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EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview and figures

14-09-2018

This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. Since November 2017, a new agreement governing trade relations with Cuba has also been provisionally applied ...

This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. Since November 2017, a new agreement governing trade relations with Cuba has also been provisionally applied. In addition, the EU is currently modernising its agreements with Mexico (with which it has reached an 'agreement in principle') and Chile. The EU also has framework agreements with Mercosur and its individual members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The agreement with the former will be replaced, once the ongoing negotiations on an EU-Mercosur association agreement have been completed. This publication provides recent data on trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings, compares the main agreements governing trade relations that are already in place, and analyses the rationale behind the ongoing negotiations on the EU-Mercosur, EU-Mexico and EU-Chile agreements. This is a revised and updated edition of a publication from October 2017 by Gisela Grieger and Roderick Harte, PE 608.793.

Ladina-Ameerika ja Kariibi piirkond

01-01-2018

Euroopa Liidu suhted Ladina-Ameerika ja Kariibi piirkonnaga on mitmekülgsed ja toimivad eri tasanditel. EL teeb kogu piirkonnaga koostööd riigi- ja valitsusjuhtide tippkohtumiste kaudu ning lepingud ja poliitiline dialoog seovad ELi Kariibi piirkonna, Kesk-Ameerika, Andide Ühenduse, Mercosuri ja üksikute riikidega.

Euroopa Liidu suhted Ladina-Ameerika ja Kariibi piirkonnaga on mitmekülgsed ja toimivad eri tasanditel. EL teeb kogu piirkonnaga koostööd riigi- ja valitsusjuhtide tippkohtumiste kaudu ning lepingud ja poliitiline dialoog seovad ELi Kariibi piirkonna, Kesk-Ameerika, Andide Ühenduse, Mercosuri ja üksikute riikidega.

EU security cooperation with Latin America: A priority requiring consolidation

23-11-2017

Although security cooperation is not yet a well-consolidated priority for the EU in its relations with Latin America, it has acquired increasing importance with the explicit inclusion of citizen security as a new priority area in the 2015 EU-CELAC action plan. The main current areas of EU security-related cooperation with the region are the fight against drugs; violence prevention; conflict resolution in Colombia, with an EU stake in its peace process; and the participation of some Latin American ...

Although security cooperation is not yet a well-consolidated priority for the EU in its relations with Latin America, it has acquired increasing importance with the explicit inclusion of citizen security as a new priority area in the 2015 EU-CELAC action plan. The main current areas of EU security-related cooperation with the region are the fight against drugs; violence prevention; conflict resolution in Colombia, with an EU stake in its peace process; and the participation of some Latin American countries in EU crisis-management operations in the framework of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy. This is achieved through trans-regional, regional, sub-regional and bilateral programmes and projects, as well as through the conclusion of framework agreements with certain Latin American countries. The European Parliament is particularly involved in promoting security cooperation with the region, as evidenced by its support for a Euro-Latin American Charter for Peace and Security, in the framework of the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly, and the adoption of specific resolutions on the subject.

EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview and figures

26-10-2017

This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has concluded fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. It is currently also modernising its agreement with Mexico and intends soon to start negotiations ...

This publication provides an overview of trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings. The EU has concluded fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three members of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and bilateral agreements with Chile and Mexico. It is currently also modernising its agreement with Mexico and intends soon to start negotiations on modernising its agreement with Chile. The EU has also concluded framework agreements with Mercosur and its individual members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay). The agreement with the former will be replaced, once the on-going negotiations on an EU-Mercosur association agreement have been completed. This publication provides recent data on trade relations between the EU and Latin American and Caribbean countries and groupings, compares the agreements governing trade relations that have already been concluded, and analyses the reasons behind the ongoing and planned negotiations on the EU-Mercosur, EU-Mexico and EU-Chile agreements. This is a revised and updated edition of a publication from March 2016 by Enrique Gomez Ramirez, Eleni Lazarou, Laura Puccio and Giulio Sabbati, PE 579.086.

The EU-Latin American Strategic Partnership: state of play and ways forward

30-08-2017

By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of opportunity for advancing the EU-Latin American strategic partnership. It is argued that, although asymmetries between Europe and Latin America might impact and diminish the bi-regional relationship, the EU is well-positioned to play a more active role in Latin America by strengthening existing institutional ...

By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of opportunity for advancing the EU-Latin American strategic partnership. It is argued that, although asymmetries between Europe and Latin America might impact and diminish the bi-regional relationship, the EU is well-positioned to play a more active role in Latin America by strengthening existing institutional links, such as the strategic bi-regional partnership between the EU and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Euro-Latin America Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat). The study concludes with tailor-made recommendations in order to advance the EU’s engagement and cooperation with individual Latin American countries and with the region as a whole, both through traditional cooperative channels and through closer parliamentary links within the framework of EuroLat.

Parlamendiväline autor

Gustavo G. MÜLLER (Senior Researcher, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, University of Leuven, Belgium); Jan WOUTERS (Professor and Director, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, University of Leuven, Belgium); Jean-Christophe DEFRAIGNE (Professor, Institute for European Studies, University Saint-Louis Brussels, Belgium); Sebastian SANTANDER (Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Liege, Belgium); Kolja RAUBE (Senior Researcher, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, University of Leuven, Belgium)

EU development cooperation with Latin America

10-04-2017

EU development cooperation with Latin America is mainly conducted through the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and its different geographical (regional, sub-regional and bilateral) and thematic programmes. Nevertheless, the 2014-2020 programming period has brought about the introduction of a new blending financial instrument for the region, the Latin American Investment Facility (LAIF), which combines EU grants with other resources. It has also seen the transition of most Latin American countries ...

EU development cooperation with Latin America is mainly conducted through the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and its different geographical (regional, sub-regional and bilateral) and thematic programmes. Nevertheless, the 2014-2020 programming period has brought about the introduction of a new blending financial instrument for the region, the Latin American Investment Facility (LAIF), which combines EU grants with other resources. It has also seen the transition of most Latin American countries away from being eligible for bilateral DCI development aid and towards their inclusion instead in EU bilateral cooperation through the new Partnership Instrument (PI). This poses a series of new challenges but, simultaneously, offers new opportunities by opening cooperation to other areas and sectors. The European Parliament has a strong involvement in the issues concerning development cooperation. Since 2012, it has adopted a number of resolutions on the topic: one defining a new form of development cooperation with Latin America, another calling for increasing the effectiveness of development cooperation, and a third on achieving policy coherence and enhancing the role of local authorities.

Latin America's informal economy

22-09-2016

Informal employment affects around 130 million workers in Latin America and the Caribbean, of whom at least 27 million are young people, and represents nearly half of non-agricultural employment. Its incidence varies across the region's countries (from 30.7% in Costa Rica to 73.6% in Guatemala), sectors and population groups. Fighting informality has become a clear objective in the region. Some Latin American countries have taken big steps to reduce informality, applying a different mix of specific ...

Informal employment affects around 130 million workers in Latin America and the Caribbean, of whom at least 27 million are young people, and represents nearly half of non-agricultural employment. Its incidence varies across the region's countries (from 30.7% in Costa Rica to 73.6% in Guatemala), sectors and population groups. Fighting informality has become a clear objective in the region. Some Latin American countries have taken big steps to reduce informality, applying a different mix of specific policies and strategies and obtaining generally positive results; however, more efforts are needed. Moreover, the current crisis can endanger this positive trend. International institutions, such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the EU, are also promoting measures to support the transition to the formal economy in the region, and the European Parliament has shown a special interest in this issue. Yet, formalisation in Latin America remains an important challenge, and economic growth alone is not enough to achieve it: the ILO insists on an integrated and comprehensive approach that would complement public policies with efforts by social actors as a way to achieve broad-based consensus. Experts agree that the focus should be on workers' social and labour inclusion. This briefing examines the strategies applied by five big Latin American economies – Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru – based on recent ILO studies, and looks at the results obtained thus far and the assistance provided by the EU and the ILO.

The Ibero-American Conference

08-09-2015

Established in 1991 as the only truly regional space for dialogue and cooperation, the Ibero-American Conference is the first bi-continental international organisation, gathering Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of Europe and the Americas. With the gradual emergence of other regional fora, it has had to adapt to the changing environment.

Established in 1991 as the only truly regional space for dialogue and cooperation, the Ibero-American Conference is the first bi-continental international organisation, gathering Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries of Europe and the Americas. With the gradual emergence of other regional fora, it has had to adapt to the changing environment.

The EU's Trade Policy: From Gender-Blind to Gender-Sensitive?

09-07-2015

The services of the European Commission are currently reflecting on the follow-up to the Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 (COM (2010) final). The EU's trade policy has not yet been fully integrated into this Strategy, providing an opportunity for the INTA committee to consider whether and how gender issues should be dealt with in the context of the EU's trade policies. Article 8 TFEU provides that “in all its activities, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote ...

The services of the European Commission are currently reflecting on the follow-up to the Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 (COM (2010) final). The EU's trade policy has not yet been fully integrated into this Strategy, providing an opportunity for the INTA committee to consider whether and how gender issues should be dealt with in the context of the EU's trade policies. Article 8 TFEU provides that “in all its activities, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between men and women.” The trade policy issues that are discussed by the European Parliament's INTA committee can have differing gender impacts across the various sectors of the economy. Understanding the gender dimension of trade agreements better will therefore contribute to better policy making and to ensuring that both sexes can take advantage of the benefits of trade liberalisation and be protected from its negative effects.

Conflict and Cooperation over Water - The Role of the EU in Ensuring the Realisation of Human Rights

18-06-2015

The human right to water has been firmly established and its implications for policy-making have been discussed in many fields. Thus far, this has hardly been the case for conflicts over water. This study discusses what it means to integrate human rights in the context of governing water and addressing conflicts over water. A human rights perspective on conflicts over water will help formulating equitable water governance strategies. To support such developments, the EU should integrate human rights ...

The human right to water has been firmly established and its implications for policy-making have been discussed in many fields. Thus far, this has hardly been the case for conflicts over water. This study discusses what it means to integrate human rights in the context of governing water and addressing conflicts over water. A human rights perspective on conflicts over water will help formulating equitable water governance strategies. To support such developments, the EU should integrate human rights in policies and other measures to address water conflicts at all levels. The EU’s activities should be guided by the human rights principles of non-discrimination and equality; participation and access to information; accountability and access to justice; and a priority for water uses as far as they are necessary for the realisation of human rights. This relates to internal legislation and policies, development cooperation, engagement in transboundary basins, political dialogues with partner countries, international fora such as the UN Human Rights Council, and the negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda. The European Parliament, specifically, should support such initiatives with resolutions, engagement in UN and inter-parliamentary fora, and enhancement of public awareness.

Parlamendiväline autor

Inga WINKLER (NYU Center for Human Rights & Global Justice, the United States)

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