161

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Domaine politique
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Banking Union: Towards new arrangements to finance banks under resolution?

16-07-2019

The recent case of Banco Popular has shown the importance of liquidity funding in the context of bank resolution. Ahead of the June Euro Summit, in a letter the President of the Euro group noted that in addition to the Single Resolution Fund (and its backstop) “work needs to continue on a possible framework for liquidity in resolution, including on the possible institutional framework”. This briefing (1) describes the existing arrangements in the Banking Union, (2) compares those arrangements with ...

The recent case of Banco Popular has shown the importance of liquidity funding in the context of bank resolution. Ahead of the June Euro Summit, in a letter the President of the Euro group noted that in addition to the Single Resolution Fund (and its backstop) “work needs to continue on a possible framework for liquidity in resolution, including on the possible institutional framework”. This briefing (1) describes the existing arrangements in the Banking Union, (2) compares those arrangements with the US and the UK regimes and (3) echoes ongoing reflections on possible new arrangements along the lines of the US and UK regimes, with a view to completing the Banking Union.

Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: Politique économique

28-06-2019

Bien qu’elle relève de la responsabilité de chaque État membre, la politique économique fait généralement l’objet d’une coordination multilatérale entre les différents pays de l’Union européenne. La crise financière mondiale et la crise de la dette souveraine européenne ont mis ce cadre à rude épreuve. C’est l’une des raisons pour lesquelles la reprise dans l’Union a été plus lente qu’aux États-Unis et ne s’est pas opérée de manière homogène dans tous les États membres. En outre, la reprise s’est ...

Bien qu’elle relève de la responsabilité de chaque État membre, la politique économique fait généralement l’objet d’une coordination multilatérale entre les différents pays de l’Union européenne. La crise financière mondiale et la crise de la dette souveraine européenne ont mis ce cadre à rude épreuve. C’est l’une des raisons pour lesquelles la reprise dans l’Union a été plus lente qu’aux États-Unis et ne s’est pas opérée de manière homogène dans tous les États membres. En outre, la reprise s’est principalement fondée sur des politiques budgétaires et monétaires accommodantes, qui n’occultent que partiellement les signes sous-jacents de la fragilité budgétaire ou financière de certains pays. Pour remédier à la situation, les institutions européennes ont lancé un double processus en 2011. Des initiatives ont été prises pour renforcer le cadre actuel de la gouvernance économique et faciliter la surveillance des banques de la zone euro. Parallèlement, des discussions ont débuté sur de possibles pistes pour réduire les divergences économiques entre les États membres, favoriser la réduction des risques et le partage des risques, accroître la transparence du processus de gouvernance et garantir la responsabilité démocratique. Dans le domaine de la responsabilité démocratique, plusieurs initiatives – qui ne nécessitaient aucune modification des traités de l’Union – ont été lancées entre 2015 et 2017. À l’été 2017, les échanges de vues sur l’approfondissement du cadre politique de l’Union économique et monétaire se sont intensifiés. Cette procédure, préconisée dans le rapport des cinq présidents (rédigé par les présidents des principales institutions européennes) et qui devrait s’achever à l’horizon 2025, est désormais examinée à l’échelle des États membres. L’état d’avancement actuel de ces travaux témoigne de deux principales préférences stratégiques, qui scindent les États membres en deux groupes: d’une part, ceux qui donnent la priorité aux mesures de partage des risques (comme la France) et, d’autre part, ceux qui prônent davantage d’initiatives de réduction des risques (tels que l’Allemagne). En raison de cette absence de consensus, le Conseil européen a été jusqu’à présent dans l’incapacité de trouver une solution. Le présent document est une mise à jour d’une note plus ancienne, publiée avant les élections européennes de 2019.

Reform of the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund

11-01-2019

The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) was created in 2006 to finance active labour market policies targeting workers who have lost their jobs because of trade adjustment. The fund was subsequently modified in 2009 to cover major structural changes triggered by the economic and financial crisis. The rules of the EGF are laid down in EU Regulation (EU) No 1309/2013, which stipulates that the fund will continue to be financed until 31 December 2020. In May 2018, the European Commission submitted ...

The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund (EGF) was created in 2006 to finance active labour market policies targeting workers who have lost their jobs because of trade adjustment. The fund was subsequently modified in 2009 to cover major structural changes triggered by the economic and financial crisis. The rules of the EGF are laid down in EU Regulation (EU) No 1309/2013, which stipulates that the fund will continue to be financed until 31 December 2020. In May 2018, the European Commission submitted a proposal to reform the EGF and maintain it as a special instrument outside the MFF ceiling. The proposal introduces modifications to the eligibility criteria, the co-financing rules and the mobilisation procedure. The report was voted in the EMPL committee on 27 November 2018, and the report is due to be debated in plenary in January 2019, with a view to finalising Parliament's position for trilogue negotiations. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The Venezuelan migrant crisis: A growing emergency for the region

17-12-2018

Although the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has traditionally been a country of destination for migrants, around 2010 its migratory profile started to change to that of a country of origin. In fact, in the past few years migration away from Venezuela has reached massive levels, creating an unprecedented humanitarian crisis in the region. According to the United Nations' International Organization for Migration (IOM), the number of Venezuelans abroad has risen from under 700 000 in 2015 to 3 million ...

Although the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has traditionally been a country of destination for migrants, around 2010 its migratory profile started to change to that of a country of origin. In fact, in the past few years migration away from Venezuela has reached massive levels, creating an unprecedented humanitarian crisis in the region. According to the United Nations' International Organization for Migration (IOM), the number of Venezuelans abroad has risen from under 700 000 in 2015 to 3 million in November 2018. About 70 % of this human wave has been directed to South American countries such as Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, but also to North and Central America and the Caribbean, and even Europe. The main factors contributing to this exodus are Venezuela's deteriorating political situation, a severe economic crisis and increasing violence. This mass migration could have a destabilising effect on the main recipient and transit countries. Besides individual responses developed by host countries to provide migrants with emergency assistance and protection and to facilitate their integration, Latin American countries are trying to give a coordinated regional response to the crisis. Furthermore, migration authorities, ombudsmen and NGOs have also promoted regional initiatives to defend the rights of Venezuelan migrants abroad and their access to basic services. The UN and regional organisations are also working to help deal with the crisis, and the EU is contributing €35.1 million in emergency aid and medium-term development assistance for the Venezuelan people and the affected neighbouring countries. The European Parliament sent an ad hoc mission to Brazil and Colombia in June 2018 to assess the situation, and has adopted resolutions on the subject.

Future EU-Turkey relations

23-10-2018

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With ...

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With the constitutional referendum and the subsequent parliamentary and presidential elections, President Erdogan further reinforced his position at the helm of the institutional system and raised concerns among the EU and NATO about his commitment to Western institutions. Turkey deepened its relations with Russia, buying military equipment and coordinating with it on Syrian policies on the ground. At the same time, US-Turkish relations worsened due to the Syrian conflict and the imprisonment of a US pastor by Turkey, although he was subsequently released. Negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU have nevertheless continued, despite an increasingly lively debate in some Member States about whether or not they should be halted. Some have proposed striking an economic agreement with Turkey as an alternative to membership. Others believe the outcome of the negotiations on the UK's future relationship with the EU might also provide a possible model for Turkey. Despite the numerous hurdles before it, accession not only remains the ultimate objective of EU-Turkey relations, endorsed by both the European Council and by Turkey, but it also provides potential for reform and dialogue regarding common standards, not least in the area of civil liberties.

Non-performing loans in the Banking Union - Stocktaking and challenges

15-10-2018

This briefing gives a short introduction into the topic non-performing loans (NPLs), takes stock of the current situation in the euro area, touches on the impact of NPLs on credit supply, and summarises the activities taken at European level to address the problem.

This briefing gives a short introduction into the topic non-performing loans (NPLs), takes stock of the current situation in the euro area, touches on the impact of NPLs on credit supply, and summarises the activities taken at European level to address the problem.

Brazil ahead of the 2018 elections

05-10-2018

On 7 October 2018, about 147 million Brazilians will go to the polls to choose a new president, new governors and new members of the bicameral National Congress and state legislatures. If, as expected, none of the presidential candidates gains over 50 % of votes, a run-off between the two best-performing presidential candidates is scheduled to take place on 28 October 2018. Brazil's severe and protracted political, economic, social and public-security crisis has created a complex and polarised political ...

On 7 October 2018, about 147 million Brazilians will go to the polls to choose a new president, new governors and new members of the bicameral National Congress and state legislatures. If, as expected, none of the presidential candidates gains over 50 % of votes, a run-off between the two best-performing presidential candidates is scheduled to take place on 28 October 2018. Brazil's severe and protracted political, economic, social and public-security crisis has created a complex and polarised political climate that makes the election outcome highly unpredictable. Pollsters show that voters have lost faith in a discredited political elite and that only anti-establishment outsiders not embroiled in large-scale corruption scandals and entrenched clientelism would truly match voters' preferences. However, there is a huge gap between voters' strong demand for a radical political renewal based on new faces, and the dramatic shortage of political newcomers among the candidates. Voters' disillusionment with conventional politics and political institutions has fuelled nostalgic preferences and is likely to prompt part of the electorate to shift away from centrist candidates associated with policy continuity to candidates at the opposite sides of the party spectrum. Many less well-off voters would have welcomed a return to office of former left-wing President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010), who due to a then booming economy, could run social programmes that lifted millions out of extreme poverty and who, barred by Brazil's judiciary from running in 2018, has tried to transfer his high popularity to his much less-known replacement. Another part of the electorate, appalled by growing public-security issues and endemic corruption, but also disappointed with democracy more broadly, appears to be strongly attracted by the simple and unconventional answers to complex challenges posed by far-right populist rhetoric. The latter – worryingly – glorifies Brazil's dictatorship (1964-1985). As candidates with unorthodox political approaches appear to be an emerging norm, Brazilians may opt for a populist turn as well. If so, EU-Brazil relations may become more complex in the future.

Les sept défis économiques de la Russie: La fin de la stagnation?

18-07-2018

La présente publication décrit l’état actuel de l’économie russe, qui a récemment subi divers chocs externes, dont un effondrement des prix du pétrole et des sanctions imposées par les pays occidentaux. Toutefois, elle fait valoir que la faible performance économique est davantage due à des problèmes internes à long terme, comme une absence de marchés concurrentiels, un faible niveau d’investissement, une innovation inexistante et une dépendance excessive envers les ressources naturelles. Enfin, ...

La présente publication décrit l’état actuel de l’économie russe, qui a récemment subi divers chocs externes, dont un effondrement des prix du pétrole et des sanctions imposées par les pays occidentaux. Toutefois, elle fait valoir que la faible performance économique est davantage due à des problèmes internes à long terme, comme une absence de marchés concurrentiels, un faible niveau d’investissement, une innovation inexistante et une dépendance excessive envers les ressources naturelles. Enfin, l’étude examine les promesses de réformes économiques présentées par le président Poutine afin de résoudre ces problèmes, et évalue la probabilité d’un changement majeur.

Greece’s financial assistance programme - June 2018

22-06-2018

This briefing provides an overview of the economic situation in Greece and the main developments under the third financial assistance programme. This version updates the briefing published on 3 October 2017.

This briefing provides an overview of the economic situation in Greece and the main developments under the third financial assistance programme. This version updates the briefing published on 3 October 2017.

Union bancaire – rapport annuel 2017

22-02-2018

Le rapport d'initiative du Parlement sur l’union bancaire en 2017 doit être soumis aux voix lors de la plénière de février II. Il porte sur la coopération entre les autorités, les risques inhérents aux bilans bancaires, les règles prudentielles et les enjeux qui font leur apparition. Il relève également qu’en l’absence d'un dispositif de soutien budgétaire et d'un système européen de garantie des dépôts, l’union bancaire demeure inachevée.

Le rapport d'initiative du Parlement sur l’union bancaire en 2017 doit être soumis aux voix lors de la plénière de février II. Il porte sur la coopération entre les autorités, les risques inhérents aux bilans bancaires, les règles prudentielles et les enjeux qui font leur apparition. Il relève également qu’en l’absence d'un dispositif de soutien budgétaire et d'un système européen de garantie des dépôts, l’union bancaire demeure inachevée.

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