30

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Citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) schemes in the EU

17-10-2018

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

Security of ID cards and of residence documents issued to EU citizens and their families

13-07-2018

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently ...

Currently, there are at least 86 different versions of ID cards, and 181 types of residence documents in circulation in the EU. The format and minimum standards for ID cards and residence documents is not regulated on EU level. In order to strengthen the security features of ID cards and residence documents of EU citizens and their non-EU family members, the European Commission published a legislative proposal. The impact assessment accompanying this proposal clearly explains the problems currently encountered, and proposes adequate solutions. The Commission used different sources to substantiate the impact assessment and also undertook several stakeholder consultation activities. However, it is not systematically indicated which stakeholder group prefers which specific option. At times the impact assessment displays a lack of quantification, about which the Commission is open. More detailed information on the safeguards regarding the fundamental rights impact would have been desirable.

Acquisition and loss of citizenship in EU Member States: Key trends and issues

09-07-2018

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although ...

Access to citizenship status is an important prerequisite for enjoying rights and privileges, such as migration and political rights, as well as for developing a sense of identity and belonging. Since the establishment of Union citizenship, all persons who are nationals or citizens of an EU Member State enjoy the status of EU citizenship, which confers on them a number of additional rights and privileges. However, Member States retain full control over who can be recognised as a citizen. Although the legal rules on the acquisition and loss of citizenship in the EU Member States remain fairly divergent, one can identify a number of key trends and issues. The need to integrate long-term immigrants has pushed EU countries to amend their citizenship laws. This often resulted in making citizenship both more liberal (lowering residence requirements and tolerating dual citizenship) and more restrictive (introducing integration clauses and citizenship tests). The surge in terrorist activities in the EU, which involve citizens, prompted several Member States to revise or reactivate citizenship provisions allowing for citizenship to be revoked. Concerns about immigrants' integration, allegiance and belonging, as well as about the cultural and economic consequences of regional integration and globalisation are at the heart of recent debates about citizenship in Europe. As the Maltese case of investor citizenship shows, the issue of access to citizenship is no longer a matter that concerns Member States alone. The bundling of national and EU citizenship means that Member States have a certain responsibility towards each other when taking decisions over who to accept (or reject) as citizens.

A Europe without internal borders? Free movement of persons

25-06-2018

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police ...

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police cooperation and harmonised external border controls help Europe work against cross-border crime. Closing EU internal borders again could lead to costs of between €100 and 230 billion over 10 years.

Towards a comprehensive EU protection system for minorities

30-08-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines the added value of developing a democratic rule of law and fundamental rights-based approach to the protection of minorities in the EU legal system, from an ‘intersectional’ viewpoint. It presents the state of play regarding the main challenges characterising the protection of ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in a selection ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines the added value of developing a democratic rule of law and fundamental rights-based approach to the protection of minorities in the EU legal system, from an ‘intersectional’ viewpoint. It presents the state of play regarding the main challenges characterising the protection of ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in a selection of 11 European countries, in light of existing international and regional legal standards. Minority protection has been an EU priority in enlargement processes as a conditional criterion for candidate countries to accede to the Union. Yet a similar scrutiny mechanism is lacking after accession. The study puts forward several policy options to address this gap. It suggests specific ways in which a Union Pact for democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights, could help to ensure a comprehensive EU approach to minority protection.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Sergio CARRERA, CEPS(Coordinator), Brussels, Belgium Elspeth GUILD, CEPS, Brussels, Belgium Lina VOSYLIŪTĖ, CEPS, Brussels, Belgium Petra BARD, National Institute of Criminology/ Central European University (CEU)/ ELTE School of Law, Budapest, Hungary

EU citizenship rights

23-03-2017

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely ...

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely in other Member States, to vote and to stand as candidates in municipal and European elections, to petition the Parliament, to apply to the European Ombudsman, and to enjoy in a third country the protection of the diplomatic and consular authorities of any other Member State. The Lisbon Treaty, signed in 2007, granted Union citizens another novel right – the right to start a Citizens' Initiative. It is estimated that about 15 million Union citizens live in a Member State other than that of their nationality. The rights related to free movement and residence are governed by a central piece of legislation (Directive 2004/38), which covers most aspects of the freedom of movement of persons. It enables Union citizens to travel, (seek) work, study or retire in another Member State – and to enjoy equal treatment while doing so. Yet, EU Treaties and secondary law make clear that the rights granted to Union citizens are not absolute but subject to conditions and limitations.

Cross-border aspects of adoptions

26-01-2017

At present, there is no guarantee that domestic adoptions carried out in one EU Member State will be recognised automatically in another. The resulting hurdles facing families who move to another EU country after adopting a child can interfere with their freedom of movement, harm children’s rights, and impose significant costs. The European Parliament has identified scope for EU legal action in this area and further cooperation on several other cross-border aspects of adoption. A legislative own-initiative ...

At present, there is no guarantee that domestic adoptions carried out in one EU Member State will be recognised automatically in another. The resulting hurdles facing families who move to another EU country after adopting a child can interfere with their freedom of movement, harm children’s rights, and impose significant costs. The European Parliament has identified scope for EU legal action in this area and further cooperation on several other cross-border aspects of adoption. A legislative own-initiative report is due to be debated in plenary in February.

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Comparative Analysis

15-09-2016

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, presents a synthesis of in-depth studies in nine Member States in addition to broader EU and national research. Based on an analysis of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK, it identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens ...

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, presents a synthesis of in-depth studies in nine Member States in addition to broader EU and national research. Based on an analysis of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK, it identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions. It finds that, ten years after the deadline for transposition, there is general compliance, though some challenges remain. More systematic data collection, evaluation and guidance is thus required. The nine country studies are made available separately.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Marta BALLESTEROS, Gillian KELLY, Nathalie MEURENS and Anna PEREGO

Protection of Vulnerable Adults

08-09-2016

While benefiting from the freedom of movement and residence in the European Union (EU), vulnerable adults often face legal difficulties when in a cross-border situation as a result of the lack of solid legal protection. This is due to the different protection schemes operating in the EU Member States, and the incomplete international legal framework, creating legal uncertainties in the Europe-wide protection of vulnerable adults. This European Added Value Assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing ...

While benefiting from the freedom of movement and residence in the European Union (EU), vulnerable adults often face legal difficulties when in a cross-border situation as a result of the lack of solid legal protection. This is due to the different protection schemes operating in the EU Member States, and the incomplete international legal framework, creating legal uncertainties in the Europe-wide protection of vulnerable adults. This European Added Value Assessment identifies weaknesses in the existing legal framework for the protection of vulnerable adults in cross-border situations, focusing on the most important international legal instrument in the field: the Hague Adult Protection Convention of 13 January 2000. The Assessment goes on to outline potential legal measures which could be taken at the EU level and which would generate European added value through simplification and transparency of the legal framework in this area.    

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for Poland

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Poland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Poland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Ulkopuolinen laatija

Paulina ROICKA (Institute of Social Policy, University of Warsaw) under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium) ; Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

Tulevat tapahtumat

01-10-2019
Health threats from climate change: Scientific evidence for policy-making
Muu tapahtuma -
EPRS

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