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Citizenship by investment (CBI) and residency by investment (RBI) schemes in the EU

17-10-2018

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

A Europe without internal borders? Free movement of persons

25-06-2018

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police ...

Different groups of EU citizens enjoy the right to freedom of movement across the EU, making it possible to work in another Member State, retire, study, set up a business, follow a family member or look for a job. EU citizens, tourists and businesses benefit from these rights as well as the Schengen area, which greatly facilitates freedom of movement. Contrary to popular belief, thus opening internal EU borders has not led to an increase in crime. Rather, Schengen innovations such as enhanced police cooperation and harmonised external border controls help Europe work against cross-border crime. Closing EU internal borders again could lead to costs of between €100 and 230 billion over 10 years.

EU citizenship rights

23-03-2017

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely ...

According to Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), every person holding the nationality of a Member State is a Union citizen. Union citizenship is additional to national citizenship and does not replace it. The concept of Union citizenship was introduced in the Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht in 1992, which endowed Union citizens with a number of novel rights, including political rights. Union citizens enjoy the right to move and reside freely in other Member States, to vote and to stand as candidates in municipal and European elections, to petition the Parliament, to apply to the European Ombudsman, and to enjoy in a third country the protection of the diplomatic and consular authorities of any other Member State. The Lisbon Treaty, signed in 2007, granted Union citizens another novel right – the right to start a Citizens' Initiative. It is estimated that about 15 million Union citizens live in a Member State other than that of their nationality. The rights related to free movement and residence are governed by a central piece of legislation (Directive 2004/38), which covers most aspects of the freedom of movement of persons. It enables Union citizens to travel, (seek) work, study or retire in another Member State – and to enjoy equal treatment while doing so. Yet, EU Treaties and secondary law make clear that the rights granted to Union citizens are not absolute but subject to conditions and limitations.

How families have coped with the financial crisis

14-10-2016

Families in the European Union (EU) were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis of 2008, which, together with its after-effects, also triggered a social crisis. If measureable changes in family patterns and the breakdown of families may not be immediately observable and directly related to the downturn, the knock-on effects of the economic and financial crisis on families are far more apparent. Throughout the EU, single-parent families (16 % of all families) are exposed to the highest risk ...

Families in the European Union (EU) were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis of 2008, which, together with its after-effects, also triggered a social crisis. If measureable changes in family patterns and the breakdown of families may not be immediately observable and directly related to the downturn, the knock-on effects of the economic and financial crisis on families are far more apparent. Throughout the EU, single-parent families (16 % of all families) are exposed to the highest risk of poverty or social exclusion. Single-parent families are predominantly composed of single mothers, who face a higher poverty risk than single fathers. The adverse impact of the economic crisis on families placed children at greater risk of poverty or social exclusion than the rest of the population in 23 of the 28 EU Member States in 2014. In the same year, there were 27.4 million children under the age of 18 living at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. Two drivers have played a growing part in the rise of families' difficulties in the EU since the onset of the recession: a cyclical one – the economic crisis and the strain it put on family-supportive policies – and a structural one – the reinforcement of the phenomenon of inherited poverty. Therefore, even if family policies fall within the responsibility of the Member States, the condition of families has become a policy concern for European institutions.

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Comparative Analysis

15-09-2016

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, presents a synthesis of in-depth studies in nine Member States in addition to broader EU and national research. Based on an analysis of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK, it identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens ...

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, presents a synthesis of in-depth studies in nine Member States in addition to broader EU and national research. Based on an analysis of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the UK, it identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions. It finds that, ten years after the deadline for transposition, there is general compliance, though some challenges remain. More systematic data collection, evaluation and guidance is thus required. The nine country studies are made available separately.

Údar seachtarach

Marta BALLESTEROS, Gillian KELLY, Nathalie MEURENS and Anna PEREGO

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for Poland

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Poland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Poland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Údar seachtarach

Paulina ROICKA (Institute of Social Policy, University of Warsaw) under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium) ; Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for France

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in France and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in France and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in French law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Údar seachtarach

Vanessa Leigh, Jean-Christophe Nicaise Chateau, Sophie Morel and Isabell Büschel (Milieu Ltd.) ; Under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium), Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for Germany

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Germany and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in German national law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Germany and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in German national law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Údar seachtarach

Ferdinand WOLLENSCHLÄGER and Jennifer HÖLZLWIMMER (University of Augsburg, Germany) ; Under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium), Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for Ireland

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Ireland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in Irish national law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizen’s Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Ireland and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in Irish national law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Údar seachtarach

Gillian KELLY (Milieu Ltd.) ; Under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium), Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

Obstacles to the Right of Free Movement and Residence for EU Citizens and their Families: Country Report for Spain

15-06-2016

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Spain and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in Spanish law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE and PETI Committees, analyses the current status of transposition of selected provisions of Directive 2004/38/EC in Spain and identifies the main persisting barriers to free movement for EU citizens and their family members in Spanish law and practice. The study also examines discriminatory restrictions to free movement, measures to counter abuse of rights and refusals of entry and residence rights, in addition to expulsions.

Údar seachtarach

Roberto Vallina Hoset (Roca Junyent, S.L.P., and Institute for European Studies of the CEU San Pablo University, Madrid, Spain) ; Carmen Roman Vaca (Institute for European Studies of the CEU San Pablo University, Madrid, Spain) ; Under the guidance of Milieu Ltd. (Belgium), Project Managers: Nathalie Meurens and Gillian Kelly

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