8

resultado(s)

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Ámbito político
Autor
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Normas de Derecho civil sobre robótica

07-02-2017

La Comisión de Asuntos Jurídicos (JURI) ha presentado un informe con recomendaciones a la Comisión sobre aspectos de Derecho civil y éticos de la robótica. El informe pide legislación de la Unión para introducir un registro de robots, establecer una agencia de la Unión especializada en robótica y sentar principios de responsabilidad civil por los daños causados por robots. Esta legislación debería complementarse con códigos de conducta ética.

La Comisión de Asuntos Jurídicos (JURI) ha presentado un informe con recomendaciones a la Comisión sobre aspectos de Derecho civil y éticos de la robótica. El informe pide legislación de la Unión para introducir un registro de robots, establecer una agencia de la Unión especializada en robótica y sentar principios de responsabilidad civil por los daños causados por robots. Esta legislación debería complementarse con códigos de conducta ética.

Cross-Border Traffic Accidents in the EU - The Potential Impact of Driverless Cars

30-06-2016

Commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI committee, this study provides an analysis of the potential legal impact of the introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles on rules of private international law determining jurisdiction and applicable law in the EU Member States in the event of a cross-border traffic accident. Following a case-studies approach, it makes a number of recommendations to improve ...

Commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI committee, this study provides an analysis of the potential legal impact of the introduction of connected and autonomous vehicles on rules of private international law determining jurisdiction and applicable law in the EU Member States in the event of a cross-border traffic accident. Following a case-studies approach, it makes a number of recommendations to improve the legal framework. In line with recent EU law trends towards enhanced protection for the victims and given that products liability is likely to gain more importance in the area, the study suggests the introduction of a duty for car manufacturers to contract liability insurance covering traffic accidents victims; the possibility of a direct action against a manufacturer’s liability insurer and the establishment of a forum at the domicile of the victim for claims against manufacturers of cars using new technologies. In order to increase legal certainty, the study recommends to redefine the respective scopes of application of the two systems of private international law currently coexisting in the EU to determine the law applicable (the Rome II Regulation and the 1971 and 1973 Hague Conventions), and to apply Rome II in cases in which both the claimant and the defendant are domiciled in EU Member States. Finally, autonomous technologies may increase the difficulty to initiate extra-contractual liability claims therefore the study proposes that limitation periods be extended at the substantive law level or that a cumulative connecting mechanism be introduced at private international level for the benefit of the victims.

Ethical Aspects of Cyber-Physical Systems

28-06-2016

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things, or technical systems of networked computers, robots and artificial intelligence that interact with the physical world.The project 'Ethical aspects of CPS' aims to provide insights into the potential ethical concerns and related unintended impacts of the possible evolution of CPS technology by 2050. The overarching purpose is to support the European Parliament, the parliamentary bodies, and the individual ...

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things, or technical systems of networked computers, robots and artificial intelligence that interact with the physical world.The project 'Ethical aspects of CPS' aims to provide insights into the potential ethical concerns and related unintended impacts of the possible evolution of CPS technology by 2050. The overarching purpose is to support the European Parliament, the parliamentary bodies, and the individual Members in their anticipation of possible future concerns regarding developments in CPS, robotics and artificial intelligence.The Scientific Foresight study was conducted in three phases:1. A 'technical horizon scan', in the form of briefing papers describing the technical trends and their possible societal, ethical, economic, environmental, political/legal and demographic impacts, and this in seven application domains. 2. The 'soft impact and scenario phase', which analysed soft impacts of CPS, on the basis of the technical horizon scan, for pointing out possible future public concerns via an envisioning exercise and using exploratory scenarios.3. The 'legal backcasting' phase, which resulted in a briefing for the European Parliament identifying the legal instruments that may need to be modified or reviewed, including — where appropriate — areas identified for anticipatory parliamentary work, in accordance with the conclusions reached within the project.The outcome of the study is a policy briefing for MEPs describing legal instruments to anticipate impacts of future developments in the area of cyber-physical systems, such as intelligent robotics systems, linked with the Internet of Things. It is important to note that not all impacts of CPS are easily translated into legislation, as it is often contested whether they are in effect harmful, who is to be held accountable, and to what extent these impacts constitute a public rather than a private concern.

Relations between Company Supervisory Bodies and the Management - National Systems and Proposed Instruments at the European Level with a View to Improving Legal Efficiency

15-05-2012

Proper functioning of the supervisory body and the quality of its relations with the management are among the essential conditions enabling a business to create value over the long term. The advances proposed in these two areas pertain, in particular, to the membership of the body, the training of its members and the functions of its committees, for which recommendations at the European level may be useful. They also involve the place of stakeholders (gender balance, employee involvement). These ...

Proper functioning of the supervisory body and the quality of its relations with the management are among the essential conditions enabling a business to create value over the long term. The advances proposed in these two areas pertain, in particular, to the membership of the body, the training of its members and the functions of its committees, for which recommendations at the European level may be useful. They also involve the place of stakeholders (gender balance, employee involvement). These two issues are currently handled with a lack of uniformity in the 27 countries in the Union, which would benefit from the adoption of European directives.

Autor externo

Valérie Tandeau de Marsac (Barreau de Paris, France) et Yann Paclot (Université de Paris XI, Paris, France) Maîtrise d'oeuvre : Jeantetassocies AARPI, cabinet d'avocats avec la collaboration de Catherine Cathiard (Barreau de Paris, France) , Francis Collin (Barreau de Paris, France) , Pascal Georges (Barreau de Paris, France) , Emmanuelle Huck (juriste) , Sylvie Le Damany (Barreau de Paris, France) , Didier Poracchia (Université d’Aix-Marseille, France) and Philippe Portier (Barreau de Paris, France et Barreau de New York, USA)

International / European Environmental Criminal Court - A Comment on the Proposal of the International Academy of Environmental Sciences

14-01-2011

Different legal mechanisms can regulate actions that are dangerous to the environment in different ways. The IAES proposes the use of international and EU criminal jurisdictions to prevent and punish environmental crime, and puts forwards suggestions for relevant institutional reform.The two levels of the reform proposed by the IAES, that is European and international, would correspond to different rationalities, and could be complementary to each other. However, a reflection on the elements of an ...

Different legal mechanisms can regulate actions that are dangerous to the environment in different ways. The IAES proposes the use of international and EU criminal jurisdictions to prevent and punish environmental crime, and puts forwards suggestions for relevant institutional reform.The two levels of the reform proposed by the IAES, that is European and international, would correspond to different rationalities, and could be complementary to each other. However, a reflection on the elements of an eventual definition of an environmental crime, at EU and international level, as well as procedural questions, including that of (collective) remedies, is still to be held, and remains central to holding polluters responsible both before international and EU judicial fora.

Clinical Trials in Developing Countries : How to Protect People Against Unethical Practices ?

27-03-2009

Executive summary European legislation regulating the marketing authorisation of medical products states that results from clinical trials that do not meet the ethical requirements of Good Clinical Practice, cannot legally be used by an applicant to justify its application, irrespective of whether the trial was done inside or outside the EU. However, earlier studies indicate that this legislation is not always properly observed: these studies identified trials with an unethical design that were part ...

Executive summary European legislation regulating the marketing authorisation of medical products states that results from clinical trials that do not meet the ethical requirements of Good Clinical Practice, cannot legally be used by an applicant to justify its application, irrespective of whether the trial was done inside or outside the EU. However, earlier studies indicate that this legislation is not always properly observed: these studies identified trials with an unethical design that were part of approved EU marketing applications. Clinical trials that are no longer accepted by Western European ethics committees are approved by the local ethics committees in countries like India, China, Argentina and Russia. Once officially approved by an ethics committee, there are no obstacles to including the trial in the technical dossier of a marketing application. In particular the ethical principles which are of utmost importance for developing countries, as reflected in the Declaration of Helsinki, are ignored by companies and regulatory authorities. The main objective of this paper is to provide the European Parliament with concrete recommendations, both at legislative and enforcement level, aimed to guarantee that trials conducted in third countries are done so in conformity with EU and international ethical standards. [...]

Autor externo

Irene Schipper (SOMO - Center for Research on Multinational Companies, Amsterdam, Holland)

Liability of the Community and Liability of the Actors of the Financial Regulation

16-06-2008

The objective of the study is to shed light on the question of "non-contractual liability" and compensation in connection with the application of the Financial Regulation of the European Communities. It considers jurisdiction based on article 288(2) TEC, and articles 64 to 68 of the Financial Regulation as well as article 22 of the Staff Regulations. For comparison, the relevant practice in three Member States (Belgium, Germany, UK) and at an international organisation (United Nations secretariat ...

The objective of the study is to shed light on the question of "non-contractual liability" and compensation in connection with the application of the Financial Regulation of the European Communities. It considers jurisdiction based on article 288(2) TEC, and articles 64 to 68 of the Financial Regulation as well as article 22 of the Staff Regulations. For comparison, the relevant practice in three Member States (Belgium, Germany, UK) and at an international organisation (United Nations secretariat) is also looked at. Recommendations are formulated including the extent of liability and possible implications for the Financial Regulation.

Autor externo

Deloitte Consulting cvba/scrl (Diegem, Belgium)

The Private Law Systems in the EU: Discrimination on Grounds of Nationality and the Need for a European Civil Code

01-06-1999

On the basis of a comparative list of laws, this study explores whether it is possible and necessary to create a European civil code, and the European Union's powers in this area. It also considers discrimination on grounds of nationality which may still be found in the EU Member States¿ codes of private law and civil proceedings. The comparative list summarises the main differences and similarities between the national procedural and patrimony laws which currently apply in the EU. The study concludes ...

On the basis of a comparative list of laws, this study explores whether it is possible and necessary to create a European civil code, and the European Union's powers in this area. It also considers discrimination on grounds of nationality which may still be found in the EU Member States¿ codes of private law and civil proceedings. The comparative list summarises the main differences and similarities between the national procedural and patrimony laws which currently apply in the EU. The study concludes with an analysis of the EU's legislative powers.Parliament has for many years been interested in concerning itself with the general topic of this study.

Autor externo

Christian von Bar and Study Group on a European Civil Code

Socios

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