73

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The place of women in European film productions: Fighting the celluloid ceiling

17-01-2019

The sexual assault allegations brought against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein laid bare the painful reality for scores of women working in the film industry around the world. However, sexual harassment is seemingly just the tip of the iceberg in an industry where gender inequalities relating to biased representation and pay are arguably systematic and pervasive. Europe's own film industry has not been spared. The weighted average of films directed by women in the 2012-2016 period is just 19.6 ...

The sexual assault allegations brought against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein laid bare the painful reality for scores of women working in the film industry around the world. However, sexual harassment is seemingly just the tip of the iceberg in an industry where gender inequalities relating to biased representation and pay are arguably systematic and pervasive. Europe's own film industry has not been spared. The weighted average of films directed by women in the 2012-2016 period is just 19.6 %, with country results varying from 5 % (Latvia) to 30 % (Sweden). More worryingly, research shows that the various positions in the film industry appear to be dominated by one or the other gender. Thus, women are over-represented in professions traditionally considered feminine – such as costume design and editing – and under-represented in others viewed as more technical, such as those dealing with sound, music and image. To start redressing these imbalances, various EU-level initiatives have been introduced in support of female film projects. One such example is the LUX Film Prize, through which over the past 11 years the European Parliament has been consistently encouraging the dissemination of films directed by women and portraying strong, inspiring female characters. For its part, the European Commission has started measuring women's participation in key positions in projects supported under the Media strand of its Creative Europe programme. Similarly, it is currently considering specific ways for a more gender-balanced provision of support. Yet again, the cultural support fund of the Council of Europe – Eurimages – committed in its 2018-2020 strategy to achieving equal distribution of co production funding between women and men by the year 2020; the distribution of funding currently stands at 38 %. Sweden is the EU leader in terms of regulatory policies at national level. The critical acclaim won by Swedish female filmmakers in the past 10 years has shown that by applying a methodical and systematic approach it is possible to achieve gender equality without compromising quality.

Equality between men and women

01-04-2018

Equality between women and men is one of the objectives of the European Union. Over time, legislation, case law and changes to the Treaties have helped shore up this principle and its implementation in the EU. The European Parliament has always been a fervent defender of the principle of equality between men and women.

Equality between women and men is one of the objectives of the European Union. Over time, legislation, case law and changes to the Treaties have helped shore up this principle and its implementation in the EU. The European Parliament has always been a fervent defender of the principle of equality between men and women.

The electoral reforms in three association countries of the Eastern Neighbourhood - Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova and their impact on political developments in these countries

26-10-2017

This study focuses on electoral reform in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, which have all concluded Association Agreements with the EU. Recent experience in all three countries has shown that political elites are changing (or not changing) the electoral system to hold onto power. Beyond the choice of electoral system, changes have often been introduced in a rush, without a genuinely inclusive, thorough and public debate. Frequent changes to legal frameworks, often made just prior to elections, have ...

This study focuses on electoral reform in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, which have all concluded Association Agreements with the EU. Recent experience in all three countries has shown that political elites are changing (or not changing) the electoral system to hold onto power. Beyond the choice of electoral system, changes have often been introduced in a rush, without a genuinely inclusive, thorough and public debate. Frequent changes to legal frameworks, often made just prior to elections, have also not contributed to stability of law. Issues identified during elections are symptomatic of deeper weaknesses that must be addressed, including: lack of an independent judiciary, insufficient rule of law, non-functioning or selective use of oversight mechanisms, weak government institutions, concentration of media ownership, political corruption and misuse of state resources. All three countries are also experiencing widespread public discontent with the political elite, and political renewal is much needed. While electoral reform can play a role, efforts should be made to promote internal party democracy and overcome barriers to entry for new political actors.

External author

Holly RUTHRAUFF

Japan: Shinzō Abe wins a new mandate

25-10-2017

Shinzō Abe won the snap elections he called for the lower house on 22 October 2017. Despite her popularity, Tokyo's governor Yuriko Koike failed to convince the electorate to oust a prime minister in charge since December 2012. The newly created Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan became the main opposition force in the House of Representatives. In coalition with Kōmeitō, Abe's Liberal Democratic Party holds a two-thirds majority enabling it to pass constitutional amendments.

Shinzō Abe won the snap elections he called for the lower house on 22 October 2017. Despite her popularity, Tokyo's governor Yuriko Koike failed to convince the electorate to oust a prime minister in charge since December 2012. The newly created Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan became the main opposition force in the House of Representatives. In coalition with Kōmeitō, Abe's Liberal Democratic Party holds a two-thirds majority enabling it to pass constitutional amendments.

Gender equality policies in Slovakia

14-04-2017

The Slovak Republic addresses equality between women and men both in its national legislation and relevant strategic materials and documents. With the aim to strengthen institutional support for women and development of effective policies and programmes, the Slovak republic made necessary changes in legislation and adjusted policies to better facilitate creation of conditions for effective implementation of systematic measures at the institutional level. These have been essential in the effort to ...

The Slovak Republic addresses equality between women and men both in its national legislation and relevant strategic materials and documents. With the aim to strengthen institutional support for women and development of effective policies and programmes, the Slovak republic made necessary changes in legislation and adjusted policies to better facilitate creation of conditions for effective implementation of systematic measures at the institutional level. These have been essential in the effort to achieve gender equality and eliminate gender inequalities in the society.

External author

Silvia PORUBANOVA, Institute for Labour and Family Research

Empowering women in the EU and beyond: Leadership and conflict resolution

02-03-2017

Experts agree that much depends on women being involved on an equal footing in political leadership, as well as corporate governance, conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and post-conflict power structures. In most societies around the world, women hold only a minority of decision-making positions in public and private institutions. Yet for the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), women’s political participation is a fundamental prerequisite for ...

Experts agree that much depends on women being involved on an equal footing in political leadership, as well as corporate governance, conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and post-conflict power structures. In most societies around the world, women hold only a minority of decision-making positions in public and private institutions. Yet for the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), women’s political participation is a fundamental prerequisite for gender equality and genuine democracy. Furthermore, the European Union has increasingly recognised that conflict and crisis management are not gender-neutral and has introduced numerous gender policies and initiatives to forward the aims of landmark United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1325 (2000).

Women and Girls in Humanitarian Emergencies

09-05-2016

Upon request by the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) of the European Parliament, this note provides background information for the FEMM Committee mission to the World Humanitarian Summit which will be held in Istanbul from 23 to 24 May 2016. The note focuses on some key concerns and topics in the field of gender equality, in particular on empowering women in humanitarian action and emergencies, ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights ...

Upon request by the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) of the European Parliament, this note provides background information for the FEMM Committee mission to the World Humanitarian Summit which will be held in Istanbul from 23 to 24 May 2016. The note focuses on some key concerns and topics in the field of gender equality, in particular on empowering women in humanitarian action and emergencies, ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, preventing gender-based violence and ensuring gender responsive humanitarian programming and policies.

Radicalisation and counter-radicalisation: A gender perspective

21-04-2016

Terrorism resulting from radicalisation and violent extremism is a serious threat to European security. Part of the complexity of these phenomena lies in the fact that there is neither a single pathway to radicalisation nor a single terrorist profile. From a gender perspective, women's radicalisation and involvement in violent extremist groups remains relatively under-estimated as there is still a general view that terrorism almost exclusively concerns men. However, recent studies indicate that around ...

Terrorism resulting from radicalisation and violent extremism is a serious threat to European security. Part of the complexity of these phenomena lies in the fact that there is neither a single pathway to radicalisation nor a single terrorist profile. From a gender perspective, women's radicalisation and involvement in violent extremist groups remains relatively under-estimated as there is still a general view that terrorism almost exclusively concerns men. However, recent studies indicate that around 550 Western women have travelled to ISIL/Da'esh-occupied territory, whilst a new report on European foreign fighters suggests that 17% of them are women. The role of women in counter-radicalisation is more widely acknowledged, although the focus tends to be confined to women as concerned family members. While the influence of mothers is highlighted by many practitioners, women's role in prevention goes beyond close family circles, extending to other capacities such as policy shapers, educators, community members and activists. Women's empowerment, be it through legal, financial or cultural means, thus becomes essential for tackling the root causes of extremism and defeating radicalisation. Although a gender aspect has not been systematically applied in security strategies, several experts advise the adoption of a gendered approach to counter-radicalisation policies.

The Gender Dimension of Climate Justice

02-12-2015

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs examined the concept of Climate Justice. The analysis explains how climate justice could help to address the issues faced by women as a result of climate change in international and European climate policy. The research showed that both the UN and the EU should step up their commitments and actions to improve the participation of women in decision-making on climate change ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs examined the concept of Climate Justice. The analysis explains how climate justice could help to address the issues faced by women as a result of climate change in international and European climate policy. The research showed that both the UN and the EU should step up their commitments and actions to improve the participation of women in decision-making on climate change mitigation and adaptation policies and should do more to make their climate policies gender-sensitive.

Gender indexes – an overview

16-11-2015

In legal and statistical parlance, 'indicators' are the criteria used to measure progress towards specific objectives. Gender indicators – a sub category – have developed over the past 30 years with the aim of measuring inequalities in the fulfilment of women's rights across different countries and social systems. Since 1990, when the Gender Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure were generated, no less than 10 international gender indicators have been created. These indexes may vary ...

In legal and statistical parlance, 'indicators' are the criteria used to measure progress towards specific objectives. Gender indicators – a sub category – have developed over the past 30 years with the aim of measuring inequalities in the fulfilment of women's rights across different countries and social systems. Since 1990, when the Gender Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure were generated, no less than 10 international gender indicators have been created. These indexes may vary in length, approach (e.g. which legal provisions are taken into consideration for the assessment), level of analysis (e.g. which statistical data are used and to what extent they are used), and scope (e.g. descriptive, analytical).

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