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Safeguarding competition in air transport

20-05-2019

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, ...

The issue of fair competition between EU and third-country airlines and the importance of guaranteeing a level playing field has been recognised for some years by the various EU institutions as key for the future of European aviation. The 2015 Commission communication on the aviation strategy underlined the importance and legitimacy of EU action to deal with possible unfair commercial practices in international aviation, and announced the revision of existing rules in this field. On 8 June 2017, the Commission adopted a legislative proposal for a regulation on safeguarding competition in air transport. The objective of the proposal is to provide effective legislation in order ‘to maintain conditions conducive to a high level of Union connectivity and to ensure fair competition with third countries’ air carriers’. Parliament and Council reached agreement on the text in November 2018. The text was formally adopted by Parliament on 14 March 2019 and by Council on 9 April. Signed on 17 April, the new regulation comes into force on 30 May 2019. Fifth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The Development of an Institutional Framework for the Implementation of the Association Agreements in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine: a comparative perspective

19-09-2018

In recent years the EU concluded Association Agreements, including the creation of a Comprehensive Free Trade Areas with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. These are amongst the most complex and comprehensive legal treaties concluded by the EU with third countries. The treaties place a profound obligation on the partner countries of legal approximation, that is, to undertake extensive, binding commitments to adopt vast swathes of the acquis in order to stimulate political and economic development and ...

In recent years the EU concluded Association Agreements, including the creation of a Comprehensive Free Trade Areas with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. These are amongst the most complex and comprehensive legal treaties concluded by the EU with third countries. The treaties place a profound obligation on the partner countries of legal approximation, that is, to undertake extensive, binding commitments to adopt vast swathes of the acquis in order to stimulate political and economic development and institutional modernisation. This study shows that creating the institutional framework for implementation is a challenging and drawn-out process. While all countries have made some progress with devising these mechanisms, they are short of the necessary political leadership, policy planning, administrative capacity and there is a dearth of budgetary planning to enable effective implementation. There is also a notable need to embed implementation into wider reform strategies. While these issues are being addressed on the part of the countries, the EU can assist them by providing the necessary systemic support in an integrated, sequenced and long-term way.

Parlamendiväline autor

Kataryna WOLCZUK, Professor of East European Politics, University of Birmingham and Associate Fellow, Russia and Eurasia Programme, Chatham House, United Kingdom

Role of the US Congress in trade agreements: The 'Fast-Track' procedure

01-03-2016

Since 1974 the United States Congress has enacted several Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) acts to ensure speedy ratification of trade agreements in the United States, while maintaining a congressional hold on the objectives to be pursued by US negotiators. TPA defines the conditions and procedures for using a streamlined or expedited procedure, also known as the fast-track procedure, to vote in Congress on international trade agreements negotiated during a specific defined period of time. The current ...

Since 1974 the United States Congress has enacted several Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) acts to ensure speedy ratification of trade agreements in the United States, while maintaining a congressional hold on the objectives to be pursued by US negotiators. TPA defines the conditions and procedures for using a streamlined or expedited procedure, also known as the fast-track procedure, to vote in Congress on international trade agreements negotiated during a specific defined period of time. The current (2015) Trade Promotion Authority Act, which was finally passed in June 2015, sets out the rules for the expedited procedures applicable to any international agreement entered into by the US before 1 July 2018 (with possible extension up to 1 July 2021), covering inter alia the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership and any agreement stemming from the ongoing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations. The TPA requirements in terms of negotiating objectives and consultation have constantly evolved to match the rising political need of Congress to exert greater control over the outcomes of US trade negotiations.

The new Egyptian parliament

05-02-2016

The new Egyptian legislative assembly, sworn in on 10 January 2016, is likely to be loyal to President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. Two thirds of members have joined the pro-Sisi 'State Support' (Da'am Masr) coalition, led by former intelligence officer Sameh Seif Alyazal. A supporter of the President, Alyazal has openly voiced his intention to limit the powers of the assembly, to weaken its ability to impeach the President. A member of the 'State Support' coalition, Ali Abdelaal, a French-educated lawyer ...

The new Egyptian legislative assembly, sworn in on 10 January 2016, is likely to be loyal to President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi. Two thirds of members have joined the pro-Sisi 'State Support' (Da'am Masr) coalition, led by former intelligence officer Sameh Seif Alyazal. A supporter of the President, Alyazal has openly voiced his intention to limit the powers of the assembly, to weaken its ability to impeach the President. A member of the 'State Support' coalition, Ali Abdelaal, a French-educated lawyer who helped draft the constitution and the election law, was elected as speaker of the parliament. In the absence of a dominant party, it is feared that parliamentarians, the majority of whom ran as independents, will be particularly receptive to the diverse interests of big business, national security and individual constituencies. Parties that flourished after the ousting of President Mubarak in 2011 either boycotted the elections or lost to coalitions made up of former military and police officials, business leaders and their families. The party with the strongest showing in the previous elections, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, has been banned and did not participate in the polls.

Making the US federal budget: Process and hazards

10-03-2015

The federal budget makes up roughly half of all public spending in the US, with the rest spent at state and local level. The United States (US) Congress, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, is responsible for passing the legislation that constitutes the budget, but the President also plays an important role, both in launching the process through a formal budget proposal and in bringing it to an end by signing appropriations, revenue and entitlement bills into law. While the ...

The federal budget makes up roughly half of all public spending in the US, with the rest spent at state and local level. The United States (US) Congress, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, is responsible for passing the legislation that constitutes the budget, but the President also plays an important role, both in launching the process through a formal budget proposal and in bringing it to an end by signing appropriations, revenue and entitlement bills into law. While the budget process is formally set out in legislation, budget-making in practice can be quite different. The Constitution grants the 'power of the purse' to Congress, but it is ultimately the President who signs bills into law. This de facto division of powers between President and Congress, and within Congress between the House of Representatives and the Senate, poses specific challenges – not least when the House, the Senate and the Presidency are controlled by different parties. These challenges have been conspicuous in recent years, as lawmakers have struggled to follow the prescribed timetable, necessitating other procedures and stopgap measures to maintain funding for vital government functions. In addition, in response to mounting government debt and political deadlock, attempts have been made to bind future legislatures, by locking in budget cuts in a process known as 'sequestration'. At times the key players have been unable to reach agreement, cutting off funding from parts of the government and putting the US at risk of a sovereign default.

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Parliamentary Dimension of Regulatory Cooperation

09-04-2014

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) presents a historic opportunity for the EU and the US to remove regulatory divergence thereby increasing economic growth. Yet, with great promises come challenges too. The EU and the US have been attempting to reduce trade barriers since the 1970s, and parliamentarians from both sides of the Atlantic have since the 1990s been working to institutionalise these efforts through dialogues and committees, as epitomised by the Transatlantic Legislators ...

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) presents a historic opportunity for the EU and the US to remove regulatory divergence thereby increasing economic growth. Yet, with great promises come challenges too. The EU and the US have been attempting to reduce trade barriers since the 1970s, and parliamentarians from both sides of the Atlantic have since the 1990s been working to institutionalise these efforts through dialogues and committees, as epitomised by the Transatlantic Legislators’ Dialogue. While this report reviews these efforts, the general conclusion is an overall lack of success: regulatory differences remain as neither side has the incentives to consider the extraterritorial effects of its regulations. As an international agreement predicted to contain a Horizontal Chapter, TTIP has the potential to transform this impasse, if approached correctly. The Horizontal Chapter would provide a ‘gateway’ for handling sectoral regulatory issues between the EU and the US, including by addressing both legislation and non-legislative acts. The development of such a framework for transatlantic regulatory cooperation raises questions in relation to its interactions with the parties’ respective legislatures, the EP and the US Congress. This report examines the potential parliamentary roles, and their implications for the EU legal order. It concludes with recommendations designed to identify the most appropriate avenues to ensure parliamentarian involvement and connect transatlantic parliamentary cooperation with the institutional operation of TTIP.

Parlamendiväline autor

Alberto ALEMANNO (HEC Paris, France)

Parliament and Public Finance

24-05-2006

This policy paper is one of a series of papers requested by the EP's Committee on Foreign Affairs in connection with its role as (rotating) chair of the Parliamentary Troika of the Stability Pact for South East Europe in 2006. The Committee has been organising four parliamentary seminars involving representatives from the relevant specialised parliamentary bodies (committees and sub-committees) from the region. This paper examines the role of parliaments and supreme audit institutions in budgetary ...

This policy paper is one of a series of papers requested by the EP's Committee on Foreign Affairs in connection with its role as (rotating) chair of the Parliamentary Troika of the Stability Pact for South East Europe in 2006. The Committee has been organising four parliamentary seminars involving representatives from the relevant specialised parliamentary bodies (committees and sub-committees) from the region. This paper examines the role of parliaments and supreme audit institutions in budgetary expenditure, departing from the Belgian model. It will be presented and discussed at the workshop on parliamentary oversight of budgetary expenditure on 8 June 2006 in Brussels, in the specific context of experience and challenges in countries in South East Europe.

Parlamendiväline autor

Mr. Franz Wascotte, Member of the Belgian Court of Audit

Ways and means to enhance ACP parliaments' role in the formulation of the Country Strategy Papers (CSP) and parliaments' oversight of the utilisation of the European Development Funds (EDF), especially in the context of budget support

23-03-2005

The aim of this study is provide a concise and readable set of analysis and recommendations towards enhancing the role of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of Parliaments in the formulation of the Country Strategy Papers (CSP) and the European Parliament’s (EP) oversight of the utilisation of the European Development Funds (EDF), with particular reference to budget support. The policy recommendations provided within this study are made within the existing constitutional orders in force ...

The aim of this study is provide a concise and readable set of analysis and recommendations towards enhancing the role of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of Parliaments in the formulation of the Country Strategy Papers (CSP) and the European Parliament’s (EP) oversight of the utilisation of the European Development Funds (EDF), with particular reference to budget support. The policy recommendations provided within this study are made within the existing constitutional orders in force, and aim to improve oversight and governance of the EDF and direct budget support monies through inter-institutional and political cultural measures.

Parlamendiväline autor

Dr. Robert Dover EU Policy Network

Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) - Developments and Current Practices in the EU Member States, on the EU Level and in Selected Third Countries

01-09-2002

The problems of over-regulation, the doubtful quality of the laws and the economic obstacles that arise in consequence are increasingly the subject of debate. This is also true of European Community legislation. Financial, economic, fiscal, social and environmental consequences - to name only a few - should therefore be known and taken into account before new legislation is adopted. Therefore systematic Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIA) should help to determine probable consequences and side-effects ...

The problems of over-regulation, the doubtful quality of the laws and the economic obstacles that arise in consequence are increasingly the subject of debate. This is also true of European Community legislation. Financial, economic, fiscal, social and environmental consequences - to name only a few - should therefore be known and taken into account before new legislation is adopted. Therefore systematic Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIA) should help to determine probable consequences and side-effects of new draft legislation. Existing legislation shall be checked with regard to its performance or efficiency in the practical application. In this context RIA means the procedures for the determination and the comparative evaluation of effects which the intended legislation might have or which the existing legislation has. In presenting a synopsis of the RIA methods and systems in an international perspective this report does not claim to treat the complex subject in an exhaustive manner.

Parlamendiväline autor

Stephanie Bauer and Karen Wittholz

(Co-)Governing After Maastricht: The European Parliament's Institutional Performance 1994-1999

01-03-2001

The study assesses the institutional performances of the European Parliament during the period between the coming into force of the Maastricht treaty and summer 1998. On the basis of the statistical and quantitative approach, it proves the time-effectiveness of Parliament's legislative work under the co-decision procedure and demonstrates the role of Parliament as a true co-legislator. It also shows the impact of Parliament's control function and its role in the procedure of appointment of Members ...

The study assesses the institutional performances of the European Parliament during the period between the coming into force of the Maastricht treaty and summer 1998. On the basis of the statistical and quantitative approach, it proves the time-effectiveness of Parliament's legislative work under the co-decision procedure and demonstrates the role of Parliament as a true co-legislator. It also shows the impact of Parliament's control function and its role in the procedure of appointment of Members of other institutions.

Parlamendiväline autor

Andreas Maurer, Research Associate, University of Cologne

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