167

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Transparencia de la evaluación del riesgo en la cadena alimentaria

10-04-2019

A raíz de las controversias surgidas en torno a la autorización y la renovación de las autorizaciones de determinados productos sensibles, como los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG) y las sustancias activas en los productos fitosanitarios (glifosato, neonicotinoides), la Comisión Europea ha propuesto la revisión y armonización de las normas de transparencia en estos ámbitos políticos. En el periodo parcial de sesiones de diciembre de 2018 se llevó a cabo una votación para ultimar la posición ...

A raíz de las controversias surgidas en torno a la autorización y la renovación de las autorizaciones de determinados productos sensibles, como los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG) y las sustancias activas en los productos fitosanitarios (glifosato, neonicotinoides), la Comisión Europea ha propuesto la revisión y armonización de las normas de transparencia en estos ámbitos políticos. En el periodo parcial de sesiones de diciembre de 2018 se llevó a cabo una votación para ultimar la posición del Parlamento. Un acuerdo provisional alcanzado en las negociaciones tripartitas del 11 de febrero de 2019 está ahora a la espera de la aprobación final del Parlamento en primera lectura durante el período parcial de sesiones de abril II.

Food Labelling for Consumers – EU Law, Regulation and Policy Options

15-03-2019

This study, commissioned by the PETI Committee of the European Parliament, provides a brief overview of the relevant EU labelling legislation Member States have to comply with, with regard to labelling of food, including organic products, for consumers, with emphasis on the requirements of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011. It critically assesses these laws and discusses progress - or lack thereof -, in particular with regard to aspects such as safety, health effects, effects for disabled people, etc. ...

This study, commissioned by the PETI Committee of the European Parliament, provides a brief overview of the relevant EU labelling legislation Member States have to comply with, with regard to labelling of food, including organic products, for consumers, with emphasis on the requirements of Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011. It critically assesses these laws and discusses progress - or lack thereof -, in particular with regard to aspects such as safety, health effects, effects for disabled people, etc. It explores and elaborates on the question of whether the current labelling requirements actually result in clearer information to help citizens to better understand the composition and health effects of food. The study also provides brief analyses/assessments of several petitions provided by the PETI Committee. Where possible, this study makes (policy) recommendations for EU institutions and/or Member States, taking into account their respective remits.

Autor externo

Dr. Kai P. Purnhagen, Wageningen University and Erasmus University of Rotterdam; Dr. Hanna Schebesta, Wageningen University

Understanding algorithmic decision-making: Opportunities and challenges

05-03-2019

The expected benefits of Algorithmic Decision Systems (ADS) may be offset by the variety of risks for individuals (discrimination, unfair practices, loss of autonomy, etc.), the economy (unfair practices, limited access to markets, etc.) and society as a whole (manipulation, threat to democracy, etc.). We present existing options to reduce the risks related to ADS and explain their limitations. We sketch some recommendations to overcome these limitations to be able to benefit from the tremendous ...

The expected benefits of Algorithmic Decision Systems (ADS) may be offset by the variety of risks for individuals (discrimination, unfair practices, loss of autonomy, etc.), the economy (unfair practices, limited access to markets, etc.) and society as a whole (manipulation, threat to democracy, etc.). We present existing options to reduce the risks related to ADS and explain their limitations. We sketch some recommendations to overcome these limitations to be able to benefit from the tremendous possibilities of ADS while limiting the risks related to their use. Beyond providing an up-to-date and systematic review of the situation, the report gives a precise definition of a number of key terms and an analysis of their differences. The main focus of the report is the technical aspects of ADS. However, other legal, ethical and social dimensions are considered to broaden the discussion.

Autor externo

DG, EPRS

Farming without plant protection products

04-03-2019

Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are often perceived by consumers as very harmful for human health and for the environment. The tendency in the EU policy is to stimulate the reduction of PPPs. Can we maintain high yield with less PPPs? This paper presents the current state of the art regarding the role of PPPs in securing global food production, preserving biodiversity and supporting farmer’s income. The role of various stakeholders on the current perception of risk by the general public is given ...

Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are often perceived by consumers as very harmful for human health and for the environment. The tendency in the EU policy is to stimulate the reduction of PPPs. Can we maintain high yield with less PPPs? This paper presents the current state of the art regarding the role of PPPs in securing global food production, preserving biodiversity and supporting farmer’s income. The role of various stakeholders on the current perception of risk by the general public is given and promising alternative and more sustainable strategies to further reduce PPP use are commented.

Autor externo

DG, EPRS

Reconsidering the General Food Law

26-02-2019

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal to review the General Food Law Regulation and amend eight legislative acts dealing with specific food chain sectors. The proposal follows-up on the European Citizens' Initiative on glyphosate; and especially on concerns regarding the transparency of the scientific studies used in the evaluation of pesticides. The proposal also responds to a fitness check of the General Food Law, completed in January 2018. The proposal's objective is to ...

On 11 April 2018, the European Commission published a proposal to review the General Food Law Regulation and amend eight legislative acts dealing with specific food chain sectors. The proposal follows-up on the European Citizens' Initiative on glyphosate; and especially on concerns regarding the transparency of the scientific studies used in the evaluation of pesticides. The proposal also responds to a fitness check of the General Food Law, completed in January 2018. The proposal's objective is to increase the transparency and sustainability of the EU scientific assessment model, and other aspects such as governance of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In the European Parliament, the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) adopted its report on 27 November 2018. A vote in plenary to finalise Parliament's position took place on 11 December and the Council adopted its position on 12 December 2018. A provisional agreement was reached at the third trilogue meeting on 11 February 2019, and was endorsed in the ENVI committee on 20 February. The text will be the subject of a vote to adopt it in plenary in the coming weeks. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Transparencia de la determinación del riesgo en la cadena alimentaria de la UE

05-12-2018

A raíz de las controversias surgidas en torno a la autorización y la renovación de las autorizaciones de determinados productos sensibles, como las sustancias activas en los productos fitosanitarios (glifosato, neonicotinoides) y los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG), la Comisión Europea propuso revisar las normas de transparencia en estos ámbitos políticos. Está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo vote, durante su periodo parcial de sesiones de diciembre, el informe de la Comisión de Medio ...

A raíz de las controversias surgidas en torno a la autorización y la renovación de las autorizaciones de determinados productos sensibles, como las sustancias activas en los productos fitosanitarios (glifosato, neonicotinoides) y los organismos modificados genéticamente (OMG), la Comisión Europea propuso revisar las normas de transparencia en estos ámbitos políticos. Está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo vote, durante su periodo parcial de sesiones de diciembre, el informe de la Comisión de Medio Ambiente, Salud Pública y Seguridad Alimentaria (ENVI), así como un mandato para iniciar negociaciones interinstitucionales.

What if algorithms could abide by ethical principles?

20-11-2018

Algorithms, are step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, usually expressed in computer code as a set of instructions for a computer to follow in order to complete a task. Day-to-day decisions around the world are increasingly based on data science techniques powered by machine learning algorithms that are gradually making a meaningful impact on human lives. For example, the operation of intermediary platforms that propose accommodation (AirBnB) or transportation alternatives (Uber) are extensively ...

Algorithms, are step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, usually expressed in computer code as a set of instructions for a computer to follow in order to complete a task. Day-to-day decisions around the world are increasingly based on data science techniques powered by machine learning algorithms that are gradually making a meaningful impact on human lives. For example, the operation of intermediary platforms that propose accommodation (AirBnB) or transportation alternatives (Uber) are extensively using algorithms. Algorithms implicitly or explicitly are not neutral as they comprise essential value-judgments that can potentially have race or sex biases. This raises an important question: is it possible to develop and ensure that algorithms are ethical?

Revisión de la Directiva sobre el agua potable

17-10-2018

En febrero de 2018, la Comisión Europea adoptó una propuesta destinada a refundir la Directiva sobre el agua potable. La propuesta actualiza las normas de calidad del agua y tiene por objeto mejorar el acceso para todos al agua potable. Durante la sesión plenaria de octubre II, el Parlamento deberá pronunciarse sobre el informe de la Comisión de Medio Ambiente, Salud Pública y Seguridad Alimentaria (ENVl), así como sobre la apertura de negociaciones interinstitucionales tripartitas.

En febrero de 2018, la Comisión Europea adoptó una propuesta destinada a refundir la Directiva sobre el agua potable. La propuesta actualiza las normas de calidad del agua y tiene por objeto mejorar el acceso para todos al agua potable. Durante la sesión plenaria de octubre II, el Parlamento deberá pronunciarse sobre el informe de la Comisión de Medio Ambiente, Salud Pública y Seguridad Alimentaria (ENVl), así como sobre la apertura de negociaciones interinstitucionales tripartitas.

Conjunto de medidas sobre medicamentos veterinarios

17-10-2018

En septiembre de 2014, la Comisión Europea presentó un conjunto de tres propuestas para actualizar el marco legislativo aplicable a los medicamentos veterinarios. El objetivo es introducir normas más estrictas para abordar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos y aumentar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos veterinarios en la Unión. Está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo someta a votación los textos acordados en las negociaciones tripartitas durante su período parcial de sesiones de octubre II.

En septiembre de 2014, la Comisión Europea presentó un conjunto de tres propuestas para actualizar el marco legislativo aplicable a los medicamentos veterinarios. El objetivo es introducir normas más estrictas para abordar la resistencia a los antimicrobianos y aumentar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos veterinarios en la Unión. Está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo someta a votación los textos acordados en las negociaciones tripartitas durante su período parcial de sesiones de octubre II.

What if gene editing became routine practice?

16-10-2018

The CRISPR-Cas9 system currently stands out as the fastest, cheapest and most reliable system for ‘editing’ genes. It is seen as the biggest game changer in the field of gene editing due to its high degree of reliability, effectiveness and low cost. At the same time, the use of CRISPR has generated a series of socio-ethical concerns over whether and how gene editing should be used to make heritable changes to the human genome, to lead to designer babies, to generate potentially risky genome edits ...

The CRISPR-Cas9 system currently stands out as the fastest, cheapest and most reliable system for ‘editing’ genes. It is seen as the biggest game changer in the field of gene editing due to its high degree of reliability, effectiveness and low cost. At the same time, the use of CRISPR has generated a series of socio-ethical concerns over whether and how gene editing should be used to make heritable changes to the human genome, to lead to designer babies, to generate potentially risky genome edits or to disrupt entire ecosystems.

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