542

result(s)

Word(s)
Publication type
Author
Keyword
Date

Review of dual-use export controls

24-07-2017

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for the development of weapons of mass-destruction, terrorist acts and human rights violations; these so-called ‘dual-use’ goods are subject to the European Union’s export control regime. The regime is now being revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments and to create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation recasts the regulation in force since ...

Certain goods and technologies have legitimate civilian applications but can also be used for the development of weapons of mass-destruction, terrorist acts and human rights violations; these so-called ‘dual-use’ goods are subject to the European Union’s export control regime. The regime is now being revised, mainly to take account of significant technological developments and to create a more level playing field among EU Member States. The proposed regulation recasts the regulation in force since 2009. Among other elements, the proposal introduces a controversial new ‘human security’ dimension to export controls, to prevent the abuse of certain cyber-surveillance technologies by regimes with a questionable human rights record. Stakeholders are divided over the incorporation of human rights considerations, with the technology industry particularly concerned that it might lose out to non-European competitors. The European Parliament, the Council and the Commission issued a joint statement on the review of the dual-use export control system in 2014 and the European Parliament has since adopted several resolutions related to the issue. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

EU-Cuba relations: a new chapter begins

18-07-2017

The Political Dialogue and Cooperation Agreement (PDCA) between the EU and Cuba, endorsed by the European Parliament (EP) on 5 July 2017, opens a new phase in EU-Cuba relations. Until now Cuba was the only country in Latin America without a cooperation or political dialogue agreement with the EU. The PDCA creates a framework for political dialogue and closer bilateral cooperation, including in trade. The parts of the agreement (mostly related to cooperation and trade issues) that fall within EU competence ...

The Political Dialogue and Cooperation Agreement (PDCA) between the EU and Cuba, endorsed by the European Parliament (EP) on 5 July 2017, opens a new phase in EU-Cuba relations. Until now Cuba was the only country in Latin America without a cooperation or political dialogue agreement with the EU. The PDCA creates a framework for political dialogue and closer bilateral cooperation, including in trade. The parts of the agreement (mostly related to cooperation and trade issues) that fall within EU competence can already be applied provisionally, but the agreement will only enter into force in full after it has been ratified in all the EU Member States. Since negotiations on the PDCA began in 2014, Cuba’s relations with the EU and individual Member States have intensified considerably. For the EU, the PDCA is a tool for supporting a process of change and modernisation in Cuba, while for Cuba it represents the ‘normalisation’ of the relationship with an important economic and trade partner and helps it to diversify its external relations. Parliament will focus, in monitoring the implementation of the PDCA, on two areas of particular concern to the EP: human rights and civil liberties on Cuba, and the role of Cuban civil society.

International Agreements in Progress: EU-Japan free trade agreement within reach

14-07-2017

Negotiations on an EU-Japan free trade agreement (FTA) were officially launched in March 2013. Following 18 rounds of negotiations and a number of meetings at the technical and political levels, a political agreement in principle was reached during the 24th EU-Japan Summit in Brussels, on 6 July 2017. Negotiations on the outstanding issues that were left on the table will continue, with the aim of finalising the text of the agreement by the end of 2017. The deal with Japan, the EU's second largest ...

Negotiations on an EU-Japan free trade agreement (FTA) were officially launched in March 2013. Following 18 rounds of negotiations and a number of meetings at the technical and political levels, a political agreement in principle was reached during the 24th EU-Japan Summit in Brussels, on 6 July 2017. Negotiations on the outstanding issues that were left on the table will continue, with the aim of finalising the text of the agreement by the end of 2017. The deal with Japan, the EU's second largest trading partner in Asia, will enhance trade and investment relationships between the two parties. European companies, in the agri-food sector for instance, will benefit from improved access to the Japanese market, mainly through the reduction both of tariffs on specific goods as well as existing regulatory and non-tariff barriers. The 2016 trade sustainability impact assessment for the EU-Japan FTA indicated that the EU-Japan FTA and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement, involving the EU and the USA, would result in similar levels of economic gains for Europe. According to recent Commission estimates, European companies will save up to €1 billion in customs duties per year as a result of the EU-Japan FTA. Moreover, the value of EU goods and services exports could rise by up to €20 billion. This briefing is an update of an earlier version, of October 2016: PE 589.828.

The European Council in 2016: Overview of decisions and discussions

13-07-2017

This In-Depth Analysis by the European Council Oversight Unit of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) is the second in a series of annual publications examining the activity of the European Council. In 2016, the Heads of State or Government devoted most of their attention to three policy areas: migration; foreign and security policy; and economic governance, competitiveness and trade. The publication also considers the impact of the United Kingdom referendum vote on the proceedings ...

This In-Depth Analysis by the European Council Oversight Unit of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) is the second in a series of annual publications examining the activity of the European Council. In 2016, the Heads of State or Government devoted most of their attention to three policy areas: migration; foreign and security policy; and economic governance, competitiveness and trade. The publication also considers the impact of the United Kingdom referendum vote on the proceedings of the European Council, both procedurally (EU 28 and EU-27 meetings) and thematically (policy priorities and debates on the future of a Europe-at-27). The European Council has carried out its strategic, deliberative, and follow-up roles throughout the year. This was particularly notable when it dealt with migration, which attracted 50 % of the attention of the Heads of State or Government, as shown in the conclusions of their debates. The European Council President, Donald Tusk, continued to report to the European Parliament on the outcomes of the European Council meetings, as required by the Treaties.

Openness of public procurement markets in key third countries

04-07-2017

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making ...

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making both within the EU and in its trading relations with key third countries. This assessment concludes that the lack of comprehensive comparable data on procurement contract awards, particularly at the sub-central level, is not a trivial challenge for policy makers. Nevertheless, it is evident that the liberalisation of procurement markets continues to take place on a strictly reciprocal basis – linked to the offensive interests of governments. Given the slow-down in negotiating mega-regional agreements with comprehensive procurement chapters, the WTO Government Procurement Agreement remains the most efficient and transparent forum for undertaking further liberalisation in public procurement.

External author

Kamala DAWAR, Sussex University, United Kingdom

In Pursuit of an International Investment Court. Recently Negotiated Investment Chapters in EU Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements in Comparative Perspective

04-07-2017

The study compares the revised and signed text of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVFTA) and the EU Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) in respect of important procedural aspects relating to investor State dispute settlement. The findings are juxtaposed to the procedural rules governing the preliminary reference procedure and direct action (action for annulment) before the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as the individual ...

The study compares the revised and signed text of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVFTA) and the EU Singapore Free Trade Agreement (EUSFTA) in respect of important procedural aspects relating to investor State dispute settlement. The findings are juxtaposed to the procedural rules governing the preliminary reference procedure and direct action (action for annulment) before the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as the individual application before the European Court of Human Rights. In doing so, it provides a tool and manual to evaluate the EU’s todays and future progress in reforming the international investment law regime. By outlining key features of the procedural frameworks governing two international courts, some ‘tried and tested’ concepts as source of inspiration for the possible design of a ‘multilateral investment court’ might be found.

External author

Prof. Dr. Steffen HINDELANG, LL.M., Department of Law, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and Ass. iur. Teoman M. HAGEMEYER, Dipl. iur. oec., Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Law, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

Macro-financial assistance to Moldova

27-06-2017

Amid persistent political and economic turmoil in Moldova, the European Parliament is expected to vote in July on the Commission's proposal for macro-financial assistance to the country, which aims to ease the immediate pressure on Moldova's public finances and stabilise its economy.

Amid persistent political and economic turmoil in Moldova, the European Parliament is expected to vote in July on the Commission's proposal for macro-financial assistance to the country, which aims to ease the immediate pressure on Moldova's public finances and stabilise its economy.

CETA ratification process: Recent developments

21-06-2017

On 28 October 2016, the Council decided to sign the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), and on 15 February 2017 the European Parliament gave its consent to the agreement's conclusion. As CETA is a mixed agreement, the EU Member States are currently in the process of ratifying it in accordance with their constitutional requirements. Only after all have done so, can the Council adopt a decision to conclude CETA, after which the agreement will enter into force.

On 28 October 2016, the Council decided to sign the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), and on 15 February 2017 the European Parliament gave its consent to the agreement's conclusion. As CETA is a mixed agreement, the EU Member States are currently in the process of ratifying it in accordance with their constitutional requirements. Only after all have done so, can the Council adopt a decision to conclude CETA, after which the agreement will enter into force.

Protection from dumped and subsidised imports

19-06-2017

On 9 November 2016, the European Commission published a proposal for targeted changes to the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy regulations. The proposal is a response to the expiry of parts of China’s WTO accession protocol in December 2016 and to unfair trade practices from third countries. At the core of the amendments of the anti-dumping regulation is the use for WTO members of prices derived from constructed values in situations where there are 'substantial market distortions' in the country of ...

On 9 November 2016, the European Commission published a proposal for targeted changes to the EU anti-dumping and anti-subsidy regulations. The proposal is a response to the expiry of parts of China’s WTO accession protocol in December 2016 and to unfair trade practices from third countries. At the core of the amendments of the anti-dumping regulation is the use for WTO members of prices derived from constructed values in situations where there are 'substantial market distortions' in the country of export under investigation. This approach would replace the 'analogue country methodology' which is currently applied to non-market economies (NMEs) under EU law and would remain in place for non-WTO members. The amendments to the anti-subsidy regulation would insert due process and transparency provisions required to capture subsidies identified only in the course of anti-subsidy probes.

International Agreements in Progress: EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement - Stimulus for negotiations in the region

15-06-2017

Singapore is the first member country of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and second Asian economy after South Korea to have concluded a free trade agreement (FTA) with the EU, in October 2014. Moreover, this is the first comprehensive FTA negotiated and finalised by the EU after the Treaty of Lisbon came into effect. As a 'new generation' trade agreement, the EU-Singapore FTA (EUSFTA) in many aspects goes further than current World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. Moreover ...

Singapore is the first member country of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and second Asian economy after South Korea to have concluded a free trade agreement (FTA) with the EU, in October 2014. Moreover, this is the first comprehensive FTA negotiated and finalised by the EU after the Treaty of Lisbon came into effect. As a 'new generation' trade agreement, the EU-Singapore FTA (EUSFTA) in many aspects goes further than current World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. Moreover, not only does the agreement provide improved access to the Singaporean market, it is also beneficial for European companies operating from Singapore across the Southeast Asian region. Following the conclusion of the EUSFTA negotiations, the Commission sought an opinion from the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) on the allocation of competences between the EU and the Member States. On 16 May 2017, the CJEU issued its opinion, stating that the EUSFTA also covers shared competences. As the EUSFTA is considered a model for successive new generation EU FTAs, the CJEU’s opinion is extremely relevant for all ongoing FTA negotiations and pending agreements.

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09-10-2017
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