290

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European Council Conclusions: A Rolling Check-List of Commitments to Date

18-12-2017

The European Council's role – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' - has developed rapidly over the past eight years. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think-tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery of the various commitments made in the conclusions ...

The European Council's role – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' - has developed rapidly over the past eight years. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think-tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery of the various commitments made in the conclusions of its meetings. This overview, presented in the form of a regularly updated Rolling Check-List of Commitments to Date, is designed to review the degree of progress in realising the goals which the European Council has set itself since January 2010 and to assist the Parliament in exercising its important oversight role in this field.

The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy

07-12-2017

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders ...

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders in eight European countries and from an original survey of 1,200 platform workers. It dissects the different normative layers that need to be considered when looking at the challenges of social protection of platform workers from a legal perspective. Finally, the report draws conclusions and makes recommendations concerning arrangements for the provision of social protection for workers in this growing sector of the economy.

External author

Chris FORDE, Mark STUART, Simon JOYCE, Liz OLIVER, Danat VALIZADE, Gabriella ALBERTI, Kate HARDY, Vera TRAPPMANN, Charles UMNEY, Calum CARSON, Centre for Employment Relations Innovation and Change (CERIC), University of Leeds, UK; Justyna KATJA, Gabriela YORDANOVA

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing

24-11-2017

The IUU Regulation (1005/2008) is the core of EU’s legal framework for action against global IUU fishing. Its primary objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate the trade of IUU-caught products into the EU. One of its key components is a multiple-step procedure for dealing with non-EU countries considered uncooperative in the fight against IUU fishing. The European Commission identifies non-EU countries that fail to discharge their duties under international law to take action against IUU fishing ...

The IUU Regulation (1005/2008) is the core of EU’s legal framework for action against global IUU fishing. Its primary objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate the trade of IUU-caught products into the EU. One of its key components is a multiple-step procedure for dealing with non-EU countries considered uncooperative in the fight against IUU fishing. The European Commission identifies non-EU countries that fail to discharge their duties under international law to take action against IUU fishing, and initiates dialogue with each of them (i.e. with more than 50 countries to date). In most cases, the bilateral discussions result in the countries in question improving the governance of their fisheries.

External author

CHAHRI, Samy

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing

24-11-2017

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is widely recognised as a significant environmental, economic and social problem. It represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, an unfair disadvantage for responsible fishermen, and a disruption for the seafood market. Combatting IUU fishing has become a key means for achieving sustainable management of global fisheries. While the root cause of IUU fishing is states' failure to discipline vessels operating under their flag, tackling this phenomenon ...

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is widely recognised as a significant environmental, economic and social problem. It represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, an unfair disadvantage for responsible fishermen, and a disruption for the seafood market. Combatting IUU fishing has become a key means for achieving sustainable management of global fisheries. While the root cause of IUU fishing is states' failure to discipline vessels operating under their flag, tackling this phenomenon requires a many-sided approach and involves a whole range of international instruments. These instruments define a system of mutually reinforcing measures, tailored for each of the different responsibilities that countries have over their fishing vessels (as flag states), their waters (as coastal states), access to their ports (as port states), and access to their market (as market states). In response to this global problem, the EU has set up a thorough control system, in particular the IUU Regulation 1005/2008, which remains to date a unique piece of fisheries legislation worldwide. Intended to prevent the import of IUU-caught products into the EU, the IUU Regulation is structured around key market-related measures, such as a catch certification scheme, which is the first unilateral scheme of this type, and a procedure for non-cooperating third countries that may lead to trade sanctions. A broad range of complementary measures reinforces this approach.

TARGET (IM)BALANCES AT RECORD LEVEL: SHOULD WE WORRY?

16-11-2017

TARGET balances are the claims and liabilities of euro area national central banks (NCBs) with the ECB. TARGET balances add up to zero but the sum of the absolute value of these balances has grown substantially since 2008. The levels of TARGET balances within the Eurosystem has never been so high. In September 2017, Germany’s positive TARGET balance equalled €879 billion, which is over 25 percent of current German GDP. Luxembourg, Netherlands and Finland have also built up large claims relative to ...

TARGET balances are the claims and liabilities of euro area national central banks (NCBs) with the ECB. TARGET balances add up to zero but the sum of the absolute value of these balances has grown substantially since 2008. The levels of TARGET balances within the Eurosystem has never been so high. In September 2017, Germany’s positive TARGET balance equalled €879 billion, which is over 25 percent of current German GDP. Luxembourg, Netherlands and Finland have also built up large claims relative to their levels of GDP. On the other side, Italy (€432 billion) and Spain (€373 billion) have built up large negative balances. The ECB itself had a negative TARGET balance of €215 billion in September 2017.

DESIGN AND SEQUENCING OF EXIT FROM NONSTANDARD MONETARY POLICY MEASURES: WHAT SHOULD THE ECB “NEW NORMAL” LOOK LIKE?

16-11-2017

With the economic upswing in the euro area strengthening, both consumer and business confidence indicators at their highest levels since the beginning of the crisis, there is mounting pressure on the ECB for a change to its monetary policy stance. However, President Draghi has repeatedly stated that the programme of asset purchases will continue until the ECB “sees a sustained adjustment in the path of inflation consistent with its inflation aim”. Even though the recovery appears to be gaining momentum ...

With the economic upswing in the euro area strengthening, both consumer and business confidence indicators at their highest levels since the beginning of the crisis, there is mounting pressure on the ECB for a change to its monetary policy stance. However, President Draghi has repeatedly stated that the programme of asset purchases will continue until the ECB “sees a sustained adjustment in the path of inflation consistent with its inflation aim”. Even though the recovery appears to be gaining momentum, there is still a lot of slack in the euro-area economy (as well as significant heterogeneity between countries) and the inflation outlook is still well below the ECB’s target. In any case, however, exit strategies from unconventional monetary measures are likely to be implemented very gradually to preserve financial market stability. The normalisation of monetary policy will thus entail a long period characterised by large central banks’ balance sheets.

THE IMPACT OF BREXIT ON THE EU ENERGY SYSTEM

15-11-2017

This study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) shows that the energy-system related impact of Brexit on EU citizens and companies will be limited. The EU will be able to complete its market, achieve its climate and energy targets and maintain supply security. It appears likely (although not guaranteed) that the UK will continue to maintain sensible environmental policies and safeguard the rights of EU companies ...

This study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) shows that the energy-system related impact of Brexit on EU citizens and companies will be limited. The EU will be able to complete its market, achieve its climate and energy targets and maintain supply security. It appears likely (although not guaranteed) that the UK will continue to maintain sensible environmental policies and safeguard the rights of EU companies in the UK. However, special attention on the impact of Brexit on the Irish energy system is warranted.

External author

Gustav FREDRIKSSON, Alexander ROTH Simone TAGLIAPIETRA, Georg ZACHMANN

Design and sequencing of exit from non-standard monetary policy measures: What should the ECB “new normal” look like?

15-11-2017

This paper discusses 1) the design and sequencing of exiting from unconventional monetary policy measures, which the ECB has undertaken to achieve price stability and support the euro area economy and 2) the new normal—namely, how the future operational framework of the ECB should look and to what extent it will resemble the pre-crisis state of affairs. We argue that the exit from unconventional measures should be gradual and accompanied by transparent communication, and that the exit should precede ...

This paper discusses 1) the design and sequencing of exiting from unconventional monetary policy measures, which the ECB has undertaken to achieve price stability and support the euro area economy and 2) the new normal—namely, how the future operational framework of the ECB should look and to what extent it will resemble the pre-crisis state of affairs. We argue that the exit from unconventional measures should be gradual and accompanied by transparent communication, and that the exit should precede interest rate hikes. The new normal for the ECB is likely to be different from what we know from pre-crisis times (prior to 2008). It is likely to be characterised by the continuation of an extended balance sheet, more active communication measures towards the public, and a greater emphasis on financial stability issues.

External author

Roman Horvath (CASE)

Data flows- Future Scenarios

14-11-2017

Prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), this report examines the current state of play in the open data market and the legal framework in the EU. Barriers and possible solutions are identified in the form of future scenarios to 2020-25. The key policy recommendation is to instigate a system of Open Data Licensing to drive access to open data, akin to open source software licensing.

Prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the European Parliament’s Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), this report examines the current state of play in the open data market and the legal framework in the EU. Barriers and possible solutions are identified in the form of future scenarios to 2020-25. The key policy recommendation is to instigate a system of Open Data Licensing to drive access to open data, akin to open source software licensing.

External author

Colin BLACKMAN, Camford Associates Ltd; Associate Research Fellow, CEPS. Simon FORGE, SCF Associates Ltd.

What if we could 3D-print our own body parts

10-11-2017

The 3D-printing sector has proven its commercial viability in recent years, reaching the high street and, indeed, many homes. The technology is already used in some medical domains, such as dentistry and prosthetics, and many scientists are now exploring methods of printing biological materials – even if reports about lifesaving 3D-printed hearts are certainly premature.

The 3D-printing sector has proven its commercial viability in recent years, reaching the high street and, indeed, many homes. The technology is already used in some medical domains, such as dentistry and prosthetics, and many scientists are now exploring methods of printing biological materials – even if reports about lifesaving 3D-printed hearts are certainly premature.

Upcoming events

10-01-2018
EPRS Book Talks | Architects of the Euro: Intellectuals in the Making of EMU
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11-01-2018
Victim's Rights – LIBE-FEMM Joint hearing
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11-01-2018
2018: Navigating currents and winds. Ten issues to watch
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