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Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation

24-07-2019

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can ...

In recent times, there has been much discussion in policy circles, academia and the private sector regarding the tension between blockchains and the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (‘GDPR’). Whereas, the GDPR is based on an underlying assumption that in relation to each personal data point there is at least one the data controller, blockchains make the allocation of responsibility and accountability burdensome. Further, although the GDPR is based on the assumption that data can be modified or erased where necessary to comply with legal requirements, blockchains, however, render the unilateral modification of data purposefully onerous in order to ensure data integrity and to increase trust in the network.

Les politiques de l’Union – Au service des citoyens: La transformation numérique

28-06-2019

Une révolution numérique est en cours, qui transforme le monde tel que nous le connaissons à une vitesse inouïe. Les technologies numériques ont changé non seulement la façon dont évoluent les entreprises, mais aussi celle dont les gens se connectent, échangent des informations et interagissent avec les secteurs public et privé. Les entreprises et citoyens européens ont besoin d’un cadre politique adéquat ainsi que de compétences et d’infrastructures appropriées pour tirer parti de l’énorme valeur ...

Une révolution numérique est en cours, qui transforme le monde tel que nous le connaissons à une vitesse inouïe. Les technologies numériques ont changé non seulement la façon dont évoluent les entreprises, mais aussi celle dont les gens se connectent, échangent des informations et interagissent avec les secteurs public et privé. Les entreprises et citoyens européens ont besoin d’un cadre politique adéquat ainsi que de compétences et d’infrastructures appropriées pour tirer parti de l’énorme valeur générée par l’économie numérique et assurer le succès de la transformation numérique. L’Union européenne joue un rôle prépondérant dans la définition de l’économie numérique, grâce à différentes initiatives politiques, qui vont de la promotion de l’investissement dans la réforme du droit de l’Union à des actions non législatives visant à améliorer la coordination et l’échange de bonnes pratiques des États membres. La législature 2014-2019 a vu se concrétiser un certain nombre d’initiatives dans les domaines de la numérisation de l’industrie et des services publics, des investissements dans les infrastructures et services numériques, dans les programmes de recherche, dans la cybersécurité, dans le commerce électronique, dans le droit d’auteur et dans la législation sur la protection des données. Les citoyens de l’Union sont de plus en plus conscients du rôle important que les technologies numériques jouent dans leur vie quotidienne. Selon un rapport de 2017, deux tiers des Européens affirment que ces technologies ont des conséquences positives sur la société, sur l’économie et sur leurs propres vies, mais qu’elles s’accompagnent néanmoins de nouveaux défis. La majorité des répondants estiment en effet que l’Union européenne, les autorités des États membres et les entreprises doivent prendre des mesures pour remédier aux conséquences de ces technologies. La récente proposition du programme «Europe numérique» (pour la période 2021-2027), premier programme de financement exclusivement consacré au soutien de la transformation numérique dans l’Union, montre que cette dernière entend renforcer son soutien à la transformation numérique dans les années à venir. De nouvelles mesures seront sans doute nécessaires, notamment en vue d’accroître les investissements dans les infrastructures, de stimuler l’innovation, d’encourager les champions du numérique et la numérisation des entreprises, de réduire les fractures numériques, de supprimer les obstacles restants au marché unique numérique et de garantir un cadre juridique et réglementaire adapté dans les domaines de l’informatique de pointe et des données, de l’intelligence artificielle et de la cybersécurité. Le Parlement européen, en tant que colégislateur, participe très étroitement à la conception du cadre politique qui aidera les citoyens et les entreprises à exploiter pleinement le potentiel des technologies numériques. Le présent document est une mise à jour d’un briefing plus ancien, publié avant les élections européennes de 2019.

EU fertilising products

26-06-2019

Fertilising products are used to improve plant growth, mainly in agriculture, enabling higher crop yields. However, they are associated with some challenges as regards security of supply, the environment and health. Although the 2003 Fertilisers Regulation, which aimed at ensuring an internal market in fertilisers, has been effective, it mainly addresses mineral fertilisers and deters the introduction of new types of fertilisers. In March 2016, the Commission put forward a legislative proposal on ...

Fertilising products are used to improve plant growth, mainly in agriculture, enabling higher crop yields. However, they are associated with some challenges as regards security of supply, the environment and health. Although the 2003 Fertilisers Regulation, which aimed at ensuring an internal market in fertilisers, has been effective, it mainly addresses mineral fertilisers and deters the introduction of new types of fertilisers. In March 2016, the Commission put forward a legislative proposal on fertilising products, as announced in the circular economy action plan. The proposal modernises the conformity assessment and market surveillance in line with the ‘new legislative framework’ for product legislation, covers a wider range of fertilising products (including those manufactured from secondary raw materials), and sets limits for the presence of heavy metals and contaminants in fertilising products. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed on 5 June 2019. The regulation will apply in full from 16 July 2022. Fifth edition of a briefing originally drafted by Didier Bourguignon. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Key issues in the European Council

20-06-2019

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues ...

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues. It analyses nine policy areas, explaining the legal and political background and the main priorities and orientations defined by the European Council. It also assesses the results of European Council involvement to date and identifies future challenges in the various policy fields.

Copyright in the digital single market

14-06-2019

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim ...

The European Commission presented a legislative package for the modernisation of the EU copyright rules, including a new directive on copyright in the digital single market, on 14 September 2016. Stakeholders and academics were strongly divided on the proposal. In February 2019, after more than two years of protracted negotiations, the co-legislators agreed on a new set of copyright rules, including two controversial provisions: 1) the creation of a new right that will allow press publishers to claim remuneration for the online use of their publications (Article 15), and 2) the imposition of content monitoring measures on online platforms such as YouTube, which seeks to resolve the 'value gap' and help rights-holders to better monetise and control the distribution of their content online (Article 17). Furthermore, in addition to the mandatory exception for text and data mining for research purposes proposed by the Commission in its proposal, the co legislators agreed to enshrine in EU law another mandatory exception for general text and data mining (Article 4) in order to contribute to the development of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The European Parliament (in plenary) and the Council approved the compromise text in March 2019 and in April 2019 respectively. The directive was published on 15 May 2019 in the Official Journal of the European Union, and all Member States must transpose the new rules into their national law by June 2021. Fifth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Services fournis par le département thématique (IMCO à la loupe)

14-06-2019

Policy Department A provides high-quality expertise, up-to-date analysis and independent research to the committees it supports: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO. This brochure focuses on the Policy Department services for the IMCO Committee.

Policy Department A provides high-quality expertise, up-to-date analysis and independent research to the committees it supports: ECON, EMPL, ENVI, ITRE and IMCO. This brochure focuses on the Policy Department services for the IMCO Committee.

European Council conclusions - A rolling check-list of commitments to date

14-06-2019

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of ...

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of its meetings. This overview of European Council conclusions is a new, updated and more comprehensive edition of the Rolling Check-List, which has been published regularly by the European Council Oversight Unit since 2014. It distinguishes between four types of European Council conclusions (commitments, reviews, endorsements and statements) and indicates the follow-up given to calls for action made by EU leaders. It also offers an introductory analysis of each policy area, highlighting the background to the main orientations given by the European Council, as well as the follow-up to them and the future challenges.

Cost of non-Europe in robotics and artificial intelligence

12-06-2019

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research ...

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research and development activity by producers and increase the speed of uptake of these two new emerging technologies by consumers, resulting in a possible positive impact in terms of GDP. Research suggests that, by 2030, EU GDP could be 0.04 % higher than it would otherwise be under the current regulatory framework.

Auteur externe

This study has been written by Bob Martens and Jorren Garrez of DLA Piper UK LLP and Cambridge Econometrics at the request of the European Added Value Unit within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the European Parliament.

Identifying Optimal Policy Making and Legislation

15-05-2019

This Briefing forms part of a programme of research commissioned by the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee of the European Parliament (‘the IMCO Committee’). The research programme has the aim of updating the study undertaken for the IMCO Committee in 2014 on the “Contribution of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection to Growth”. The overall aim is to provide background information and advice for IMCO Committee members on the benefits of legislation established in the field ...

This Briefing forms part of a programme of research commissioned by the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee of the European Parliament (‘the IMCO Committee’). The research programme has the aim of updating the study undertaken for the IMCO Committee in 2014 on the “Contribution of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection to Growth”. The overall aim is to provide background information and advice for IMCO Committee members on the benefits of legislation established in the field of internal market and consumer protection and to reflect on priority measures and actions to be undertaken in this field. A workshop was held in Brussels on 10th July 2018, at which progress on this programme of research was presented and discussed. This Briefing focusses on tools for use in the identification of optimal policy making and their application in the area of the internal market and consumer protection. It uses the smart Single Market regulation concept – developed in earlier research for the IMCO Committee - to present the tools for optimal policy making and to assess the development of policy for the internal market and consumer protection. First, some context is provided with a discussion of the Europe 2020 targets, the “Contribution to growth” report and the Juncker Plan. Second, the smart Single Market regulation concept is introduced and finally policy developments and legislation for the internal market and consumer protection are discussed with recommendations for improvements to the policy-making process.

Auteur externe

Prof. Dr. Sion Jones

Workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”

15-05-2019

This report summarises the discussion that took place at the workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”. The Union Customs Code is a key element of the ongoing actions to modernise EU customs. With the aim of discussing the main challenges related to this topic and the recent proposal of the European Commission to postpone the deadline of 2020, the workshop was hosted by Ms Virginie Rozière, MEP. This document was prepared ...

This report summarises the discussion that took place at the workshop on “Strengthening Competitiveness of the Internal Market by Developing the EU Customs Union and its Governance”. The Union Customs Code is a key element of the ongoing actions to modernise EU customs. With the aim of discussing the main challenges related to this topic and the recent proposal of the European Commission to postpone the deadline of 2020, the workshop was hosted by Ms Virginie Rozière, MEP. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

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