678

résultat(s)

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Type de publication
Domaine politique
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Mot-clé
Date

Human rights in EU trade agreements: The human rights clause and its application

08-07-2019

The practice of linking human rights with trade liberalisation has gained ground among many trade partners. Not only the EU, but also other important trade powers, such as the US and Canada, embed human and labour-rights provisions in their new trade agreements. For the EU, this ensues inevitably from the normative vision underlying all of its external policies, as enshrined in the Treaties. Accordingly, the EU has committed to respecting and promoting human rights and democracy through its external ...

The practice of linking human rights with trade liberalisation has gained ground among many trade partners. Not only the EU, but also other important trade powers, such as the US and Canada, embed human and labour-rights provisions in their new trade agreements. For the EU, this ensues inevitably from the normative vision underlying all of its external policies, as enshrined in the Treaties. Accordingly, the EU has committed to respecting and promoting human rights and democracy through its external action. The main mechanism for incorporating human rights into the EU's bilateral agreements consists of an 'essential elements' human rights clause that enables one party to take appropriate measures in case of serious breaches by the other party. The clause, which also covers democratic principles and often the rule of law, is more than just a legal mechanism enabling the unilateral suspension of trade commitments in times of crisis. It enshrines the parties' commitments to human rights and thus puts EU relations with third countries on a solid regulatory base, opening the path to dialogue and cooperation on human rights issues. So far, the EU has clearly preferred a constructive engagement to more restrictive measures, and has not activated the clause to suspend trade preferences under any of its trade agreements. Civil society and the European Parliament have, on the other hand, encouraged the European Commission to use the clause in a more robust way in order to respond to serious breaches of human rights and democratic principles. This briefing focuses exclusively on the EU's bilateral and regional free trade agreements. EU unilateral human and labour rights provisions in trade arrangements are addressed in a separate briefing. A forthcoming EPRS paper will provide more information about labour rights (many of which also form part of the human rights enshrined in international conventions) in EU bilateral agreements.

Commerce international et mondialisation

28-06-2019

La Communauté européenne a été fondée sur la conviction que l’intégration économique conduit à la paix et à la prospérité économique. Le commerce est donc un élément fondamental de l’identité de l’Union européenne actuelle. Compte tenu du succès du marché intérieur, qui a favorisé la plus longue période de paix de l’histoire moderne de l’Europe, l’Union européenne se considère comme un exemple des avantages qu’offrent le commerce, la mondialisation et l’ouverture économique. La politique commerciale ...

La Communauté européenne a été fondée sur la conviction que l’intégration économique conduit à la paix et à la prospérité économique. Le commerce est donc un élément fondamental de l’identité de l’Union européenne actuelle. Compte tenu du succès du marché intérieur, qui a favorisé la plus longue période de paix de l’histoire moderne de l’Europe, l’Union européenne se considère comme un exemple des avantages qu’offrent le commerce, la mondialisation et l’ouverture économique. La politique commerciale internationale est une compétence exclusive de l’Union européenne, qui, forte du poids économique combiné de ses États membres, est l’un des principaux acteurs du commerce mondial. Pourtant, pour l’Union, la politique commerciale va au-delà de la stabilité et de la croissance: elle est également utilisée pour encourager le développement des pays pauvres, promouvoir des alliances internationales et soutenir les valeurs fondamentales dans le monde. Partenaire indéfectible de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC), l’Union européenne soutient un système commercial international fondé sur des règles plutôt que sur la puissance. Ces dernières années, les bienfaits de la mondialisation et du commerce international ont toutefois été remis en question, y compris au sein de l’Union européenne. Cette situation a conduit l’Union européenne à redynamiser sa politique commerciale, en particulier en présentant une nouvelle stratégie commerciale et un document de réflexion sur la maîtrise de la mondialisation. La nouvelle stratégie de l’Union européenne, intitulée «Le commerce pour tous», répond aux critiques et se concentre sur le renforcement de l’efficacité, de la transparence et des valeurs fondamentales de sa politique commerciale. Conformément à cette stratégie, l’Union européenne a poursuivi les négociations commerciales en cours avec une vigueur nouvelle et a lancé de nouvelles négociations commerciales et d’investissement, donnant lieu à la signature d’accords ultramodernes avec des pays comme le Canada et le Japon. L’Union vit des temps difficiles en raison de changements majeurs dans le commerce international, qui proviennent tant de l’Occident que de l’Orient. Pour y faire face, elle cherche à promouvoir l’ouverture économique tout en défendant ses valeurs et en protégeant ses intérêts. Par exemple, l’Union a pris des mesures contre les barrières douanières imposées par les États-Unis sur l’acier et continue de défendre un ordre commercial international fondé sur des règles. Les pratiques commerciales controversées de certains pays tiers, comme la Chine, ont poussé l’Union européenne à moderniser ses instruments de défense commerciale, à mettre sur pied un nouveau mécanisme de sélection des investissements étrangers et à demander une réforme de l’OMC. L’Union devrait poursuivre dans cette voie lors de la prochaine législature, en poursuivant la coopération internationale et en cherchant à conclure de nouveaux accords, éventuellement au niveau continental avec l’Afrique, ainsi qu’en s’efforçant de protéger ses citoyens et entreprises contre tout préjudice économique. La présente note d’information est une révision d’un document publié avant les élections européennes de 2019.

Key issues in the European Council

20-06-2019

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues ...

The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) monitors and analyses the activities, commitments and impact of the European Council, so as to maximize parliamentary understanding of the political dynamics of this important institution. This new EPRS publication, 'Key issues in the European Council', which will be updated quarterly to coincide with European Council meetings, aims to provide an overview of the institution’s activities on major EU issues. It analyses nine policy areas, explaining the legal and political background and the main priorities and orientations defined by the European Council. It also assesses the results of European Council involvement to date and identifies future challenges in the various policy fields.

European Council conclusions - A rolling check-list of commitments to date

14-06-2019

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of ...

The role of the European Council – to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities' – has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Since June 2014, the European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), the European Parliament's in-house research service and think tank, has been monitoring and analysing the European Council's delivery on commitments made in the conclusions of its meetings. This overview of European Council conclusions is a new, updated and more comprehensive edition of the Rolling Check-List, which has been published regularly by the European Council Oversight Unit since 2014. It distinguishes between four types of European Council conclusions (commitments, reviews, endorsements and statements) and indicates the follow-up given to calls for action made by EU leaders. It also offers an introductory analysis of each policy area, highlighting the background to the main orientations given by the European Council, as well as the follow-up to them and the future challenges.

Port reception facilities for ship waste: Collecting waste from ships in ports

07-06-2019

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments ...

Marine litter and pollution put the marine environment at risk. While a great proportion of marine litter originates from land-based sources, limiting waste discharges from ships also plays an essential role in efforts to preserve marine and coastal ecosystems. Based on international law, EU legislation requires vessels to bring the waste they generate on voyages to waste-reception facilities in port, and obliges EU ports to provide such facilities to ships using the port. Despite these developments, discharges at sea continue. In January 2018, the European Commission put forward a new legislative proposal seeking to improve the collection of ship waste while ensuring efficient maritime transport operations in ports. Interinstitutional negotiations concluded on 13 December 2018. The final text was adopted by the Parliament on 13 March 2019 and then by the Council on 29 March. The Directive was then signed on 17 April by the presidents of the two institutions and will be published in the Official Journal shortly.

Paix et sécurité en 2019: Évaluation des efforts déployés par l’Union européenne pour soutenir la paix en Colombie

03-06-2019

La présente étude thématique, la deuxième de la collection « Paix et sécurité », porte sur les efforts déployés par l’Union européenne (UE) en vue de soutenir la paix en Colombie. Chaque année, les études publiées dans cette collection évaluent les résultats obtenus par l’Union dans le domaine de la paix et de la sécurité dans une région donnée. La présente étude d’impact examine l’action menée par l’Union européenne au cours du conflit qui a sévi pendant 50 ans en Colombie et met l’accent sur la ...

La présente étude thématique, la deuxième de la collection « Paix et sécurité », porte sur les efforts déployés par l’Union européenne (UE) en vue de soutenir la paix en Colombie. Chaque année, les études publiées dans cette collection évaluent les résultats obtenus par l’Union dans le domaine de la paix et de la sécurité dans une région donnée. La présente étude d’impact examine l’action menée par l’Union européenne au cours du conflit qui a sévi pendant 50 ans en Colombie et met l’accent sur la consolidation de la paix depuis la conclusion, en 2016, de l’accord final de paix entre le gouvernement et le principal groupe armé du pays, les Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie - Armée du peuple (FARC-EP). L’Union a mobilisé un large éventail d’instruments civils en Colombie : la diplomatie bilatérale et multilatérale, l’aide humanitaire et l’aide au développement, et les relations commerciales. Après avoir situé le conflit dans son contexte géopolitique, la présente étude analyse la démarche adoptée par l'Union pour favoriser la paix en Colombie et la manière dont elle l'a mise en œuvre, la contribution du Parlement européen, ainsi que les risques qui sont apparus depuis la signature de l’accord de paix et les moyens de les atténuer. Une étude distincte publiée en parallèle donne un aperçu de l’action actuelle de l’Union en matière de paix et de sécurité et présente l’indice Normandie pour la paix 2019. Ces études ont été rédigées en vue de leur présentation au Forum mondial Normandie pour la paix, qui se tiendra en juin 2019.

Balanced and fairer world trade defence: EU, US and WTO perspectives

29-05-2019

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade ...

This workshop of the Committee on International Trade discussed recent developments in trade defence legislation and practice from the perspectives of the EU, the USA and the WTO. A set of trade defence rules have been agreed in the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), in particular on anti-dumping, anti-subsidies and safeguards. The WTO also provides a dispute settlement system for cases brought forward by its members. The EU has recently adopted two sets of new legislation on Trade Defence Instruments (TDI), known as ‘TDI methodology’ and ‘TDI modernisation’. These new rules aim at enhancing the EU’s trade defence, without deviating from its commitment to an open economic environment set in an international rules based order. The US has its own rules and practice for trade defence and continues to distinguish between countries having a market economy and those who don’t - a difference abandoned by the EU in its latest reform. Moreover, the Trump Administration has imposed many new tariffs on foreign imports, often based on the national security exception provided by the WTO - a justification contested by most of the countries targeted. Furthermore, the US expressed concerns about the system of dispute settlement in the WTO, blocking nominations to its Appellate Body. Experts gave their views on whether all these recent developments are contributing to an international trade defence regime that is ‘fair’ and ‘balanced’, taking into account the different perspectives.

Auteur externe

Erdal YALCIN, Hannes WELGE, André SAPIR, Petros C. MAVROIDIS

Trade negotiations with Australia and New Zealand

03-05-2019

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement ...

This study explores the context and potential of the FTA negotiations between the EU and Australia and New Zealand. Through an analysis of the status quo, as well as several academic and policy analyses, it highlights the main opportunities for the EU from the negotiations, as well as potential threats and obstacles to agreement. The study explores in detail the likely impacts of market opening on trade in goods and services, as well as the potential in other key areas, including public procurement and investment. It also highlights the current architecture of FTAs which Australia and New Zealand have established, especially the very recent Comprehensive and Progressive Trans Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), to which both are party. It explores how these agreements impact on the EU’s competitiveness in the Australian and New Zealand markets and how FTAs could be leveraged to improve EU integration with these partners and their broader region. The study also considers how trade and sustainable development (TSD) can be effectively integrated into the agreements, in line with the objectives of the EU’s ‘Trade for All’ strategy. Finally, several potential wider, more political impacts of the FTAs are underlined.

Auteur externe

Louise CURRAN

International Agreements in Progress: EU-Singapore trade and investment deals pass major milestone

29-04-2019

Following the signature of the EU-Singapore trade and investment agreements on 19 October 2018, the European Parliament gave its consent on 13 February 2019 to conclude both agreements. These deals were created by dividing the initial free trade agreement reached between the EU and Singapore in 2014, but not ratified, into two separate instruments: a trade agreement and an investment protection agreement. The trade agreement will enter into force with the finalisation of Singapore's internal administrative ...

Following the signature of the EU-Singapore trade and investment agreements on 19 October 2018, the European Parliament gave its consent on 13 February 2019 to conclude both agreements. These deals were created by dividing the initial free trade agreement reached between the EU and Singapore in 2014, but not ratified, into two separate instruments: a trade agreement and an investment protection agreement. The trade agreement will enter into force with the finalisation of Singapore's internal administrative procedures and the conclusion of the final formalities by the EU and Singapore. In contrast, the investment protection agreement, which falls under the shared competence of the EU and its Member States, needs to be ratified by the EU Member States also, following their national procedures. Singapore will be the first member state of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to conclude bilateral trade and investment agreements with the EU. The EU views bilateral agreements with ASEAN members as steps towards achieving the final objective of a region-to-region trade and investment agreement with ASEAN. Therefore, the EU Singapore agreements are considered a reference as regards the EU's ambition to conclude trade and investment agreements with other ASEAN members.

'Everything but Arms': The case of Cambodia

15-04-2019

Cambodia is one of nearly 50 developing countries that enjoy duty-free access to EU markets under the Everything but Arms scheme. In response to the country's deteriorating human rights situation, the EU is now considering whether to withdraw trade preferences.

Cambodia is one of nearly 50 developing countries that enjoy duty-free access to EU markets under the Everything but Arms scheme. In response to the country's deteriorating human rights situation, the EU is now considering whether to withdraw trade preferences.

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