Member States. In addition, it presents the results of an in-depth analysis on the use of ATV in six selected EU countries. The study closes with policy recommendations on how a possible European harmonisation of the ATV assessment might be taken forward within the current legal framework.

External author

VAN WILDER Philippe (Vrije Universiteit Brussel and SMART&BI), MABILIA Valentina (Milieu Ltd.), KUIPERS CAVACO Yoline (Milieu Ltd.) and MCGUINN Jennifer (Milieu Ltd.)

Price-setting in the Electricity Markets within the EU Single Market

01-03-2006

External author

EASAC (European Academies Science Advisory Council), London, UK

Integrated Water Management in the European Union

01-04-2003

The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC introduced a strategic legislative framework designed to tie together the various strands of water policy and provide a more holistic and integrated approach to water management and conservation. The use of economic instruments within each River Basin, may be appropriate as part of a programme of measures to ensure environmental, economic and social objectives are met cost-effectively. The success of the implementation relies on the will of the Member States ...

The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC introduced a strategic legislative framework designed to tie together the various strands of water policy and provide a more holistic and integrated approach to water management and conservation. The use of economic instruments within each River Basin, may be appropriate as part of a programme of measures to ensure environmental, economic and social objectives are met cost-effectively. The success of the implementation relies on the will of the Member States to manage their water resources on the basis of the principles laid down in the Water Framework Directive.

External author

Eva Moneo Garcia (ex-Robert Schuman scholar)

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