353

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Domaine politique
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Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: La pêche

28-06-2019

L’Union européenne est seule responsable de la conservation de ses ressources marines de pêche, lesquelles sont gérées dans le cadre de la politique commune de la pêche (PCP). Depuis sa création en 1983 et les réformes décennales régulièrement effectuées depuis, la PCP a parcouru un long chemin. Le cadre actuel est issu de la réforme de la PCP de 2013 et vise à garantir la viabilité environnementale, économique et sociale de la pêche de l’Union. La PCP comprend un instrument financier spécial à cet ...

L’Union européenne est seule responsable de la conservation de ses ressources marines de pêche, lesquelles sont gérées dans le cadre de la politique commune de la pêche (PCP). Depuis sa création en 1983 et les réformes décennales régulièrement effectuées depuis, la PCP a parcouru un long chemin. Le cadre actuel est issu de la réforme de la PCP de 2013 et vise à garantir la viabilité environnementale, économique et sociale de la pêche de l’Union. La PCP comprend un instrument financier spécial à cet effet, le Fonds européen pour les affaires maritimes et la pêche (FEAMP), doté d’un budget de 6,4 milliards d’euros pour la période 2014-2020. L’un des objectifs introduits par la réforme de 2013 est de parvenir à exploiter l’ensemble des stocks à des niveaux viables d’ici 2020. Elle prévoit également plusieurs grands instruments permettant de progresser en ce sens. L’adoption de plans pluriannuels est notamment devenue une priorité afin de garantir une gestion des stocks à long terme. Une obligation de débarquement de toutes les prises a été conçue afin de mettre un terme au rejet des poissons à la mer. La réforme a également introduit la régionalisation de la prise de décision ainsi que la possibilité d’adopter des mesures de conservation en fonction des recommandations communes des États membres concernés. L’application de la PCP réformée ayant été la principale caractéristique de la législature 2014-2019, les travaux législatifs ont avancé sur plusieurs sujets importants. Plusieurs plans pluriannuels ont été lancés et quatre d’entre eux, à savoir sur la pêche en mer Baltique, en mer du Nord, dans les eaux occidentales et en Méditerranée occidentale sont à présent en vigueur. L’obligation de débarquement a comme prévu été progressivement mise en œuvre entre 2015 et 2019. L’Union a adopté un cadre actualisé concernant la collecte de données sur la pêche afin de faciliter les décisions de gestion ainsi qu’un nouveau système d’autorisations de pêche, améliorant la surveillance des navires de l’Union qui pêchent hors des eaux de l’Union. Les activités de l’Union ont également porté sur divers aspects de la dimension externe de la PCP, tels que le passage d’accords de pêche avec des pays tiers et la participation à la gouvernance internationale en matière de pêche. À l’avenir, il convient de continuer à progresser sur des questions telles que l’adoption de plans pluriannuels et la révision du régime de contrôle de la pêche. Le FEAMP sera renouvelé dans le cadre du prochain budget pluriannuel de l’Union pour la période 2021-2027. Il conviendra également de faire le bilan des progrès accomplis quant à l’application de la dernière réforme et la réalisation de ses objectifs en vue des prochaines évolutions de la PCP. Le présent document est une mise à jour d’une note plus ancienne, publiée avant les élections européennes de 2019.

Port reception facilities for ship waste: Collecting waste from ships in ports

07-06-2019

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments ...

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments, discharges at sea continue. In January 2018, the European Commission put forward a new legislative proposal seeking to improve the collection of ship waste while ensuring efficient maritime transport operations in ports. Interinstitutional negotiations concluded on 13 December 2018. The final text was adopted by the Parliament on 13 March 2019 and then by the Council on 29 March. The Directive was then signed on 17 April by the presidents of the two institutions and will be published in the Official Journal shortly.

European Maritime and Fisheries Fund 2021-2027

22-05-2019

The European Commission has proposed a new regulation on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) as part of the next EU budget framework for the 2021-2027 period. The European Parliament established its first-reading position on the proposal on 4 April 2019. The new fund will continue to support the EU common fisheries policy and the Union's maritime policy. The proposal aims to simplify the delivery of the fund compared to the very complex legal framework in use for the current EMFF. It ...

The European Commission has proposed a new regulation on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) as part of the next EU budget framework for the 2021-2027 period. The European Parliament established its first-reading position on the proposal on 4 April 2019. The new fund will continue to support the EU common fisheries policy and the Union's maritime policy. The proposal aims to simplify the delivery of the fund compared to the very complex legal framework in use for the current EMFF. It therefore presents a more flexible architecture: this would allow Member States to use the funds where they see the greatest need, instead of being bound to a list of pre-defined measures and eligibility rules. Small-scale coastal fisheries and outermost regions would receive greater preferential treatment. It further proposes increased support for international ocean governance and stronger synergies with other EU policies. The fund is also expected to contribute to the development of the blue economy and support the EU's climate objectives. Negotiations with the Council on the proposal are expected to start in the new term. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Overhauling fisheries technical measures

11-04-2019

Technical measures in fisheries govern the different fishing practices that can be used to catch fish, as well as the areas and seasons for fishing. Aimed at limiting unwanted catches and the impact of fishing on marine ecosystems, EU technical measures have developed over time into a notoriously complicated regulatory structure, which came to be seen as a plethora of ineffective rules under rigid governance. During the April II session, Parliament is due to vote on giving formal approval to a new ...

Technical measures in fisheries govern the different fishing practices that can be used to catch fish, as well as the areas and seasons for fishing. Aimed at limiting unwanted catches and the impact of fishing on marine ecosystems, EU technical measures have developed over time into a notoriously complicated regulatory structure, which came to be seen as a plethora of ineffective rules under rigid governance. During the April II session, Parliament is due to vote on giving formal approval to a new legislative framework that would change the governance structure of technical measures. The proposed framework is designed to simplify the current system, to increase its flexibility through a regionalised approach adapted to the specificities of each EU sea basin, and to optimise the contribution of the technical measures to the objectives of the common fisheries policy. The text also provides for a total ban on electric pulse trawl fishing from 1 July 2021, with the possibility for Member States to immediately prohibit or restrict this type of fishing in their coastal waters.

Plenary round-up – Brussels, April I 2019

05-04-2019

Highlights of the April I plenary session included debates on the Future of Europe with Swedish Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, and on UK withdrawal from the EU. Important debates also took place on several legislative proposals, and Members voted on proposals including the mobility package files debated during the March II plenary session on rules for posted road transport workers and on working conditions for drivers. Parliament also adopted first-reading positions on three further proposed funding ...

Highlights of the April I plenary session included debates on the Future of Europe with Swedish Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, and on UK withdrawal from the EU. Important debates also took place on several legislative proposals, and Members voted on proposals including the mobility package files debated during the March II plenary session on rules for posted road transport workers and on working conditions for drivers. Parliament also adopted first-reading positions on three further proposed funding programmes for the 2021-2027 period.

Multiannual plan for fisheries in the Western Waters

05-04-2019

The European Parliament and Council adopted a new multiannual plan for management of fisheries in the Western Waters, an area of the north-east Atlantic along the western coast of the EU. The plan covers fisheries exploiting stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'), including several deep-sea stocks. It aims to ensure that these stocks are exploited sustainably and that their management is based on the most up-to-date scientific information. The fishing ...

The European Parliament and Council adopted a new multiannual plan for management of fisheries in the Western Waters, an area of the north-east Atlantic along the western coast of the EU. The plan covers fisheries exploiting stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'), including several deep-sea stocks. It aims to ensure that these stocks are exploited sustainably and that their management is based on the most up-to-date scientific information. The fishing fleet concerned mainly includes vessels from Belgium, Germany, France, Ireland, Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom. The new plan follows the pattern set by the 2018 North Sea multiannual plan. It allows a certain flexibility in setting fishing opportunities, by defining ranges of fishing mortality based on the best available scientific advice, and introduces safeguard measures to restore stocks when they fall below safe biological limits. The quantified values for fishing mortality or biomass levels are provided by the latest scientific advice available, and directly used by the Council when fixing fishing opportunities. Of particular importance in the eventuality of Brexit, the plan covers British waters off the western and southern UK coast, setting the stage for future fisheries cooperation in the area. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Multiannual plan for demersal fisheries in the western Mediterranean

27-03-2019

During the April I session, Parliament is due to vote on giving formal approval to a multiannual plan for the western Mediterranean fisheries exploiting several stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'). Most of these stocks have long been overfished and are now in an alarming state. The proposed plan aims to reverse this trend and ensure that fishing activities are environmentally sustainable, and capable of securing economic and social benefits. The ...

During the April I session, Parliament is due to vote on giving formal approval to a multiannual plan for the western Mediterranean fisheries exploiting several stocks of fish and crustaceans living close to the sea bottom (i.e. 'demersal fisheries'). Most of these stocks have long been overfished and are now in an alarming state. The proposed plan aims to reverse this trend and ensure that fishing activities are environmentally sustainable, and capable of securing economic and social benefits. The plan concerns fishing fleets from Italy, Spain and France, totalling almost 10 900 vessels. The new regulation will introduce a fishing-effort regime for all trawlers operating in the region, under which the Council will set each year, on the basis of scientific advice, the maximum number of fishing days for each fleet category by Member State. In addition, the plan will restrict trawlers from operating in waters shallower than 100 m located within 6 nautical miles of the coast, for three months per year, to reserve the coastal zone for more selective fishing gear. The plan will also establish regional cooperation among the Member States concerned, with a view to developing provisions on the obligation to land all catches and on the conservation of resources through technical measures.

Mesures de gestion de la pêche en Méditerranée

20-03-2019

En tant que partie contractante à la Commission générale des pêches pour la Méditerranée (CGPM), l’Union européenne est tenue de transposer dans son droit les mesures adoptées par cette commission en matière de conservation et de gestion, de sorte qu’elles s’appliquent aux navires de pêche de l’Union. Au cours de la session plénière de mars II, le Parlement européen devrait se prononcer sur une proposition de la Commission relative à la transposition de nouvelles mesures de la CGPM, plus strictes ...

En tant que partie contractante à la Commission générale des pêches pour la Méditerranée (CGPM), l’Union européenne est tenue de transposer dans son droit les mesures adoptées par cette commission en matière de conservation et de gestion, de sorte qu’elles s’appliquent aux navires de pêche de l’Union. Au cours de la session plénière de mars II, le Parlement européen devrait se prononcer sur une proposition de la Commission relative à la transposition de nouvelles mesures de la CGPM, plus strictes que la règlementation existante.

The African Union's blue strategy

14-03-2019

Harnessing ocean resources in a sustainable manner is the 'new frontier of the African renaissance', according to the African Union. To this end, the African Union has designed an ambitious maritime strategy aimed at restoring ocean health, reinstating security at sea, and strengthening strategic 'blue growth' sectors. The EU is supporting this strategy, which is in line with the main aspects of its own approach to the Africa-EU partnership.

Harnessing ocean resources in a sustainable manner is the 'new frontier of the African renaissance', according to the African Union. To this end, the African Union has designed an ambitious maritime strategy aimed at restoring ocean health, reinstating security at sea, and strengthening strategic 'blue growth' sectors. The EU is supporting this strategy, which is in line with the main aspects of its own approach to the Africa-EU partnership.

Ocean governance and blue growth: Challenges, opportunities and policy responses

13-03-2019

Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth and are a vital element of life on our planet. They are not only a primary source of food, but also central to the carbon cycle; they regulate the climate and produce most of the oxygen in the air we breathe. They also play an important socio-economic role. The 'blue economy', covering traditional sectors such as fisheries, extraction of oil and gas, maritime transport and coastal tourism, as well as new, fast-growing industries such as offshore wind ...

Oceans cover more than two thirds of the earth and are a vital element of life on our planet. They are not only a primary source of food, but also central to the carbon cycle; they regulate the climate and produce most of the oxygen in the air we breathe. They also play an important socio-economic role. The 'blue economy', covering traditional sectors such as fisheries, extraction of oil and gas, maritime transport and coastal tourism, as well as new, fast-growing industries such as offshore wind, ocean energy and blue biotechnology, show great potential for further economic growth, employment creation and innovation. At the same time, oceans face pressures, mainly associated with the over-exploitation of resources, pollution and the effects of climate change. In recent years, ocean pollution from plastics has received more attention from the public and has been high on policy-makers' agendas. At global level, the European Union is an active player in protecting oceans and shaping ocean governance. It has made progress by taking measures in a series of areas: maritime security, marine pollution, sustainable blue economy, climate change, marine protection, and sustainable fisheries; by working towards the United Nations 2030 Agenda sustainable development goal on oceans of the; and by taking part in the negotiations on a new international legally binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. In encouraging the blue economy, the EU also recognises the environmental responsibilities that go along with it. Healthy, clean oceans guarantee the long-term capacity to sustain such economic activities, while a natural decline threatens the ecosystem of the planet as a whole and ultimately, the well-being of our societies. The conservation of marine biological resources under the common fisheries policy, EU action under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the establishment of marine protected areas are key EU policies in protecting the marine environment. They are complemented by recent environmental legislative initiatives such as the directive on single-use plastics to reduce marine litter.

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