592

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Policy area
Author
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The collaborative economy and taxation: Taxing the value created in the collaborative economy

28-02-2018

EU citizens' daily lives have been changed by the emerging collaborative economy. However, the terms employed to describe the phenomenon are as many and varied as the interpretations of what the collaborative economy actually comprises. The collaborative economy encompasses many situations that do not match the standard business categories and types of transactions. The collaborative economy blurs the lines, not least as regards taxation. For policy-makers to understand how taxation of the collaborative ...

EU citizens' daily lives have been changed by the emerging collaborative economy. However, the terms employed to describe the phenomenon are as many and varied as the interpretations of what the collaborative economy actually comprises. The collaborative economy encompasses many situations that do not match the standard business categories and types of transactions. The collaborative economy blurs the lines, not least as regards taxation. For policy-makers to understand how taxation of the collaborative economy can be put into practice requires fighting the surrounding fog of terms and categories. Privileging a case-by-base and tax-by-tax, rather than a straightforward 'one-size-fits-all' approach, is a prerequisite for grasping the potential benefits of this fast-evolving and multifaceted reality.

Critical Assessment of European Agenda for the Collaborative Economy

15-12-2016

The research paper describes the main legal challenges for regulating the collaborative economy and evaluates the definition of, and elucidates how the existing body of EU law applies to collaborative economy business models. In the last part, the paper elaborates on how a regulatory framework for non-professional provision of services and prosumers should look like and makes a few concrete proposals for future policies. This paper was commissioned by the Policy Department A for Economic, Scientific ...

The research paper describes the main legal challenges for regulating the collaborative economy and evaluates the definition of, and elucidates how the existing body of EU law applies to collaborative economy business models. In the last part, the paper elaborates on how a regulatory framework for non-professional provision of services and prosumers should look like and makes a few concrete proposals for future policies. This paper was commissioned by the Policy Department A for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies upon request of the European Parliament´s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Collaborative Economy"

16-01-2017

This proceedings summaries the workshop chaired by MEP Nicola DANTI on collaborative economy. The workshop is a part of the overall work done within the European Parliament in order to deal with this new form of economy in the context of the Single Market. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

This proceedings summaries the workshop chaired by MEP Nicola DANTI on collaborative economy. The workshop is a part of the overall work done within the European Parliament in order to deal with this new form of economy in the context of the Single Market. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

External author

Alexandros GONIADIS

The Situation of Workers in the Collaborative Economy

04-10-2016

The collaborative economy (or “platform economy”), encompassing work-on-demand via apps like Uber and crowdwork like Amazon Mechanical Turk, has grown exponentially in recent years, thanks to the development of high-speed networks, the exploitation of big data and the availability of mobile devices, which have cut down transaction costs and allow for real-time effective matching of supply and demand. While creating many new opportunities for digital and physical services, which have, thanks to lower ...

The collaborative economy (or “platform economy”), encompassing work-on-demand via apps like Uber and crowdwork like Amazon Mechanical Turk, has grown exponentially in recent years, thanks to the development of high-speed networks, the exploitation of big data and the availability of mobile devices, which have cut down transaction costs and allow for real-time effective matching of supply and demand. While creating many new opportunities for digital and physical services, which have, thanks to lower costs as compared to established operators, rather expanded the market for services instead of crowding out the incumbents, this new digitally based economy has also raised questions on the situation of workers. As this literature review shows, their legal status (either as employees or self-employed) is often unclear, and negative effects on the labour market can be witnessed (such as missing social protection, low remuneration of work, questionable work-life balance and more). Many of these effects are due to the functioning of the digital economy, which relies on micro-tasks, trust-inducing mechanisms as ratings and - at times opaque - algorithms. The literature review also presents policy solutions as discussed in recent literature.

The Collaborative Economy: Socioeconomic, Regulatory and Labor Issues

16-01-2017

This briefing provides a discussion of economic, regulatory, labor and social issues related to the sharing economy (collaborative economy). It provides a definition for the collaborative economy, placing it in the context of a range of past and current definitions, and proposing a new term, “crowd-based capitalism,” as a term that unifies changes across different industries. It outlines how this new form of commercial exchange blurs the lines between personal and commercial, elevating the importance ...

This briefing provides a discussion of economic, regulatory, labor and social issues related to the sharing economy (collaborative economy). It provides a definition for the collaborative economy, placing it in the context of a range of past and current definitions, and proposing a new term, “crowd-based capitalism,” as a term that unifies changes across different industries. It outlines how this new form of commercial exchange blurs the lines between personal and commercial, elevating the importance of social factors in creating commercial trust. It reflects on how the economic returns from the sharing economy may be repartitioned across social actors, and the promise of lower economic inequality. It outlines new approaches to regulating the sharing economy, the necessity of carefully designed self-regulatory mechanisms, the promise of data-driven delegation, and a set of principles to draw the right lines between the government and the platforms. It concludes with a summary of the state of the independent workforce and outlines approaches for creating a new social contract as society shifts away from employment and towards freelance work. This document was prepared by Professor Arun Sundararajan at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

External author

Arun SUNDARARAJAN

An Economic Review on the Collaborative Economy

15-12-2016

This paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence concerning the potential gains from collaborative economy and the economic impact some of its business models on. It discusses how we can distinguish professional and non-professional services and provides a list of 9 tentative recommendations for the better protection of the users of the collaborative platforms. It also summarises the main regulatory concerns that emerge from the operation of such platforms. This document was prepared by ...

This paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence concerning the potential gains from collaborative economy and the economic impact some of its business models on. It discusses how we can distinguish professional and non-professional services and provides a list of 9 tentative recommendations for the better protection of the users of the collaborative platforms. It also summarises the main regulatory concerns that emerge from the operation of such platforms. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

External author

Georgios Petropoulos

The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy

07-12-2017

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders ...

This study investigates the social protection of workers in the platform economy at the request of the European Parliament’s Employment and Social Affairs Committee. The report reviews literature and previous research on the platform economy with the aims of defining it and developing a typology for understanding its nature. It discusses the growth and drivers of the platform economy, as well as benefits and challenges for workers, reporting findings from 50 interviews conducted with expert stakeholders in eight European countries and from an original survey of 1,200 platform workers. It dissects the different normative layers that need to be considered when looking at the challenges of social protection of platform workers from a legal perspective. Finally, the report draws conclusions and makes recommendations concerning arrangements for the provision of social protection for workers in this growing sector of the economy.

External author

Chris FORDE, Mark STUART, Simon JOYCE, Liz OLIVER, Danat VALIZADE, Gabriella ALBERTI, Kate HARDY, Vera TRAPPMANN, Charles UMNEY, Calum CARSON, Centre for Employment Relations Innovation and Change (CERIC), University of Leeds, UK; Justyna KATJA, Gabriela YORDANOVA

A European agenda for the collaborative economy

04-11-2016

The 'collaborative economy' – also known as the 'sharing economy' – enables people to share goods and services by using internet platforms and information and communications technology applications. Due to its rapid growth, the collaborative economy has recently raised regulatory issues in various sectors across the European Union (EU). It is argued that this new model of economic activity, with its focus on consuming more efficiently, brings consumers lower prices and broader choice and enables ...

The 'collaborative economy' – also known as the 'sharing economy' – enables people to share goods and services by using internet platforms and information and communications technology applications. Due to its rapid growth, the collaborative economy has recently raised regulatory issues in various sectors across the European Union (EU). It is argued that this new model of economic activity, with its focus on consuming more efficiently, brings consumers lower prices and broader choice and enables them to capitalise on their property and skills to generate extra income. A counter-argument stresses that this is causing market imbalances and unfair competition in relation to traditional market players, because of non-regulated issues related to labour standards and rights, consumer protection, taxation, liability, quality of services and user safety. To avoid a fragmented approach across the EU and growing uncertainty regarding applicable rules while trying to prevent a potential stifling of innovation, the European Commission published its guidance on the matter on 2 June 2016. 'A European agenda for the collaborative economy' is to serve as policy orientation for Member States to help ensure balanced development of the EU collaborative economy. In the European Parliament, the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee will draft an own initiative report on the agenda.

The Collaborative Economy

21-12-2015

Ever since its appearance, Internet has allowed us to collaborate with other people remotely. In the 80's, email was the breakthrough that enabled exchange of digital materials. In the 90's, the World Wide Web opened collaboration on web sites. After 2000, social media and e-meeting technologies enabled face-to-face interaction with others via the Internet. New modes of collaboration, such as crowd sourcing, crowd funding, co-creation or open design are reaching mainstream use. Advances in technologies ...

Ever since its appearance, Internet has allowed us to collaborate with other people remotely. In the 80's, email was the breakthrough that enabled exchange of digital materials. In the 90's, the World Wide Web opened collaboration on web sites. After 2000, social media and e-meeting technologies enabled face-to-face interaction with others via the Internet. New modes of collaboration, such as crowd sourcing, crowd funding, co-creation or open design are reaching mainstream use. Advances in technologies related to Collaborative Internet, Big/Open Data, Crypto Currency and Additive Manufacturing are bringing the Collaborative Economy ever closer to us. This study reveals a wide range of opportunities and threats associated with these technologies,as well as social, political, economic, moral and ethical issues related to this new way of working. Policy options are presented, in order to help policy makers anticipate developments with effective policies that will nurture the positive impacts of collaborative Internet and avoid the negative ones.

External author

External authors: Steve Robertshaw (editor), Nick Achilleopoulos, Johan E. Bengtsson, Patrick Crehan, Angele Giuliano, John Soldatos (AcrossLimits Ltd, Malta)

Digital Services in the Area of Accommodation and Transportation: Economic and Legal Aspects

15-12-2017

This paper examines the development of digital business models in the provision of flights and short-term accommodation services. It discusses the growing importance of digital intermediaries and their associated business model features, some of which provide significant value, and others which could be considered deleterious and in need of regulatory scrutiny. The paper concludes with some suggestions for regulation based on technology, algorithms and big data analytics. This could enable a more ...

This paper examines the development of digital business models in the provision of flights and short-term accommodation services. It discusses the growing importance of digital intermediaries and their associated business model features, some of which provide significant value, and others which could be considered deleterious and in need of regulatory scrutiny. The paper concludes with some suggestions for regulation based on technology, algorithms and big data analytics. This could enable a more soft-touch, automatic, dynamic and individualised approach to regulation. This research paper has been commissioned by Policy Department at the request of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee.

External author

Prof. Dr. Stuart John BARNE

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