103

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Countering hybrid threats: EU and the Western Balkans case

06-09-2018

The aim of the workshop, held on 26 February 2018, was to assess and discuss the EU’s approach to hybrid threats in its neighbourhood using the Western Balkans as a case study, in the context of the extensive use of propaganda by Russia and its meddling into several elections and in the aftermath of the 2014 events in Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea. The first speaker, Jean-Jacques Patry, presented the concept of hybrid threat at various levels and the EU approach and measures to tackle ...

The aim of the workshop, held on 26 February 2018, was to assess and discuss the EU’s approach to hybrid threats in its neighbourhood using the Western Balkans as a case study, in the context of the extensive use of propaganda by Russia and its meddling into several elections and in the aftermath of the 2014 events in Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea. The first speaker, Jean-Jacques Patry, presented the concept of hybrid threat at various levels and the EU approach and measures to tackle it, particularly in the Western Balkans. The second speaker, Nicolas Mazzucchi, delivered a presentation on Russia’s declining influence in the Western Balkans (on behalf of Isabelle Facon, who authored the briefing but could not attend the workshop) and added some of his own analysis on energy and cyber issues. The presentations were followed by a debate with members of the Security and Defence Committee of the European Parliament.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Isabelle FACON, Nicolas MAZZUCCHI, Jean-Jacques PATRY

Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia

27-04-2018

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘near abroad’ and to make its geopolitical influence felt further afield, including in Europe. It uses gas supplies to punish and to reward, affecting both transit states and end-consumers. This study explores how supply disruptions, price discounts or hikes, and alternative transit routes such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, are used by Russia to further its foreign policy ambitions, feeding suspicions about its geopolitical motives. The lack of transparency about Russia’s energy policy decisions contributes to this. In response, the EU is building an Energy Union based around the Third Energy Package, a more integrated European market and diversified supplies. By investing in new supplies, such as LNG, and completing a liberalised energy market, the EU will be better able to withstand such energy coercion and develop a more effective EU foreign policy.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Rem Korteweg

The EU's Russia policy: Five guiding principles

08-02-2018

While EU-Russia relations had long been difficult, in 2014 they took an abrupt turn for the worse, after Russia illegally annexed Crimea and fomented separatist insurgencies in eastern Ukraine. To date, little progress has been made towards ending the Ukraine conflict. In addition, new sources of tension have emerged, for example: Russia's military backing for the Assad regime in Syria, and alleged Russian interference in EU politics. In the short term, an easing of tensions seems unlikely. In March ...

While EU-Russia relations had long been difficult, in 2014 they took an abrupt turn for the worse, after Russia illegally annexed Crimea and fomented separatist insurgencies in eastern Ukraine. To date, little progress has been made towards ending the Ukraine conflict. In addition, new sources of tension have emerged, for example: Russia's military backing for the Assad regime in Syria, and alleged Russian interference in EU politics. In the short term, an easing of tensions seems unlikely. In March 2016, EU foreign ministers and the EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, agreed on five guiding principles for EU-Russia relations: full implementation of the Minsk agreements; closer ties with Russia's former Soviet neighbours; strengthening EU resilience to Russian threats; selective engagement with Russia on certain issues such as counter-terrorism; and support for people-to-people contacts. Implementing each of these principles faces major difficulties. The EU is unlikely to lift sanctions against Russia while implementation of the Minsk agreements remains stalled; the EU's Eastern Neighbourhood remains a zone of confrontation; EU security is threatened by dependence on Russian energy imports and the destabilising effects of aggressive propaganda; EU-Russia cooperation on international issues has become a victim of tensions between the two sides; repressive Russian legislation obstructs EU support for Russian civil society; diplomatic tensions are mirrored by mutual suspicion between ordinary EU citizens and Russians. This is an updated edition of a briefing from October 2016.

Energian sisämarkkinat

01-02-2018

Vuodesta 1996 on hyväksytty toimenpiteitä, joiden tarkoituksena on yhdenmukaistaa EU:n energian sisämarkkinat ja vapauttaa ne sääntelystä. Toimenpiteissä on käsitelty markkinoille pääsyä, avoimuutta, sääntelyä, kuluttajansuojaa, yhteenliitännän edistämistä ja tarjonnan riittävyyttä. Näillä toimenpiteillä pyritään rakentamaan kilpailulle avoimemmat, asiakaskeskeisemmät, joustavammat ja syrjimättömät EU:n energiamarkkinat, jotka perustuvat markkinapohjaisiin toimitushintoihin. Niillä vahvistetaan ja ...

Vuodesta 1996 on hyväksytty toimenpiteitä, joiden tarkoituksena on yhdenmukaistaa EU:n energian sisämarkkinat ja vapauttaa ne sääntelystä. Toimenpiteissä on käsitelty markkinoille pääsyä, avoimuutta, sääntelyä, kuluttajansuojaa, yhteenliitännän edistämistä ja tarjonnan riittävyyttä. Näillä toimenpiteillä pyritään rakentamaan kilpailulle avoimemmat, asiakaskeskeisemmät, joustavammat ja syrjimättömät EU:n energiamarkkinat, jotka perustuvat markkinapohjaisiin toimitushintoihin. Niillä vahvistetaan ja laajennetaan yksittäisten asiakkaiden ja energiayhteisöjen oikeuksia, puututaan energiaköyhyyteen, selkeytetään markkinatoimijoiden ja sääntelijöiden rooleja ja vastuualueita ja niissä käsitellään sähkön, kaasun ja öljyn toimitusvarmuutta sekä Euroopan laajuisten sähkön ja kaasun siirtoverkkojen kehittämistä.

Energiatehokkuus

01-02-2018

Energiankulutuksen ja -tuhlauksen vähentäminen on Euroopan unionille yhä tärkeämpi tavoite. EU:n johtajat asettivat vuonna 2007 tavoitteeksi leikata unionin vuosittaista energiankulutusta 20 prosentilla vuoteen 2020 mennessä. Energiatehokkuustoimet tunnustetaan yhä yleisemmin hyväksi keinoksi varmistaa kestävä energiahuolto, vähentää kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä, lisätä energian toimitusvarmuutta ja vähentää tuontikustannuksia sekä toisaalta lisätä EU:n kilpailukykyä. Energiatehokkuus on energiaunionin ...

Energiankulutuksen ja -tuhlauksen vähentäminen on Euroopan unionille yhä tärkeämpi tavoite. EU:n johtajat asettivat vuonna 2007 tavoitteeksi leikata unionin vuosittaista energiankulutusta 20 prosentilla vuoteen 2020 mennessä. Energiatehokkuustoimet tunnustetaan yhä yleisemmin hyväksi keinoksi varmistaa kestävä energiahuolto, vähentää kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä, lisätä energian toimitusvarmuutta ja vähentää tuontikustannuksia sekä toisaalta lisätä EU:n kilpailukykyä. Energiatehokkuus on energiaunionin strateginen painopiste, ja EU edistää energiatehokkuus etusijalle -periaatetta. Vuoden 2030 jälkeisen ajan toimintakehys on parhaillaan käsiteltävänä.

Sanctions over Ukraine: Impact on Russia

17-01-2018

In early 2014, Russia violated international law by annexing Crimea and allegedly fomenting separatist uprisings in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donbas. The European Union, the United States and several other Western countries responded with diplomatic measures in March 2014, followed by asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individuals and entities. In July 2014, sanctions targeting the Russian energy, defence and financial sectors were adopted. These sanctions have not swayed Russian public ...

In early 2014, Russia violated international law by annexing Crimea and allegedly fomenting separatist uprisings in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donbas. The European Union, the United States and several other Western countries responded with diplomatic measures in March 2014, followed by asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individuals and entities. In July 2014, sanctions targeting the Russian energy, defence and financial sectors were adopted. These sanctions have not swayed Russian public opinion, which continues to staunchly back the Kremlin's actions in Ukraine. Despite Western efforts to isolate Russia, the country is playing an increasingly prominent role on the global stage. On the other hand, sectoral sanctions have proved painful, aggravating an economic downturn triggered by falling oil prices, from which the country has only just begun to recover. Sanctions have affected the Russian economy in various ways. The main short-term impact comes from restrictions on Western lending and investment in Russia. Oil and gas production remains unaffected for the time being, but in the long term energy exports are likely to suffer. Meanwhile, Russian counter-sanctions are benefiting the country's agricultural sector, but consumers are losing out in terms of choice and price. Quantitative estimates of the impact are difficult, but most observers agree that sanctions are costing Russia billions of euros a year and holding back a return to higher rates of economic growth. This is an updated edition of a briefing from March 2016, PE 579.084.

Uusiutuvat energialähteet

01-01-2018

Tuulivoima, aurinkoenergia, vesivoima, valtamerienergia, maalämpö, biomassa ja biopolttoaineet ovat uusiutuvia energialähteitä, jotka ovat vaihtoehtoja fossiilisille polttoaineille. Ne auttavat vähentämään kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä, monipuolistamaan energian tarjontaa ja vähentämään riippuvuutta epäluotettavista ja vaihteluille alttiista fossiilisten polttoaineiden ja etenkin öljyn ja kaasun markkinoista. Uusiutuvaa energiaa edistävä EU:n lainsäädäntö on kehittynyt merkittävästi viime vuosina. Vuoden ...

Tuulivoima, aurinkoenergia, vesivoima, valtamerienergia, maalämpö, biomassa ja biopolttoaineet ovat uusiutuvia energialähteitä, jotka ovat vaihtoehtoja fossiilisille polttoaineille. Ne auttavat vähentämään kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä, monipuolistamaan energian tarjontaa ja vähentämään riippuvuutta epäluotettavista ja vaihteluille alttiista fossiilisten polttoaineiden ja etenkin öljyn ja kaasun markkinoista. Uusiutuvaa energiaa edistävä EU:n lainsäädäntö on kehittynyt merkittävästi viime vuosina. Vuoden 2030 jälkeisen ajan toimintakehys on parhaillaan käsiteltävänä.

Energiapolitiikka: yleiset periaatteet

01-01-2018

Euroopan unionilla on energia-alalla monia haasteita: lisääntynyt tuontiriippuvuus, energialähteiden monipuolistamisen tarve, korkeat ja vaihtelevat energian hinnat, energian kasvava kysyntä maailmanlaajuisesti, tuotanto- ja kauttakulkumaihin vaikuttavat turvallisuusuhat, ilmastonmuutoksen kasvava uhka, energiatehokkuuden hidas parantuminen, uusiutuvan energian osuuden lisäämisen haasteet sekä tarve lisätä energiamarkkinoiden avoimuutta, integroitumista ja yhteenliitäntöjä. EU:n energiapolitiikan ...

Euroopan unionilla on energia-alalla monia haasteita: lisääntynyt tuontiriippuvuus, energialähteiden monipuolistamisen tarve, korkeat ja vaihtelevat energian hinnat, energian kasvava kysyntä maailmanlaajuisesti, tuotanto- ja kauttakulkumaihin vaikuttavat turvallisuusuhat, ilmastonmuutoksen kasvava uhka, energiatehokkuuden hidas parantuminen, uusiutuvan energian osuuden lisäämisen haasteet sekä tarve lisätä energiamarkkinoiden avoimuutta, integroitumista ja yhteenliitäntöjä. EU:n energiapolitiikan ytimen muodostavat erilaiset toimet, joilla pyritään integroituihin energiamarkkinoihin, energian toimitusvarmuuteen ja energia-alan kestävyyteen.

Third report on the state of the energy union

07-12-2017

On 24 November 2017, the European Commission adopted its third report on the state of the energy union, which was presented to the Parliament during the November II plenary session. This report outlines the significant progress made in delivering on the energy union, as well as the further steps that need to be taken to complete this goal by the end of the current parliamentary term. The report was accompanied by several new documents, reports and studies relating to EU energy policy.

On 24 November 2017, the European Commission adopted its third report on the state of the energy union, which was presented to the Parliament during the November II plenary session. This report outlines the significant progress made in delivering on the energy union, as well as the further steps that need to be taken to complete this goal by the end of the current parliamentary term. The report was accompanied by several new documents, reports and studies relating to EU energy policy.

Facing Russia’s Strategic Challenge: Security Developments from the Baltic to the Black Sea

17-11-2017

The EU and NATO are facing an increasingly uncertain and complex situation on their eastern and south-eastern borders. In what the EU has traditionally conceived as its ‘shared neighbourhood’ with Russia and NATO its ‘eastern flank’, Moscow is exhibiting a growingly assertive military posture. The context of the Baltic and the Black Sea regions differs, but Russia’s actions in both seem to be part of the same strategy aiming to transform the European security order and its sustaining principles. ...

The EU and NATO are facing an increasingly uncertain and complex situation on their eastern and south-eastern borders. In what the EU has traditionally conceived as its ‘shared neighbourhood’ with Russia and NATO its ‘eastern flank’, Moscow is exhibiting a growingly assertive military posture. The context of the Baltic and the Black Sea regions differs, but Russia’s actions in both seem to be part of the same strategy aiming to transform the European security order and its sustaining principles. The Kremlin seems to follow similar policies and tactics, mainly through the militarisation of the Kaliningrad Oblast and Crimea as the centrepiece of its strategy of power projection vis-à-vis NATO and the EU. An all-out war remains an unlikely scenario, but frictions or accidents leading to an unwanted and uncontrolled escalation cannot be completely ruled out. Tensions and military developments take place in both the Baltic and Black seas, but are not only about them. Russia is testing the Euro-Atlantic response and resilience at large. To assess how far it might be willing to go, it is necessary to evaluate how Russia perceives the West and its actions, taking into account the deep and entrenched clash of perceptions between Brussels and Moscow, and the worldview of the latter.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Nicolás De Pedro, Research Fellow, CIDOB, Spain; Panagiota Manoli, Research Fellow, ELIAMEP, Greece; Sergey Sukhankin, Associate Expert, ICPS, Ukraine; Theodoros Tsakiris, Research Fellow, ELIAMEP, Greece

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