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Major sporting events versus human rights: Parliament's position on the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Moscow Olympics

13-06-2018

Major sports events and politics are closely intertwined. Well-known historical examples of major sporting events that were used by regimes for political propaganda purposes are the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. The 1978 World Cup took place around two years after the Argentinian military regime's right-wing coup and its violent repression of critics, and was then the most political World Cup in the history of the International Federation of Association ...

Major sports events and politics are closely intertwined. Well-known historical examples of major sporting events that were used by regimes for political propaganda purposes are the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. The 1978 World Cup took place around two years after the Argentinian military regime's right-wing coup and its violent repression of critics, and was then the most political World Cup in the history of the International Federation of Association Football (Fédération Internationale de Football Association: FIFA). The 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow were the first to take place in eastern Europe and the first to be held in a socialist country. In addition, the 1980 Summer Olympic Games unleashed a hitherto, in the history of major sporting events, unprecedented boycott by 60 countries, in protest against the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. The European Parliament's involvement in the debates on the political reaction to these two major sporting events is a largely unknown aspect of the history of the 1978 World Cup and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games. This Briefing will reconstruct these debates and the policy action that followed, based on new analysis of sources held in the Parliament's Historical Archives, and demonstrates that the EP's leitmotiv was the violation of human rights in both countries. Furthermore, the Briefing shows that these debates set the basis for the EP's current policy action when it comes to major sports events in countries with a poor track record of human rights.

Sport

01-04-2018

Sport on valdkond, kus ELi pädevus on suhteliselt uus. Talle anti pädevus spordivaldkonnas alles Lissaboni lepingu jõustumisega 2009. aasta detsembris. EL vastutab tõenduspõhise poliitika väljatöötamise eest, samuti peab ta edendama koostööd ja juhtima algatusi kehalise aktiivsuse ja spordi toetamiseks kõikjal Euroopas. Ajavahemikus 2014–2020 on esimest korda olemas eraldi eelarverida programmi „Erasmus+“ raames spordivaldkonna projektide ja võrgustike toetamiseks.

Sport on valdkond, kus ELi pädevus on suhteliselt uus. Talle anti pädevus spordivaldkonnas alles Lissaboni lepingu jõustumisega 2009. aasta detsembris. EL vastutab tõenduspõhise poliitika väljatöötamise eest, samuti peab ta edendama koostööd ja juhtima algatusi kehalise aktiivsuse ja spordi toetamiseks kõikjal Euroopas. Ajavahemikus 2014–2020 on esimest korda olemas eraldi eelarverida programmi „Erasmus+“ raames spordivaldkonna projektide ja võrgustike toetamiseks.

Audiovisual rights in sports events: An EU perspective

02-03-2017

Premium live sports content attracts large audiences, drives TV subscriptions upwards and generates advertising for broadcasters, particularly in an increasingly diversified media landscape. With no foreseeable end to the rush for premium sports rights over a handful of major sports events, the dramatic intensification of competition in the past 20 years has led to a steep increase in the pricing levels of audiovisual rights. In 2009, EU broadcasters spent around €5.8 billion on the acquisition of ...

Premium live sports content attracts large audiences, drives TV subscriptions upwards and generates advertising for broadcasters, particularly in an increasingly diversified media landscape. With no foreseeable end to the rush for premium sports rights over a handful of major sports events, the dramatic intensification of competition in the past 20 years has led to a steep increase in the pricing levels of audiovisual rights. In 2009, EU broadcasters spent around €5.8 billion on the acquisition of rights, representing nearly 17 % of their total €34.5 billion programming spend. Although sports events do not qualify as works of authorship, the audiovisual recordings of such events enjoy copyright protection and entitle rights-holders of the first fixation of the event to the right of reproduction, distribution, rental and communication to the public. In this context, the regulatory framework under which audiovisual sports rights agreements are negotiated in the EU features two predominant models – the joint selling of rights, where rights are sold by specially created associations on behalf of sports clubs, and exclusivity – a model referring to territorial exclusivity over the exploitation of audiovisual rights. In spite of the prominence of the latter model, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive contains two provisions that curb the restrictive allocation of rights, making it possible to freely receive information about events of major importance for society and enabling the public to have access to short extracts within general news programmes. The ongoing revision of the Audiovisual Media Services Directive does not currently envisage any changes to these provisions.

Schengen and EURO 2016

21-06-2016

With an estimated 7 million fans and 1 million foreign visitors, the UEFA European Football Championships, EURO 2016, promises to be one of the largest sports events taking place this year. In order to be better equipped against the threats of terrorism and hooliganism, France has reintroduced controls at its borders under the Schengen Borders Code (SBC). In the past, sporting events, G7 meetings, major international conferences and high profile state visits have also triggered the introduction of ...

With an estimated 7 million fans and 1 million foreign visitors, the UEFA European Football Championships, EURO 2016, promises to be one of the largest sports events taking place this year. In order to be better equipped against the threats of terrorism and hooliganism, France has reintroduced controls at its borders under the Schengen Borders Code (SBC). In the past, sporting events, G7 meetings, major international conferences and high profile state visits have also triggered the introduction of border controls in several Schengen member countries, for limited periods of time. However, strict conditions and procedures are applied to assess the necessity and the proportionality of the measure and its likely impact on the free movement of people within the Schengen area.

The Role of Sport in Fostering Open and Inclusive Societies

15-09-2015

TThis briefing paper provides an overview of models of the roles sport can play in different intercultural and multicultural policy approaches. It highlights in particular the relationship between intercultural and multicultural approaches in the development of social capital among marginal groups in society. Central to the discussion is the adoption of a realist approach to identifying causal mechanisms which bring about social change, and the place of Intergroup Contact Theory in explaining the ...

TThis briefing paper provides an overview of models of the roles sport can play in different intercultural and multicultural policy approaches. It highlights in particular the relationship between intercultural and multicultural approaches in the development of social capital among marginal groups in society. Central to the discussion is the adoption of a realist approach to identifying causal mechanisms which bring about social change, and the place of Intergroup Contact Theory in explaining the potential for the development of intercultural understanding through sport.

Parlamendiväline autor

Ian Henry (Centre of Olympic Studies & Research, Loughborough University)

Anti-corruption measures in EU sports policy

12-06-2015

Corruption and good governance in sport have been a constant concern for the EU since the very beginning of its sport policy. Preserving the integrity of sport has been given top priority in the two EU Work Plans for Sport adopted by the Council in recent years.

Corruption and good governance in sport have been a constant concern for the EU since the very beginning of its sport policy. Preserving the integrity of sport has been given top priority in the two EU Work Plans for Sport adopted by the Council in recent years.

Migrant workers' conditions in Qatar: Prospects of change on the road to the 2022 World Cup

25-11-2013

The decision of FIFA, world football's governing body, to hold the 2022 World Cup in Qatar, despite its climate constraints and the lack of a domestic football tradition, was a major victory in Qatar's long-term strategy aimed at enhancing the Emirate's international outreach, within a broader ambitious foreign policy. However the challenge of hosting the World Cup could trigger major social change, endangering the Qatari political system which has remained untouched by the Arab Spring. Indeed the ...

The decision of FIFA, world football's governing body, to hold the 2022 World Cup in Qatar, despite its climate constraints and the lack of a domestic football tradition, was a major victory in Qatar's long-term strategy aimed at enhancing the Emirate's international outreach, within a broader ambitious foreign policy. However the challenge of hosting the World Cup could trigger major social change, endangering the Qatari political system which has remained untouched by the Arab Spring. Indeed the absolute monarchy is sustained by a generous benefits system for the minority – Qatari citizens – while the majority – 94% of the, mostly migrant, workforce – suffers harsh working and living conditions.

Football: Broadcasting and the "Big Four" leagues

21-03-2012

Broadcasting rights have been the main driver behind the dramatic increase in the revenues of Europe's four biggest football leagues (England, Germany, Spain and Italy). These rights represented the main revenue source (46%) of these leagues in the 2009-10 season...

Broadcasting rights have been the main driver behind the dramatic increase in the revenues of Europe's four biggest football leagues (England, Germany, Spain and Italy). These rights represented the main revenue source (46%) of these leagues in the 2009-10 season...

The EU and sport

18-02-2010

Sport is very popular among EU citizens, not only as an activity, but also as entertainment. However, the growing commercialisation of sport has challenged its social, educational and cultural dimensions. Until 1st December 2009, sport was not mentioned in the Treaties. The Community's involvement in sport has thus been based on existing policies (e.g. audiovisual or health). Moreover, the case law of the Court of Justice (e.g. Bosman) has played a major role in clarifying the impact on sport of ...

Sport is very popular among EU citizens, not only as an activity, but also as entertainment. However, the growing commercialisation of sport has challenged its social, educational and cultural dimensions. Until 1st December 2009, sport was not mentioned in the Treaties. The Community's involvement in sport has thus been based on existing policies (e.g. audiovisual or health). Moreover, the case law of the Court of Justice (e.g. Bosman) has played a major role in clarifying the impact on sport of the provisions on both the free movement of workers and on competition. The Lisbon Treaty gives explicit powers to the EU to carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement the actions of the Member States in the field of sport.

The European Union and Sport

15-06-2004

More than one third of Europe's citizens participate in sporting activities and many aspects of the Union's policies influence the sporting world in areas such as free movement of persons, competition policy, media policy and health policy. However, it was only after 1997, with the inclusion of a Declaration on Sport in the Amsterdam Treaty that the European Union started to deal with sport from angles which were not purely economic. The briefing deals with these topics in detail.

More than one third of Europe's citizens participate in sporting activities and many aspects of the Union's policies influence the sporting world in areas such as free movement of persons, competition policy, media policy and health policy. However, it was only after 1997, with the inclusion of a Declaration on Sport in the Amsterdam Treaty that the European Union started to deal with sport from angles which were not purely economic. The briefing deals with these topics in detail.

Eelseisvad üritused

20-11-2019
Europe's Future: Where next for EU institutional Reform?
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