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Energy consumers in the EU

27-04-2017

Consumers are considered a key element of EU energy legislation and the efforts to achieve a transition to a carbon-free society. Back in 2009, the third energy package, which sought to establish a liberalised internal energy market, granted energy consumers a number of rights, such as the right to an electricity connection, to switch energy providers and to receive clear offers, contracts and energy bills. However, some of these rights have not yet been put into practice: consumers often do not ...

Consumers are considered a key element of EU energy legislation and the efforts to achieve a transition to a carbon-free society. Back in 2009, the third energy package, which sought to establish a liberalised internal energy market, granted energy consumers a number of rights, such as the right to an electricity connection, to switch energy providers and to receive clear offers, contracts and energy bills. However, some of these rights have not yet been put into practice: consumers often do not understand their bills, are unable to compare different offers, are charged for switching, or a switch takes too long. Besides, they do not always seem to be aware of their rights. The ongoing revision of EU energy legislation aims to improve some of the rules concerning consumers and to introduce new rights, such as the right to self-generate and self-consume electricity, to ask for a smart meter, or to engage an aggregator. The European Parliament has repeatedly voiced concern that the truly competitive, transparent and consumer-friendly internal energy market envisaged by the third energy package has yet to materialise and that consumers are still having trouble understanding their bills, offers and contracts. It has called, among other things, for providing consumers with increased protection and clearer information, and for requiring suppliers to automatically put customers on the best possible tariff for their individual circumstances.

Remedies for Buyers in Case of Contracts for the Supply of Digital Content

15-05-2012

The inclusion of provisions on digital content, including ‘gratuitous’ digital content, in the Common European Sales Law constitutes an improvement in respect to existing EU legislation on sales contracts. However, some amendments are necessary, given the fact that digital content differs from goods. This briefing note critically assesses the relevant provisions on conformity and remedies, and gives suggestions for tailoring them better to digital content.

The inclusion of provisions on digital content, including ‘gratuitous’ digital content, in the Common European Sales Law constitutes an improvement in respect to existing EU legislation on sales contracts. However, some amendments are necessary, given the fact that digital content differs from goods. This briefing note critically assesses the relevant provisions on conformity and remedies, and gives suggestions for tailoring them better to digital content.

Parlamendiväline autor

Marco B.M. LOOS and Chantal MAK (Centre for the Study of European Contract Law, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

A Comparison Between the Provisions of the Draft Common Frame of Reference and the European Commission’s Proposal for a Consumer Rights Directive - How the CFR can Improve the Consumer Rights Directive

15-10-2009

This study provides an in-depth and detailed comparison between the draft Common Frame of Reference and the Commission's proposal for a Consumer Rights Directive. Furthermore, it identifies those provisions of the CFR which could be used when amending the Proposal for a Consumer Rights Directive in the framework of the legislative procedure. In this regard, the study suggests some amendments based on the CFR. A correlation table between the provisions of the CFR and the provisions of the proposed ...

This study provides an in-depth and detailed comparison between the draft Common Frame of Reference and the Commission's proposal for a Consumer Rights Directive. Furthermore, it identifies those provisions of the CFR which could be used when amending the Proposal for a Consumer Rights Directive in the framework of the legislative procedure. In this regard, the study suggests some amendments based on the CFR. A correlation table between the provisions of the CFR and the provisions of the proposed Consumer Rights Directive is provided in the annex of the study.

Parlamendiväline autor

Timothy Q. de Booys LLM, Chantal Mak and Martijn W. Hesselink (Centre for the Study of European Contract Law, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands)

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