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LGBTI in Africa: Widespread discrimination against people with non-conforming sexual orientations and gender identities

16-05-2019

Three out of five African countries have laws criminalising homosexuality and the public expression of sexual or gender behaviour that does not conform with heterosexual norms. These same laws even sometimes punish LGBTI (lesbian, gay, trans, intersex) rights advocacy. Some African countries have partly decriminalised LGBTI persons or given them better protection. However, across the continent – with the notable exception of South Africa – such persons are still far from fully enjoying the same rights ...

Three out of five African countries have laws criminalising homosexuality and the public expression of sexual or gender behaviour that does not conform with heterosexual norms. These same laws even sometimes punish LGBTI (lesbian, gay, trans, intersex) rights advocacy. Some African countries have partly decriminalised LGBTI persons or given them better protection. However, across the continent – with the notable exception of South Africa – such persons are still far from fully enjoying the same rights as other citizens. Furthermore, recent years have seen the emergence of a worrying trend: the adoption of tougher legislation coupled with clampdowns on homosexuals. An argument frequently used in support of discriminatory legislative and other measures targeting LGBTI persons is that non-conforming sexual orientations and gender identities were brought to Africa by Western colonisers and are contrary to the 'African values'. This claim has long been proven false by academic research, but tolerance for LGBTI is still very low in most African countries, and LGBTI people are all too often exposed to discrimination and violence. Against this backdrop, the EU institutions and Member States have a difficult task: on the one hand, they are committed under the Treaties to promote the EU core values in their external relations, and to monitor and tackle abuses in their partner countries. On the other hand, their actions and declarations in this area risk reinforcing the perception that the EU is trying to impose non-African values on Africa, all the more so since the notion of sexual orientation and gender identity as grounds for discrimination is contested by African countries in the multilateral arena.

Piracy and armed robbery off the coast of Africa: EU and global impact

19-03-2019

African maritime security is affected by a wide range of illegal activities. This paper focuses on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, examining the legal aspects and societal implications of these forms of violence. Maritime piracy and armed robbery off Africa's coasts also pose a threat to the European Union's security and economy. Since 2008, the European Union has been implementing a maritime security strategy by means of separate regional strategies in the Gulf of Aden and in the Gulf ...

African maritime security is affected by a wide range of illegal activities. This paper focuses on maritime piracy and armed robbery at sea, examining the legal aspects and societal implications of these forms of violence. Maritime piracy and armed robbery off Africa's coasts also pose a threat to the European Union's security and economy. Since 2008, the European Union has been implementing a maritime security strategy by means of separate regional strategies in the Gulf of Aden and in the Gulf of Guinea.

The African Union's blue strategy

14-03-2019

Harnessing ocean resources in a sustainable manner is the 'new frontier of the African renaissance', according to the African Union. To this end, the African Union has designed an ambitious maritime strategy aimed at restoring ocean health, reinstating security at sea, and strengthening strategic 'blue growth' sectors. The EU is supporting this strategy, which is in line with the main aspects of its own approach to the Africa-EU partnership.

Harnessing ocean resources in a sustainable manner is the 'new frontier of the African renaissance', according to the African Union. To this end, the African Union has designed an ambitious maritime strategy aimed at restoring ocean health, reinstating security at sea, and strengthening strategic 'blue growth' sectors. The EU is supporting this strategy, which is in line with the main aspects of its own approach to the Africa-EU partnership.

EU policies – Delivering for citizens: Foreign policy

08-03-2019

European Union (EU) action beyond its borders often requires a combination of approaches. The EU Treaties differentiate between common foreign and security policy (CFSP), common security and defence policy (CSDP), external action, and the external dimension of internal policies, but in the field, issues are so intertwined that more often than not a single tool is not sufficient. For example, population displacement triggered by a conflict over natural resources has to be addressed by humanitarian ...

European Union (EU) action beyond its borders often requires a combination of approaches. The EU Treaties differentiate between common foreign and security policy (CFSP), common security and defence policy (CSDP), external action, and the external dimension of internal policies, but in the field, issues are so intertwined that more often than not a single tool is not sufficient. For example, population displacement triggered by a conflict over natural resources has to be addressed by humanitarian aid, itself secured by a CSDP mission, and its effects mitigated by adequate migration and development policies, while peace talks are conducted. Coordination between all stakeholders is challenging but vital, not only as a response but also for prevention. In order to address new challenges such as climate change, rising insecurity or new migration patterns, the EU has put forward concrete solutions to shape synergy between the actors, in order to use shared expertise more effectively, and to find new sources of funding. The new foreign policy framework (EU global strategy) is designed to map the tools and resources best designed to help society as a whole, in the EU and partner countries, to withstand natural and manmade shocks more effectively. This means making connections between actors and between traditionally separate policy areas. Budgetary constraints and the will to depart from a donor/recipient relationship have also resulted in innovative financing tools, using EU funds to leverage private investments. Two years since its launch, the global strategy has proved to be a coherent vision. Nevertheless, sturdy, comprehensive external action requires coordination at all levels. In the years to come, global instability is expected to rise; the challenge for the EU will be to ensure security while upholding the core values of the Treaties – human rights, democracy and the fight against poverty – as its primary objectives on the global stage.

A new association of the Overseas Countries and Territories (including Greenland) with the European Union

20-02-2019

On 14 June 2018, in preparation for the new multiannual financial framework (2021 to 2027 MFF), the European Commission published a proposal for a Council decision on the Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories, including Greenland, with the European Union. For Greenland the main source of EU funding is currently the EU budget, while for the other overseas countries and territories, it is the European Development Fund, a financial instrument outside the EU budget. The proposed decision ...

On 14 June 2018, in preparation for the new multiannual financial framework (2021 to 2027 MFF), the European Commission published a proposal for a Council decision on the Association of the Overseas Countries and Territories, including Greenland, with the European Union. For Greenland the main source of EU funding is currently the EU budget, while for the other overseas countries and territories, it is the European Development Fund, a financial instrument outside the EU budget. The proposed decision would bring together the funds for all EU overseas countries and territories under the EU budget, as part of new Heading 6 'Neighbourhood and the world'. The European Parliament, which is only consulted, has adopted its legislative resolution on the proposal, in which it calls for an increase of the proposed budget for 2021-2027, and for better account to be taken of OCTs’ social and environmental circumstances.

Asociación de los países y territorios de ultramar con la Unión Europea, 2021-2027

28-01-2019

En vista del próximo marco financiero plurianual para el período 2021-2027, la Comisión Europea ha propuesto financiar a través del presupuesto de la Unión no solo Groenlandia, sino también todos los demás países y territorios de ultramar (PTU). En consecuencia, la Comisión ha adoptado una propuesta de Decisión del Consejo por la que se sustituye tanto la Decisión sobre la asociación de los PTU con la Unión como la Decisión sobre las relaciones con Groenlandia. Se prevé que el Parlamento Europeo, ...

En vista del próximo marco financiero plurianual para el período 2021-2027, la Comisión Europea ha propuesto financiar a través del presupuesto de la Unión no solo Groenlandia, sino también todos los demás países y territorios de ultramar (PTU). En consecuencia, la Comisión ha adoptado una propuesta de Decisión del Consejo por la que se sustituye tanto la Decisión sobre la asociación de los PTU con la Unión como la Decisión sobre las relaciones con Groenlandia. Se prevé que el Parlamento Europeo, que solo es consultado, debata en el período parcial de sesiones de enero II el informe adoptado por su Comisión de Desarrollo. En el informe se acoge favorablemente la propuesta, pero se pide que la futura decisión refleje mejor los puntos de vista y las especificidades de los PTU en las estrategias y la programación de la Unión.

La République démocratique du Congo après les élections

22-01-2019

La Cour constitutionnelle de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a confirmé la victoire de Félix Tshisekedi à l’élection présidentielle. Ce résultat est cependant contesté par un autre opposant et certains observateurs. Dès le début de son mandat, le nouveau président devra s’attacher à rétablir la confiance de ses voisins et de ses partenaires internationaux et combattre les inégalités dans un pays riche de ses matières premières mais où une grande partie de la population est frappée par la ...

La Cour constitutionnelle de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a confirmé la victoire de Félix Tshisekedi à l’élection présidentielle. Ce résultat est cependant contesté par un autre opposant et certains observateurs. Dès le début de son mandat, le nouveau président devra s’attacher à rétablir la confiance de ses voisins et de ses partenaires internationaux et combattre les inégalités dans un pays riche de ses matières premières mais où une grande partie de la population est frappée par la pauvreté et voit sa situation aggravée par la récente épidémie d’Ebola.

Accords internationaux en marche: Le futur partenariat de l’Union européenne avec les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique

15-11-2018

L’accord de partenariat entre l’Union européenne et les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique (ACP) expire en 2020. Le principal défi pour l’Union européenne est de maintenir ses relations dans la région, tout en restant fidèle aux valeurs promues dans les Traités européens. La renégociation de cet « Accord de Cotonou » offre l’opportunité de rationaliser les relations entre les pays ACP et l’Union, en tenant compte des objectifs de développement durable des Nations unies, des nouvelles stratégies ...

L’accord de partenariat entre l’Union européenne et les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique (ACP) expire en 2020. Le principal défi pour l’Union européenne est de maintenir ses relations dans la région, tout en restant fidèle aux valeurs promues dans les Traités européens. La renégociation de cet « Accord de Cotonou » offre l’opportunité de rationaliser les relations entre les pays ACP et l’Union, en tenant compte des objectifs de développement durable des Nations unies, des nouvelles stratégies européennes dans les régions concernées, des nouvelles ambitions des pays ACP et de l’évolution de l’équilibre des pouvoirs au niveau mondial. La question du financement est également sur la table. Favoriser la prospérité, la stabilité et la démocratie chez les partenaires de l’UE permettrait, selon les services de l’UE, de mieux faire face aux causes profondes de la migration irrégulière et des déplacements forcés. Le groupe ACP a adopté son mandat de négociation en mai 2018. L’Union européenne a adopté le sien en juin 2018 et propose un accord-cadre complété par des partenariats spécifiques avec les trois sous-régions. Les négociations ont débuté en septembre 2018. Seconde édition. Les Briefings 'Accords internationaux en marche' sont actualisés à des étapes clés de la procédure de ratification. Pour voir les versions précédentes de ce briefing, voir PE 625.111, juillet 2018.

Accords internationaux en marche: Le futur partenariat de l’Union européenne avec les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique

05-07-2018

L’accord de partenariat entre l’Union européenne et les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique (ACP) expire en 2020. Le principal défi pour l’Union européenne est de maintenir ses relations dans la région, tout en restant fidèle aux valeurs promues dans les Traités européens. La renégociation de cet Accord de Cotonou offre l’opportunité de rationaliser les relations entre les pays ACP et l’Union, en tenant compte des objectifs de développement durable des Nations unies, des nouvelles stratégies ...

L’accord de partenariat entre l’Union européenne et les pays d’Afrique, des Caraïbes et du Pacifique (ACP) expire en 2020. Le principal défi pour l’Union européenne est de maintenir ses relations dans la région, tout en restant fidèle aux valeurs promues dans les Traités européens. La renégociation de cet Accord de Cotonou offre l’opportunité de rationaliser les relations entre les pays ACP et l’Union, en tenant compte des objectifs de développement durable des Nations unies, des nouvelles stratégies européennes dans les régions concernées, des nouvelles ambitions des pays ACP et de l’évolution de l’équilibre des pouvoirs au niveau mondial. La question du financement est également sur la table. Favoriser la prospérité, la stabilité et la démocratie chez les partenaires de l’UE permettrait, selon la Commission européenne et le Service européen pour l’action extérieure, de mieux faire face aux causes profondes de la migration irrégulière et des déplacements forcés. La Commission européenne a présenté au Conseil son option privilégiée : un accord-cadre complété par des partenariats spécifiques avec les trois sous-régions. Le groupe ACP a adopté son mandat de négociation en mai 2018. Les négociations formelles devraient commencer à la fin de l’été 2018. Première édition. Les Briefings « Accords internationaux en marche » sont actualisés à des étapes clés de la procédure de ratification.

Child marriages: Still too many

01-06-2018

Although the official age of adulthood varies across countries, several international conventions, in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which has been signed by 140 states, apply the definition of 'child marriage' to any couple where at least one member – usually the girl – is aged under 18. The practice of child marriage challenges both children's rights and gender equality, and exposes child brides to serious abuses and health risks. Child wives drop out of school and have ...

Although the official age of adulthood varies across countries, several international conventions, in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which has been signed by 140 states, apply the definition of 'child marriage' to any couple where at least one member – usually the girl – is aged under 18. The practice of child marriage challenges both children's rights and gender equality, and exposes child brides to serious abuses and health risks. Child wives drop out of school and have little access to economic resources, which hinders potential development opportunities for their community. The European Union not only constantly condemns child marriage but also endeavours to tackle this practice through targeted aid programmes. The European Parliament will again voice its concerns about the issue during the European Development Days 2018.

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