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Reception of Female Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the EU - Case Study Belgium and Germany

30-08-2016

Commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, this study provides an overview of the implementation of Directive 2013/33/EU laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection. It outlines the legal framework and examines how gender related aspects and the reception needs of vulnerable groups are considered in practice in Munich (Germany ...

Commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, this study provides an overview of the implementation of Directive 2013/33/EU laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection. It outlines the legal framework and examines how gender related aspects and the reception needs of vulnerable groups are considered in practice in Munich (Germany) and Brussels (Belgium).

Údar seachtarach

Yasemin BEKYOL and Petra BENDEL

Arbitrary detention of women and children for immigration-related purposes

26-02-2016

An unprecedented mass movement of asylum-seekers and migrants of all ages started in 2014, and has continued throughout 2015 and into 2016. Fleeing armed conflicts, mass killings, persecution and pervasive sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), these persons seek protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention, its subsequent Protocol and other international instruments. In times of such instability, women and girls are particularly at risk of gender-based violence, including sexual violence. Between ...

An unprecedented mass movement of asylum-seekers and migrants of all ages started in 2014, and has continued throughout 2015 and into 2016. Fleeing armed conflicts, mass killings, persecution and pervasive sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), these persons seek protection under the 1951 Refugee Convention, its subsequent Protocol and other international instruments. In times of such instability, women and girls are particularly at risk of gender-based violence, including sexual violence. Between January and November 2015, Europe witnessed more than 950 000 asylum-seeker and migrant arrivals via the Mediterranean Sea. With record numbers of asylum-seekers worldwide, the head of the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Filippo Grandi, has urged greater efforts to find solutions. The UNHCR has pointed out that in recent years, detention facilities are increasingly being used to host migrants and asylum-seekers, including by countries with good human rights records. If used, detention must be lawful and clearly shown to be necessary, reasonable and proportional. Detention conditions must uphold human dignity and international standards. The journeys that migrants and asylum-seekers take can be dangerous, and they often face high levels of violence, extortion and exploitation, including multiple forms of SGBV – such as human trafficking, psychological manipulation, physical violence or rape. Women and girls are particularly at risk of SGBV during the journey. Situations of vulnerability such as the impact of the journey and experiences of migrants prior to their confinement, which are often physically and psychologically trying, and during which they could have been exposed to diverse forms of abuse and violence need to be addressed. In addition, the effect of confinement in detention centres, particularly if prolonged, needs to be addressed. All these factors require a coordinated and effective protection response.

Female Refugees and Asylum Seekers: The Issue of Integration

25-02-2016

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the study presents an overview of the most important issues faced by refugees and asylum seeking women in their host country regarding access to appropriate housing, including privacy and shelter in case of domestic violence, training and language courses, the labour market, and the health systems, including psychological support and trauma healing. A summary of international standards and of applicable European laws, as well as details on available funding from ...

Upon request by the FEMM Committee, the study presents an overview of the most important issues faced by refugees and asylum seeking women in their host country regarding access to appropriate housing, including privacy and shelter in case of domestic violence, training and language courses, the labour market, and the health systems, including psychological support and trauma healing. A summary of international standards and of applicable European laws, as well as details on available funding from the European level are provided. International promising projects illustrate the way forward.

The Western Balkans: Frontline of the migrant crisis

26-01-2016

2015 was a landmark year in the history of migration to Europe, with an unprecedented and constantly increasing flow of migrants making their way to the European Union. Fleeing poverty and war mainly in the Middle East and Africa, more and more people embarked on perilous journeys to reach the safety of Europe. In 2015, there was a significant surge in migrant transits across the eastern Mediterranean and the Western Balkans. The EU Member States bordering the Mediterranean Sea shared the challenge ...

2015 was a landmark year in the history of migration to Europe, with an unprecedented and constantly increasing flow of migrants making their way to the European Union. Fleeing poverty and war mainly in the Middle East and Africa, more and more people embarked on perilous journeys to reach the safety of Europe. In 2015, there was a significant surge in migrant transits across the eastern Mediterranean and the Western Balkans. The EU Member States bordering the Mediterranean Sea shared the challenge of the influx with other Member States and the Western Balkan countries, in particular the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia. The 1990s wars in the Western Balkans triggered a mass exodus to other parts of Europe, which has had long-lasting consequences for the region. While today the Western Balkans remain a substantial source of migration, in the current context they are mainly a transit route. Countries in this particularly sensitive region have less-advanced welfare systems, limited institutional capacity and struggling economies that are further strained by having to provide for large numbers of transiting migrants. Having activated dormant political conflicts in the region, these developments risk turning into a major destabilising factor. In all likelihood, the crisis will last and the Western Balkans will remain a busy migrant route. This puts relations between the EU and the Western Balkan enlargement countries in the spotlight and makes the case for increased cooperation in a situation of mutual dependence. While the EU is already providing technical, humanitarian and financial assistance to the Western Balkans, it needs to come up with a coordinated approach focused not only on short-term measures, but also on the long-term consequences for the region, including their impact on the enlargement process as a whole.

New Approaches, Alternative Avenues and Means of Access to Asylum Procedures for Persons Seeking International Protection

23-10-2014

Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the workings of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), in order to assess the need and potential for new approaches to ensure access to protection for people seeking it in the EU, including joint processing and distribution of asylum seekers. Rather than advocating the addition of further complexity and coercion to the CEAS, the study proposes a focus on front-line reception and streamlined refugee status determination, in order to mitigate ...

Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the workings of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), in order to assess the need and potential for new approaches to ensure access to protection for people seeking it in the EU, including joint processing and distribution of asylum seekers. Rather than advocating the addition of further complexity and coercion to the CEAS, the study proposes a focus on front-line reception and streamlined refugee status determination, in order to mitigate the asylum challenges facing Member States, and guarantee the rights of asylum seekers and refugees according to the EU acquis and international legal standards.

Údar seachtarach

Elspeth Guild (Centre for European Policy Studies - CEPS, Brussels, Belgium), Cathryn Costello (Oxford University, the UK), Madeline Garlick (Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Violeta Moreno-Lax (University of London, the UK), Minos Mouzourakis (Oxford University, the UK) and Sergio Carrera (Centre for European Policy Studies - CEPS)

The Conditions in Centres for Third Country National (detention camps, open centres as well as transit centres and transit zones) with a Particular Focus on Provisions and Facilities for Persons with special needs in the 25 eu member states

19-12-2007