ThinkTank logo Les documents qui contribuent à déterminer la nouvelle législation de l'Union
Publié le 23-03-2017

Qui sont les NEET ? Être jeune sans emploi, éducation ni formation aujourd’hui

23-03-2017

Le terme de «NEET» (de l’anglais not in education, employment or training) désigne les jeunes qui n'ont pas d'emploi, ne suivent pas d'études ni de formation. Apparu au milieu des années 90 au Royaume-Uni, cet acronyme a rapidement attiré l’attention des médias, des acteurs politiques et des chercheurs, eu égard à sa capacité à décrire les effets disproportionnés de la crise économique sur l’éducation, la formation, l’employabilité et, à terme, l’inclusion sociale des jeunes Européens. En 2015, dans ...

Le terme de «NEET» (de l’anglais not in education, employment or training) désigne les jeunes qui n'ont pas d'emploi, ne suivent pas d'études ni de formation. Apparu au milieu des années 90 au Royaume-Uni, cet acronyme a rapidement attiré l’attention des médias, des acteurs politiques et des chercheurs, eu égard à sa capacité à décrire les effets disproportionnés de la crise économique sur l’éducation, la formation, l’employabilité et, à terme, l’inclusion sociale des jeunes Européens. En 2015, dans l’Union européenne, 12 % des jeunes de 15 à 24 ans (soit 6,6 millions de personnes) étaient sans emploi, formation, ni stage. Si on inclut les jeunes jusqu’à 29 ans, le nombre de NEET s’élevait à près de 14 millions, soit 14,8 % de cette classe d’âge. L’hétérogénéité de ce groupe social est grande: chômeurs de courte ou de longue durée, jeunes en transition, jeunes avec des responsabilités familiales ou personnes souffrant d’un handicap ou d’une maladie. Statistiquement, les jeunes femmes y sont surreprésentées; la probabilité d’être NEET augmente avec l’âge; elle est inversement proportionnelle au niveau d’éducation et sa part varie fortement d’un État membre à l’autre. Face à l’aggravation de la situation des NEET avec la crise, la Commission européenne a élaboré une stratégie de l’Union européenne en faveur de la jeunesse pour la période 2010-2018 tandis que le Parlement européen a défendu la cause des NEET. Dans ce contexte, la Garantie pour la jeunesse constitue la mesure phare créée par l’Union européenne pour venir en aide aux NEET.

EU citizenship rights

23-03-2017

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely ...

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely in other Member States, to vote and to stand as candidates in municipal and European elections, to petition the Parliament, to apply to the European Ombudsman, and to enjoy in a third country the protection of the diplomatic and consular authorities of any other Member State. The Lisbon Treaty, signed in 2007, granted Union citizens another novel right – the right to start a Citizens' Initiative. It is estimated that about 15 million Union citizens live in a Member State other than that of their nationality. The rights related to free movement and residence are governed by a central piece of legislation (Directive 2004/38), which covers most aspects of the freedom of movement of persons. It enables Union citizens to travel, (seek) work, study or retire in another Member State – and to enjoy equal treatment while doing so. Yet, EU Treaties and secondary law make clear that the rights granted to Union citizens are not absolute but subject to conditions and limitations.

Mapping the future of Syria: State of play and options

23-03-2017

Despite the humanitarian and security crisis, progress towards a United Nations (UN) negotiated political settlement of the conflict has been slow, mostly on account of disagreement over President Bashar al-Assad's future. The adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2254 on 18 December 2015 – setting out a roadmap for a peace process in Syria with a clear transition timeline – offered new hope but failed to produce results. After several failed attempts at a cessation of hostilities, the ceasefire ...

Despite the humanitarian and security crisis, progress towards a United Nations (UN) negotiated political settlement of the conflict has been slow, mostly on account of disagreement over President Bashar al-Assad's future. The adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2254 on 18 December 2015 – setting out a roadmap for a peace process in Syria with a clear transition timeline – offered new hope but failed to produce results. After several failed attempts at a cessation of hostilities, the ceasefire brokered by Russia and Turkey in December 2016, including a monitoring mechanism for violations, opened the way for a new UN Security Council Resolution 2336 which was adopted unanimously on 31 December 2016. The resolution provided an impulse for re-booting the political process during the talks in Astana at the beginning of 2017. At the same time, the discussion about the future of Syria revolves around questions linked to the future of the Assad regime, territorial integrity of Syria, political accountability, the creation of safe zones, and the reconstruction work that will follow a potential peace agreement. In March 2017, the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, presented a joint communication providing elements of an EU strategy for Syria. For its part, the European Parliament has focused on addressing the implications of the refugee crisis, strengthening EU humanitarian assistance in Iraq and Syria and aid to vulnerable communities, and improving the EU response to the terrorist threat posed by ISIL/Da'esh.

Human Rights in Iran after the Nuclear Deal Business as Usual or Time for Change?

13-03-2017

This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop organised jointly by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) and the Delegation for relations with Iran (D-IR). The purpose of the workshop was to analyse the most recent developments regarding human rights in Iran since the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in July 2015 and to explore the options available to the EU in seeking to help improve the situation. Experts and human rights defenders pointed to ...

This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop organised jointly by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) and the Delegation for relations with Iran (D-IR). The purpose of the workshop was to analyse the most recent developments regarding human rights in Iran since the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was signed in July 2015 and to explore the options available to the EU in seeking to help improve the situation. Experts and human rights defenders pointed to the gaps between law and practice in Iran and raised continuing concerns about the death penalty, political prisoners, prison conditions, arrests of dual nationals, minority rights and restrictions to internet access. They identified Iran’s dual power structure of elected and non-elected institutions and corruption as some of the chief constraints to any reform efforts. They said the EU should keep human rights — including support for the relevant UN mechanisms and efforts — high on its agenda. They said the key factors for engaging successfully with Iran on human rights in future were clear criteria and benchmarks, detailed knowledge of the human rights issues at stake and interaction with Iranian civil society both inside and outside Iran.

Auteur externe

Firouzeh NAHAVANDI (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium - chapter 2.1) ; Nazila GHANEA (University of Oxford, the UK - chapter 2.2) and Giulia BONACQUISTI (Trans European Policy Studies Association - TEPSA, Belgium - workshop report)

Publié le 22-03-2017

European Leadership in 5G

22-03-2017

The in depth analysis European Leadership in 5G examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/595337/IPOL_IDA(2016)595337_EN.pdf

The in depth analysis European Leadership in 5G examines the concept for 5G, how it might fit in the future telecommunications landscape, the state of play in R&D in the EU and globally, the possible business models and the role of standards and spectrum policy. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/595337/IPOL_IDA(2016)595337_EN.pdf

Cyber Security Strategy for the Energy Sector

22-03-2017

The study Cyber Security Strategy for the Energy Sector explores the development of energy specific cyber security solutions and defensive practices. It provides an assessment of existing European policies and legislation to address cyber security in the energy sector and recommends additional policy prescriptions that may be necessary to protect Europe and its citizens. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes ...

The study Cyber Security Strategy for the Energy Sector explores the development of energy specific cyber security solutions and defensive practices. It provides an assessment of existing European policies and legislation to address cyber security in the energy sector and recommends additional policy prescriptions that may be necessary to protect Europe and its citizens. This leaflet presents short summary of this study. Link to the original publication: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/587333/IPOL_STU(2016)587333_EN.pdf

Recovery and resolution of central counterparties

22-03-2017

This impact assessment builds a convincing case for action. It is mainly based on expert judgement by the Commission's departments and is backed up by relevant references, public consultation and coordination with international work-streams. The Commission states that the proposal, published in November 2016, is fully in line with the latest policy discussions and orientation by the Financial Stability Board and the G20, quoting a document from August 2016. Notwithstanding this, the Impact assessment ...

This impact assessment builds a convincing case for action. It is mainly based on expert judgement by the Commission's departments and is backed up by relevant references, public consultation and coordination with international work-streams. The Commission states that the proposal, published in November 2016, is fully in line with the latest policy discussions and orientation by the Financial Stability Board and the G20, quoting a document from August 2016. Notwithstanding this, the Impact assessment itself does not appear to have been fully updated since the summer of 2015. Therefore, some potentially important developments do not seem to be properly reflected in the IA. These include the recognition of non-EU central counterparties, the publication of new material, and the scenarios opened in the clearing world by the UK referendum of 23 June 2016.

Energy Efficiency

22-03-2017

The Commission IA presents a comprehensive overview of options and likely impacts of the proposed legislation. It would have been stronger if all its parts, which in their earlier life were separate impact assessments, were linked in a better, cross-referential manner. Also, given the prominent role of SMEs in boosting energy efficiency measures, the report would have benefited from devoting more space and attention to the situation of energy service companies in the EU. Lastly, the emphasis on econometric ...

The Commission IA presents a comprehensive overview of options and likely impacts of the proposed legislation. It would have been stronger if all its parts, which in their earlier life were separate impact assessments, were linked in a better, cross-referential manner. Also, given the prominent role of SMEs in boosting energy efficiency measures, the report would have benefited from devoting more space and attention to the situation of energy service companies in the EU. Lastly, the emphasis on econometric analytical models may have led to a certain lack of qualitative analysis of policy measures which were stated as being needed to correct the lack of progress in the EU energy efficiency field.

Environmental implementation review: Initial findings

22-03-2017

The environmental implementation review (EIR), launched by the European Commission in 2016, aims at providing an overview of how well Member States are implementing EU environmental law, and at supporting them if necessary. The review consists of three parts: 28 country reports, a Commission summary of the most common problems, and suggestions for improvement. The review’s first edition was published in February 2017. It reveals implementation gaps, in particular, regarding waste management, nature ...

The environmental implementation review (EIR), launched by the European Commission in 2016, aims at providing an overview of how well Member States are implementing EU environmental law, and at supporting them if necessary. The review consists of three parts: 28 country reports, a Commission summary of the most common problems, and suggestions for improvement. The review’s first edition was published in February 2017. It reveals implementation gaps, in particular, regarding waste management, nature and biodiversity protection, air and water quality, as well as tackling noise pollution. It also examines governance issues related to implementation gaps, including effectiveness of administration, compliance assurance as well as access to justice and information. The review identifies structural problems and governance weaknesses, as well as insufficient coordination and integration, as possible reasons for inadequate implementation of environmental law. Another important issue is a lack of available data. The briefing also contains a short description of the OECD environmental review and the European quality of government index.

EU certification of aviation security screening equipment

22-03-2017

On 7 September 2016, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation establishing a certification system for aviation security screening equipment. The proposal seeks 'to contribute to the proper functioning of the EU internal market and to increase the global competitiveness of the EU industry by establishing an EU certification system for aviation security equipment'. This system would be based on EU type-approval and issuance of a certificate of conformity by manufacturers, which would ...

On 7 September 2016, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation establishing a certification system for aviation security screening equipment. The proposal seeks 'to contribute to the proper functioning of the EU internal market and to increase the global competitiveness of the EU industry by establishing an EU certification system for aviation security equipment'. This system would be based on EU type-approval and issuance of a certificate of conformity by manufacturers, which would be valid in all Member States, according to the principle of mutual recognition. The proposal falls under different policy frameworks: the 2012 Commission communication entitled 'Security Industrial Policy Action Plan for an innovative and competitive Security Industry', the European agenda on security adopted by the Commission in April 2015, and the communication 'Delivering the European Agenda on Security to fight against terrorism and pave the way towards an effective and genuine Security Union', adopted in April 2016.

Evénements à venir

27-03-2017
LIBE-FEMM hearing on the EU accession to the Istanbul Convention - 27.03.2017
Audition -
LIBE FEMM
28-03-2017
60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties and 25th anniversary of the Maastricht Treaty
Autre événement -
EPRS
28-03-2017
The Future of Science through Citizens Engagement
Autre événement -
STOA

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