52

résultat(s)

Mot(s)
Type de publication
Domaine politique
Auteur
Date

Common rules for the internal electricity market

14-03-2019

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled ‘Clean Energy for all Europeans’. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework ...

On 30 November 2016, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal for a recast directive on the internal market for electricity, as part of a comprehensive legislative package entitled ‘Clean Energy for all Europeans’. The proposed directive would oblige Member States to ensure a more competitive, customer-centred, flexible and non-discriminatory EU electricity market with market-based supply prices. It would strengthen existing customer rights, introduce new ones and provide a framework for energy communities. Member States would have to monitor and address energy poverty. The proposal clarifies the tasks of distribution system operators and emphasises the obligation of neighbouring national regulators to cooperate on issues of cross-border relevance. The Council adopted its general approach in December 2017. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) adopted its report in February 2018. A provisional trilogue agreement was reached on 17 December 2018. Parliament is expected to vote on this agreement during the March II 2019 plenary session. Third edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Les sept défis économiques de la Russie: La fin de la stagnation?

18-07-2018

La présente publication décrit l’état actuel de l’économie russe, qui a récemment subi divers chocs externes, dont un effondrement des prix du pétrole et des sanctions imposées par les pays occidentaux. Toutefois, elle fait valoir que la faible performance économique est davantage due à des problèmes internes à long terme, comme une absence de marchés concurrentiels, un faible niveau d’investissement, une innovation inexistante et une dépendance excessive envers les ressources naturelles. Enfin, ...

La présente publication décrit l’état actuel de l’économie russe, qui a récemment subi divers chocs externes, dont un effondrement des prix du pétrole et des sanctions imposées par les pays occidentaux. Toutefois, elle fait valoir que la faible performance économique est davantage due à des problèmes internes à long terme, comme une absence de marchés concurrentiels, un faible niveau d’investissement, une innovation inexistante et une dépendance excessive envers les ressources naturelles. Enfin, l’étude examine les promesses de réformes économiques présentées par le président Poutine afin de résoudre ces problèmes, et évalue la probabilité d’un changement majeur.

Energy as a tool of foreign policy of authoritarian states, in particular Russia

27-04-2018

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘ ...

Russia and other energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy exports for economic gains but also as a tool of foreign policy leverage. This study looks at the ways and methods these states have used to exert political pressure through their energy supplies, and what it means for the European Union. Most energy-rich authoritarian states use their energy wealth to ensure regime survival. But, more than others, Russia uses its energy wealth as well to protect and promote its interests in its ‘near abroad’ and to make its geopolitical influence felt further afield, including in Europe. It uses gas supplies to punish and to reward, affecting both transit states and end-consumers. This study explores how supply disruptions, price discounts or hikes, and alternative transit routes such as Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream, are used by Russia to further its foreign policy ambitions, feeding suspicions about its geopolitical motives. The lack of transparency about Russia’s energy policy decisions contributes to this. In response, the EU is building an Energy Union based around the Third Energy Package, a more integrated European market and diversified supplies. By investing in new supplies, such as LNG, and completing a liberalised energy market, the EU will be better able to withstand such energy coercion and develop a more effective EU foreign policy.

Auteur externe

Rem Korteweg

Financer la transition vers les énergies propres en Europe

27-10-2017

Les énergies propres sont des énergies dont la production et la consommation n’occasionnent que de très faibles émissions de gaz à effet de serre et autres polluants. Le niveau des émissions liées à la consommation d’énergie peut également diminuer sous l’effet de mesures en faveur de l’efficacité énergétique, qui modèrent la demande d'énergie. Les objectifs de l’accord de Paris (une élévation de la température mondiale bien en deçà de 2°C par rapport à l’ère préindustrielle, idéalement en-deçà de ...

Les énergies propres sont des énergies dont la production et la consommation n’occasionnent que de très faibles émissions de gaz à effet de serre et autres polluants. Le niveau des émissions liées à la consommation d’énergie peut également diminuer sous l’effet de mesures en faveur de l’efficacité énergétique, qui modèrent la demande d'énergie. Les objectifs de l’accord de Paris (une élévation de la température mondiale bien en deçà de 2°C par rapport à l’ère préindustrielle, idéalement en-deçà de 1,5°C), supposent une deuxième moitié du XXIe siècle quasiment neutre en carbone. Pour le secteur de l’énergie, les combustibles fossiles devront donc progressivement faire place aux sources d’énergie à faible intensité carbone, ce qui suppose une transformation sans précédent des modes de production et de consommation de l’énergie synonyme de milliers de milliards d’euros d’investissements. Le financement de cette transition à grande échelle revient avant tout au secteur privé, mais les États et l’Union européenne ont également un rôle déterminant à jouer dans la création d'un cadre politique propice: marchés de l’énergie et du carbone, fiscalité, réglementation, mesures d’incitation, financement d'infrastructures stratégiques, innovation, coordination et information, etc. Dans le cadre de l’union de l’énergie, la Commission européenne a proposé une série d'actes législatifs et de politiques en faveur de la transition énergétique. L’Union a également alloué 20 % de son budget aux actions pour le climat et aux énergies propres. Le Parlement européen milite pour une politique ambitieuse en matière de climat et d’énergie; il considère les marchés du carbone et de l’électricité comme des ressorts essentiels de cette transition et souhaite établir des objectifs solides en matière d’efficacité énergétique et d’énergies renouvelables.

EU energy policy [What Think Tanks are thinking]

29-09-2017

Faced with uncertain energy demand, volatile prices and possible disruptions to supply, the European Union is pushing ahead with efforts to fully integrate its still-fragmented energy market. The aim is to boost economic growth, foster innovation, ensure stable supplies and protect the environment. The planned construction of the Energy Union is taking shape with the ongoing adoption of numerous policy proposals, such as those contained in the 'Clean Energy for All Europeans' package of 2016. Most ...

Faced with uncertain energy demand, volatile prices and possible disruptions to supply, the European Union is pushing ahead with efforts to fully integrate its still-fragmented energy market. The aim is to boost economic growth, foster innovation, ensure stable supplies and protect the environment. The planned construction of the Energy Union is taking shape with the ongoing adoption of numerous policy proposals, such as those contained in the 'Clean Energy for All Europeans' package of 2016. Most recently, the European Parliament adopted new rules on the security of gas supply. This note offers links to a selection of recent commentaries, studies and reports, from some of the major international think tanks and research institutes, which discuss EU energy policies.

Évaluation de l’état de l’union de l’énergie

12-05-2017

Le deuxième rapport de la Commission européenne sur l’état de l’union de l’énergie, présenté en février 2017, brosse un tableau des progrès considérables réalisés depuis deux ans, soit depuis que la stratégie pour l’union de l’énergie est en place. L’ensemble des nouvelles propositions législatives a désormais été adopté par la Commission. La plupart de ces propositions sont encore en cours d’examen par le Parlement et le Conseil, bien que, dans certains cas, un accord interinstitutionnel ait déjà ...

Le deuxième rapport de la Commission européenne sur l’état de l’union de l’énergie, présenté en février 2017, brosse un tableau des progrès considérables réalisés depuis deux ans, soit depuis que la stratégie pour l’union de l’énergie est en place. L’ensemble des nouvelles propositions législatives a désormais été adopté par la Commission. La plupart de ces propositions sont encore en cours d’examen par le Parlement et le Conseil, bien que, dans certains cas, un accord interinstitutionnel ait déjà été convenu. L’année 2017 est donc celle des négociations en vue de l’adoption de nombreuses propositions législatives ayant déjà été examinées, ainsi que d’un nombre plus restreint de nouvelles initiatives. L’Union et ses États membres sont sur la bonne voie pour atteindre les objectifs du paquet sur le climat et l’énergie à l’horizon 2020 en matière de promotion des sources d’énergie renouvelables, d’amélioration de l’efficacité énergétique et de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Des efforts continus sont nécessaires pour réaliser les plus ambitieux objectifs du cadre d’action en matière de climat et d’énergie à l’horizon 2030. L’union de l’énergie prévoit une série de mesures concrètes en vue de la mise en œuvre de ce cadre, mais les principales institutions européennes affichent différents degrés d’ambition dans chaque domaine. Un nouveau train de mesures législatives sur la mobilité à faible taux d’émissions est attendu en 2017, ainsi que la poursuite d’actions entreprises dans un large éventail de domaines liés à l’énergie. Parmi elles figurent des mesures visant à améliorer les infrastructures gazières et électriques, à promouvoir la diplomatie énergétique et climatique, ainsi qu’à faire avancer la recherche et l’innovation en matière de technologies énergétiques.

Energy consumers in the EU

27-04-2017

Consumers are considered a key element of EU energy legislation and the efforts to achieve a transition to a carbon-free society. Back in 2009, the third energy package, which sought to establish a liberalised internal energy market, granted energy consumers a number of rights, such as the right to an electricity connection, to switch energy providers and to receive clear offers, contracts and energy bills. However, some of these rights have not yet been put into practice: consumers often do not ...

Consumers are considered a key element of EU energy legislation and the efforts to achieve a transition to a carbon-free society. Back in 2009, the third energy package, which sought to establish a liberalised internal energy market, granted energy consumers a number of rights, such as the right to an electricity connection, to switch energy providers and to receive clear offers, contracts and energy bills. However, some of these rights have not yet been put into practice: consumers often do not understand their bills, are unable to compare different offers, are charged for switching, or a switch takes too long. Besides, they do not always seem to be aware of their rights. The ongoing revision of EU energy legislation aims to improve some of the rules concerning consumers and to introduce new rights, such as the right to self-generate and self-consume electricity, to ask for a smart meter, or to engage an aggregator. The European Parliament has repeatedly voiced concern that the truly competitive, transparent and consumer-friendly internal energy market envisaged by the third energy package has yet to materialise and that consumers are still having trouble understanding their bills, offers and contracts. It has called, among other things, for providing consumers with increased protection and clearer information, and for requiring suppliers to automatically put customers on the best possible tariff for their individual circumstances.

ENERGY POLICY

15-03-2017

This leaflet provides abstracts of selection of latest publications prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policy at the request of the ITRE Committee in relation to the Energy policy.

This leaflet provides abstracts of selection of latest publications prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policy at the request of the ITRE Committee in relation to the Energy policy.

European statistics on natural gas and electricity prices

23-01-2017

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are ...

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are currently collected on a voluntary basis. Statistical data on gas and electricity prices are needed for monitoring the internal market for energy, and the impacts of various policies in the field of energy, such as support for renewable energy sources. The Commission has committed to preparing reports about energy costs and prices every two years, starting in 2016. The regulation came into force in December 2016 after completion of the legislative procedure in the European Parliament and the Council. This briefing updates an earlier edition, of June 2016: PE 583.850.

European statistics on natural gas and electricity prices

27-06-2016

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are ...

Member States would have to collect statistics on the prices charged to industrial consumers and households for natural gas and electricity. Price data would be reported every six months for different consumption volumes, and cover energy prices, network charges, taxes and levies, and their sub-components. The proposed regulation would replace Directive 2008/92/EC that requires Member States to collect such statistics for industrial consumers. Data on gas and electricity prices for households are currently collected on a voluntary basis. Statistical data on gas and electricity prices are needed for monitoring the internal market for energy, and the impacts of various policies in the field of energy, such as support for renewable energy sources. In the context of the Energy Union strategy, the Commission has committed to preparing reports about energy costs and prices every two years, starting in 2016. The agreement reached in trilogue in June 2016 has now to be approved in plenary. This briefing updates an earlier edition, of February 2016: PE 577.981. A more recent edition of this document is available. Find it by searching by the document title at this address: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html

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