211

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Perspectives on transatlantic cooperation: Transatlantic cyber-insecurity and cybercrime - Economic impact and future prospects

07-12-2017

Over the past two decades, an ‘open’ internet and the spread of digital technologies have brought great economic benefits on both sides of the Atlantic. At the same time, the spread of insecure digital technologies has also enabled costly new forms of crime, and created systemic risks to transatlantic and national critical infrastructure, threatening economic growth and development. The transnational nature of these phenomena make it very difficult for effective policy solutions to be implemented ...

Over the past two decades, an ‘open’ internet and the spread of digital technologies have brought great economic benefits on both sides of the Atlantic. At the same time, the spread of insecure digital technologies has also enabled costly new forms of crime, and created systemic risks to transatlantic and national critical infrastructure, threatening economic growth and development. The transnational nature of these phenomena make it very difficult for effective policy solutions to be implemented unilaterally by any one jurisdiction. Cooperation between stakeholders in both the EU and US is required in the development and implementation of policies to increase the security of digital technologies and increase societal resilience to the cybersecurity risks associated with critical infrastructure. Although there is a great deal of congruence between the stated policy goals in both the EU and US, obstacles to effective cooperation impede effective transatlantic policy development and implementation in some areas. This study examines the scale of economic and societal benefits, costs, and losses associated with digital technologies. It provides an overview of the key cybercrime, cybersecurity and cyber-resilience issues that policy-makers on either side of the Atlantic could work together on, and explains where effective cooperation is sometimes impeded.

External author

Benjamin C. Dean, Iconoclast Tech Foreword by Patryk Pawlak, formerly of EPRS, now of EU Institute for Security Studies Administrator responsible: Elena Lazarou, Members' Research Service, EPRS

The Law Enforcement Challenges of Cybercrime: Are We Really Playing Catch-Up?

28-10-2015

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. With a number of high-profile criminal cases, such as ‘Silk Road’, cybercrime has been very much in the spotlight in recent years, both in Europe and elsewhere. While this study shows that cybercrime poses significant challenges for law enforcement, it also argues that the key cybercrime concern for law enforcement is legal rather than technical ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. With a number of high-profile criminal cases, such as ‘Silk Road’, cybercrime has been very much in the spotlight in recent years, both in Europe and elsewhere. While this study shows that cybercrime poses significant challenges for law enforcement, it also argues that the key cybercrime concern for law enforcement is legal rather than technical and technological. The study further underlines that the European Parliament is largely excluded from policy development in the field of cybercrime, impeding public scrutiny and accountability.

External author

Ben Hayes (Transnational Institute - TNI) ; Julien Jeandesboz (University of Amsterdam - UvA) and Centre d’Études sur les Conflits, Liberté et Sécurité - CCLS) ; Francesco Ragazzi (Leiden University, Netherlands and Centre d’Études sur les Conflits, Liberté et Sécurité - CCLS) ; Stephanie Simon (University of Amsterdam - UvA) ; Valsamis Mitsilegas (Queen Mary University of London, the UK) ; This study was coordinated by the Centre d’Études sur les Conflits, Liberté et Sécurité (CCLS) and the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) and conducted under the scientific supervision of Didier Bigo (CCLS and Sciences Po Paris and King’s College London) and Amandine Scherrer (European Studies Coordinator and Associate Researcher at CCLS)

An assessment of the Commission’s proposals on electronic evidence

21-09-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, analyses the added value and the shortcomings of the Commission’s proposals on cross-border access to electronic evidence, with a special focus on the proposals’ implications for territoriality and state sovereignty and fundamental rights of service providers and users.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, analyses the added value and the shortcomings of the Commission’s proposals on cross-border access to electronic evidence, with a special focus on the proposals’ implications for territoriality and state sovereignty and fundamental rights of service providers and users.

External author

Prof. Martin BÖSE, Professor, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

Perspectives on transatlantic cooperation: Cybersecurity and cybercrime - Building more resilient and prosperous transatlantic societies

11-07-2016

Internet-based platforms are increasingly used for delivery of services, basic governance functions or communication. As such, open and secure access to the Internet constitutes a significant element in generating growth, prosperity and citizens’ empowerment on both sides of the Atlantic. However, this potential is increasingly undermined by digital risks and vulnerabilities in cyberspace: online fraud, attacks on critical infrastructure or the use of new technologies by terrorist networks. According ...

Internet-based platforms are increasingly used for delivery of services, basic governance functions or communication. As such, open and secure access to the Internet constitutes a significant element in generating growth, prosperity and citizens’ empowerment on both sides of the Atlantic. However, this potential is increasingly undermined by digital risks and vulnerabilities in cyberspace: online fraud, attacks on critical infrastructure or the use of new technologies by terrorist networks. According to several studies, Europe and the United States can still reap tremendous benefits from digitisation but, in order to secure the potential gains, they need to strengthen transatlantic cooperation in building more resilient systems and societies, as well as deliver on their commitment to enhancing ties between regulatory, law enforcement, policy and civil society actors. This briefing forms part of a broader research project on the perspectives on transatlantic cooperation in the US election year, requested by the Chair of the European Parliament's delegation for relations with the United States.

Achieving a sovereign and trustworthy ICT industry in the EU

20-12-2017

This study attempts to identify and assess policy options for the EU to achieve cyber-resilience, and to develop capabilities, and industrial and technological resources for a trustworthy EU cyberspace, with a view also to promoting core values, such as online privacy protection. The findings could form the basis for an assessment of alternative measures to improve the resilience of the European ICT industry and the EU's strategic decision-making capacity, and enhance the resilience of critical information ...

This study attempts to identify and assess policy options for the EU to achieve cyber-resilience, and to develop capabilities, and industrial and technological resources for a trustworthy EU cyberspace, with a view also to promoting core values, such as online privacy protection. The findings could form the basis for an assessment of alternative measures to improve the resilience of the European ICT industry and the EU's strategic decision-making capacity, and enhance the resilience of critical information technology networks. The study further reviews the current state of reciprocity between search engine services and individual customers. The ultimate aim of this study is to develop concrete policy options to be considered by EU institutions and Member States – and potentially to be used as background by EP committees for their legislative and own-initiative reports.

External author

EPRS, DG

EYE event - Cyber-attacks: Not just a phantom menace

16-05-2018

Some 96 % of young people (and 70 % of citizens) in Europe use the internet every day. The young communicate, play, shop, learn and work online. While offering a galaxy of opportunities, the digital environment also has a dark side. Cybercrime knows no borders and cyber-attacks can take on various forms, targeting all kinds of things, ranging from our devices and wallets, to our way of life. How can we make our digital society more resilient and our cybersecurity stronger? How does the EU help us ...

Some 96 % of young people (and 70 % of citizens) in Europe use the internet every day. The young communicate, play, shop, learn and work online. While offering a galaxy of opportunities, the digital environment also has a dark side. Cybercrime knows no borders and cyber-attacks can take on various forms, targeting all kinds of things, ranging from our devices and wallets, to our way of life. How can we make our digital society more resilient and our cybersecurity stronger? How does the EU help us reinforce our cyber-preparedness and response?

Virtual currencies and terrorist financing: assessing the risks and evaluating responses

04-06-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the TERR Committee, explores the terrorist financing (TF) risks of virtual currencies (VCs), including cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. It describes the features of VCs that present TF risks, and reviews the open source literature on terrorist use of virtual currencies to understand the current state and likely future manifestation of the risk. It then reviews ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the TERR Committee, explores the terrorist financing (TF) risks of virtual currencies (VCs), including cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. It describes the features of VCs that present TF risks, and reviews the open source literature on terrorist use of virtual currencies to understand the current state and likely future manifestation of the risk. It then reviews the regulatory and law enforcement response in the EU and beyond, assessing the effectiveness of measures taken to date. Finally, it provides recommendations for EU policymakers and other relevant stakeholders for ensuring the TF risks of VCs are adequately mitigated.

External author

Tom KEATINGE, David CARLISLE, Florence KEEN

Cybersecurity in the European Union and Beyond: Exploring the Threats and Policy Responses

28-10-2015

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. It sets out to develop a better understanding of the main cybersecurity threats and existing cybersecurity capabilities in the European Union and the United States. The study further examines transnational cooperation and explores perceptions of the effectiveness of the EU response, pinpointing remaining challenges and suggesting avenues ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. It sets out to develop a better understanding of the main cybersecurity threats and existing cybersecurity capabilities in the European Union and the United States. The study further examines transnational cooperation and explores perceptions of the effectiveness of the EU response, pinpointing remaining challenges and suggesting avenues for improvement.

External author

Nicole van der Meulen, Eun A. Jo and Stefan Soesanto (RAND Europe)

Unlocking the potential of the EU Treaties: An article-by-article analysis of the scope for action

07-01-2019

Public opinion often expresses the view that the European Union should do more to improve the lives of citizens in various policy areas, but a lack of convergence among Member States on the desired changes, not to mention likely hurdles in the ratification process, as well as other factors make any significant reform of the EU Treaties unlikely in the near term. This study identifies and analyses 34 policy areas where there may be the potential to do more under the existing legal bases provided by ...

Public opinion often expresses the view that the European Union should do more to improve the lives of citizens in various policy areas, but a lack of convergence among Member States on the desired changes, not to mention likely hurdles in the ratification process, as well as other factors make any significant reform of the EU Treaties unlikely in the near term. This study identifies and analyses 34 policy areas where there may be the potential to do more under the existing legal bases provided by the Treaties without recourse to any amendment or updating of those texts. It looks at currently unused or under-used legal bases in the Treaties with a view to their contributing more effectively to the EU policy process.

Cyber violence and hate speech online against women

16-08-2018

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, looks into the phenomenon of cyber violence and hate speech online against women in the European Union. After reviewing existing definitions of the different forms of cyber violence, the study assesses the root causes and impact of online violence on women. It continues by analysing and mapping the prevalence, victims and perpetrators. The document ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, looks into the phenomenon of cyber violence and hate speech online against women in the European Union. After reviewing existing definitions of the different forms of cyber violence, the study assesses the root causes and impact of online violence on women. It continues by analysing and mapping the prevalence, victims and perpetrators. The document ends with an outline of the existing legal framework and recommendations for action within the EU remit.

External author

Adriane VAN DER WILK, Monika NATTER, ÖSB Consulting GmbH

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